Special Issue "Hydraulic Dynamic Calculation and Simulation"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Costanza Aricò
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, Hydraulic Division, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Interests: hydraulic simulation; dynamic calculation; flow discharge estimation; flux and transport processes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hydraulic dynamic is an emerging basic concept whose application has important implications in many industrial and civil engineering problems. "Hydraulic Dynamic Calculation and Simulation" can be regarded as important tools to analyze and predict many physical processes and their related problems, along with decision making for mitigative measures. The most relevant application fields are the following:

1) flow and transport processes of single or multiphase fluids (water, oil, gas) in pipe networks,

2) hydraulic transients water hammer problems in pipelines,

3) use of hydraulic machinery in industrial water systems (pumps), for energy conversion in hydropower stations (turbines), or pumps as turbines (PAT) in pumped-storage hydropower stations,

4) use of micro-turbines, pressure reducing valves, and needle valves, installed in distribution or transport water networks.

This Special Issue invites original experimental, analytical, and computational research works in these fields. The Special Issue also welcomes innovative fluid–dynamic and fluid–structure-interaction (FSI) studies and applications of research and commercial numerical solvers, to investigate the effects of air entrapment and cavitation in pipes, as well as vortices induced by cavitation and tip leakage flows in turbomachinery and water plants or in hydropower stations.

Dr. Costanza Aricò
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hydraulic transient problems in pipelines
  • water hammer
  • hydraulic turbo machinery
  • hydropower stations
  • water systems
  • micro-turbines
  • hydraulic valves
  • cavitation
  • tip leakage flows vortices

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Physics-Based Simulation of Ocean Scenes in Marine Simulator Visual System
Water 2020, 12(1), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010215 (registering DOI) - 12 Jan 2020
Abstract
The realistic simulation of ocean scenes is of great significance in many scientific fields. We propose an improved Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) framework to simulate the ocean scenes. The improved SPH combines nonlinear constant density constraints and divergence-free velocity field constraint. Density constraints [...] Read more.
The realistic simulation of ocean scenes is of great significance in many scientific fields. We propose an improved Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) framework to simulate the ocean scenes. The improved SPH combines nonlinear constant density constraints and divergence-free velocity field constraint. Density constraints adjust the particle distribution on position layer, so that the density is constrained to a constant state. The addition of the divergence-free velocity field constraint significantly accelerates the convergence of constant density constraint and further reduces the density change. The simulation results show that the improved SPH has high solution efficiency, large time steps, and strong stability. Then, we introduce a unified boundary handling model to simulate coupling scenes. The model samples the boundary geometry as particles by means of single layer nonuniform sampling. The contribution of the boundary particles is taken into account when the physical quantities of fluid particles are computed. The unified model can handle various types of complex geometry adaptively. When rendering the ocean, we propose an improved anisotropic screen space fluid method, which alleviates the discontinuity problem near the boundary and maintains the anisotropy of particles. The research provides a theoretical reference for the highly believable maritime scene simulation in marine simulators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Dynamic Calculation and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
2-D Characteristics of Wave Deformation Due to Wave-Current Interactions with Density Currents in an Estuary
Water 2020, 12(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010183 - 09 Jan 2020
Abstract
In this study, numerical simulations were conducted in order to understand the role of wave-current interactions in wave deformation. The wave-current interaction mechanisms, wave reflection and energy loss due to currents, the effect of incident conditions on wave-current interactions, the advection-diffusion characteristics of [...] Read more.
In this study, numerical simulations were conducted in order to understand the role of wave-current interactions in wave deformation. The wave-current interaction mechanisms, wave reflection and energy loss due to currents, the effect of incident conditions on wave-current interactions, the advection-diffusion characteristics of saltwater, and the effect of density currents on wave-current interactions were discussed. In addition, the effect of saltwater–freshwater density on wave-current interactions was investigated under a hypopycnal flow field via numerical model testing. Turbulence was stronger under the influence of wave-current interactions than under the influence of waves alone, as wave-current interactions reduced wave energy, which led to decreases in wave height. This phenomenon was more prominent under shorter wave periods and higher current velocities. These results increase our understanding of hydrodynamic phenomena in estuaries in which saltwater–freshwater and wave-current pairs coexist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Dynamic Calculation and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Simulations of Hydraulic Characteristics of A Flow Discharge Measurement Process with A Plate Flowmeter in A U-Channel
Water 2019, 11(11), 2382; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112382 - 14 Nov 2019
Abstract
The use of a flow discharge measuring device in irrigated areas is the key to utilizing water in a planned and scientific manner and to developing water-saving irrigation techniques. In this study, a new type of flow discharge measuring device for a U-channel—a [...] Read more.
The use of a flow discharge measuring device in irrigated areas is the key to utilizing water in a planned and scientific manner and to developing water-saving irrigation techniques. In this study, a new type of flow discharge measuring device for a U-channel—a plate flowmeter—was designed, and then the hydraulic characteristics of the flow discharge measurement process using the plate flowmeter were simulated and experimentally verified by adopting an RNG (Renormalization Group) k-ε turbulence model based on Flow-3D software. The results showed that in the process of measuring flow discharge with the plate flowmeter, the transverse flow velocity, the vertical flow velocity, and the relationship between the measured flow discharge and the deflection angle of the angle-measuring plate were basically consistent with the experimental results. The maximum relative errors were 5.3%, 6.2%, and 6.8% respectively, proving that it was feasible to use Flow-3D software to simulate the hydraulic characteristics of the flow discharge measurement process using the plate flowmeter. The vertical flow velocities at the center of the upstream section of the channel increased gradually from the bottom of the channel to the free water surface. The vertical flow velocities at the center of the downstream section of the channel first increased and then decreased from the bottom of the channel to the free water surface, and the maximum vertical flow velocity was located at a position below the free water surface. The maximum range of influence of the plate flowmeter on the flow disturbance in the channel was from 0.75 m upstream to 1.24 m downstream of the plate flowmeter. These results can provide a theoretical basis for optimizing the structural parameters of a plate flowmeter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Dynamic Calculation and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel, Coupled CFD-DEM Model for the Flow Characteristics of Particles Inside a Pipe
Water 2019, 11(11), 2381; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112381 - 14 Nov 2019
Abstract
This study developed a novel, 3D coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-discrete element method (DEM) model by coupling two software programs, OpenFOAM and PFC3D, to solve problems related to fluid–particle interaction systems. The complete governing equations and the flow chart of the [...] Read more.
This study developed a novel, 3D coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-discrete element method (DEM) model by coupling two software programs, OpenFOAM and PFC3D, to solve problems related to fluid–particle interaction systems. The complete governing equations and the flow chart of the coupling calculations are clearly presented herein. The coupled CFD-DEM model was first benchmarked using two classic geo-mechanics problems, for which the analytical solutions are available. Then, the CFD-DEM model was employed to investigate the flow characteristics of a particle heap subjected to the effects of water inside a pipe under different conditions. The results showed that particle size and pipe inclination angle can significantly affect the particle flow morphology, total kinetic energy and erosion rate for mono-sized particles, whereas polydisperse particles had a slight effect. This model can accurately describe the flow characteristics of particles inside a pipe, and the results of this study were consistent with those of previous studies. The reliability of this model was further demonstrated, which showed that this model can provide valuable references for solving similar problems such as soil erosion and bridge scour problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Dynamic Calculation and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Combined Use of High-Resolution Numerical Schemes to Reduce Numerical Diffusion in Coupled Nonhydrostatic Hydrodynamic and Solute Transport Model
Water 2019, 11(11), 2288; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11112288 - 31 Oct 2019
Abstract
In three-dimensional simulations of free-surface flow where the vertical velocities are relevant, such as in lakes, estuaries, reservoirs, and coastal zones, a nonhydrostatic hydrodynamic approach may be necessary. Although the nonhydrostatic hydrodynamic approach improves the physical representation of pressure, acceleration and velocity fields, [...] Read more.
In three-dimensional simulations of free-surface flow where the vertical velocities are relevant, such as in lakes, estuaries, reservoirs, and coastal zones, a nonhydrostatic hydrodynamic approach may be necessary. Although the nonhydrostatic hydrodynamic approach improves the physical representation of pressure, acceleration and velocity fields, it is not free of numerical diffusion. This numerical issue stems from the numerical solution employed in the advection and diffusion terms of the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) and solute transport equations. The combined use of high-resolution schemes in coupled nonhydrostatic hydrodynamic and solute transport models is a promising alternative to minimize these numerical issues and determine the relationship between numerical diffusion in the two solutions. We evaluated the numerical diffusion in three numerical experiments, for different purposes: The first two experiments evaluated the potential for reducing numerical diffusion in a nonhydrostatic hydrodynamic solution, by applying a quadratic interpolator over a Bilinear, applied in the Eulerian–Lagrangian method (ELM) step-ii interpolation, and the capability of representing the propagation of complex waves. The third experiment evaluated the effect on numerical diffusion of using flux-limiter schemes over a first-order Upwind in solute transport solution, combined with the interpolation methods applied in a coupled hydrodynamic and solute transport model. The high-resolution methods were able to substantially reduce the numerical diffusion in a solute transport problem. This exercise showed that the numerical diffusion of a nonhydrostatic hydrodynamic solution has a major influence on the ability of the model to simulate stratified internal waves, indicating that high-resolution methods must be implemented in the numerical solution to properly simulate real situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Dynamic Calculation and Simulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Dam Discharge and Flood Routing in Wudu Reservoir
Water 2019, 11(10), 2157; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102157 - 16 Oct 2019
Abstract
The main objectives of the present work are to investigate the hydraulic characteristics of the dam discharge flow and its impact downstream. Building information modeling technology is adopted to generate the terrain entity and hydraulic structures. The calculation of the dam discharge and [...] Read more.
The main objectives of the present work are to investigate the hydraulic characteristics of the dam discharge flow and its impact downstream. Building information modeling technology is adopted to generate the terrain entity and hydraulic structures. The calculation of the dam discharge and flood routing simulation is achieved by employing Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the RNG k-ε eddy viscosity model for its turbulence closure, as well as the Volume of Fluid method. An urban flood experiment and the field measurement records are utilized and validated the model accuracy. The flow field is obtained to assess the dam working conditions under different water levels. The results show that the maximum downstream flow depth, the maximum discharge capacity and the hydraulic jump length under normal water level is 18.6 m, 13,800 m3/s, and 108 m, respectively. The dam satisfies the safety demand under different water levels but close attention should be paid to the dam foundation, especially around the incident points of the discharge flow. Complex turbulent flow patterns, including collision, reflection, and vortices, are captured by three-dimensional simulation. The numerical simulation can assist the reservoir management vividly, so as to guarantee the stability of the dam operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Dynamic Calculation and Simulation)
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