Special Issue "Hydraulic Dynamic Calculation and Simulation Ⅱ"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 October 2022 | Viewed by 4030

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Costanza Aricò
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, Hydraulic Division, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Interests: Navier-Stokes Equations modeling; groundwater modeling; two-phase flows; porous media; shallow waters; seawater intrusion; heat transport; mass transport; river flow; water resources
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hydraulic dynamic is an emerging basic concept whose application has important implications in many industrial and civil engineering problems. "Hydraulic Dynamic Calculation and Simulation" can be regarded as important tools to analyze and predict many physical processes and their related problems, along with decision making for mitigative measures. The most relevant application fields are as follows:

1) Flow and transport processes of single or multiphase fluids (water, oil, gas) in pipe networks,

2) Hydraulic transients water hammer problems in pipelines,

3) Hydraulic transients in free-surface flows,

4) Groundwater flow and transport problems,

5) Use of hydraulic machinery in industrial water systems (pumps), for energy conversion in hydropower stations (turbines), or pumps as turbines (PAT) in pumped-storage hydropower stations,

6) Use of micro-turbine, pressure reducing valves, and needle valves, installed in distribution or transport water networks.

This Special Issue invites original experimental, analytical, and computational research works in these fields. The Special Issue also welcomes innovative fluid-dynamic and fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) studies and applications of research, academic, and commercial numerical solvers to investigate the effects of air entrapment and cavitation in pipes, as well as vortices induced by cavitation and tip leakage flows in turbomachinery and water plants or hydropower stations.

Dr. Costanza Aricò
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • hydraulic transient problems in pipelines
  • water hammer
  • hydraulic turbo machinery
  • hydropower stations
  • water systems
  • micro-turbines
  • hydraulic valves
  • cavitation
  • tip leakage flows vortices
  • free surface flows
  • flow and transport problems
  • groundwater flow and transport problems

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Use of Heating Configuration to Control Marangoni Circulation during Droplet Evaporation
Water 2022, 14(10), 1653; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14101653 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 488
Abstract
The present work presents a numerical study of the evaporation of a sessile liquid droplet deposited on a substrate and subjected to different heating configurations. The physical formulation accounts for evaporation, the Marangoni effect, conductive transfer in the support, radiative heating, and diffusion–convection [...] Read more.
The present work presents a numerical study of the evaporation of a sessile liquid droplet deposited on a substrate and subjected to different heating configurations. The physical formulation accounts for evaporation, the Marangoni effect, conductive transfer in the support, radiative heating, and diffusion–convection in the droplet itself. The moving interface is solved using the Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerian (ALE) method. Simulations were performed using COMSOL Multiphysics. Different configurations were performed to investigate the effect of the heating conditions on the shape and intensity of the Marangoni circulations. A droplet can be heated by the substrate (different natures and thicknesses were tested) and/or by a heat flux supplied at the top of the droplet. The results show that the Marangoni flow can be controlled by the heating configuration. An upward Marangoni flow was obtained for a heated substrate and a downward Marangoni flow for a flux imposed at the top of the droplet. Using both heat sources generated two vortices with an upward flow from the bottom and a downward flow from the top. The position of the stagnation zone depended on the respective intensities of the heating fluxes. Controlling the circulation in the droplet might have interesting applications, such as the control of the deposition of microparticles in suspension in the liquid, the deposition of the solved constituent, and the enhancement of the evaporation rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Dynamic Calculation and Simulation Ⅱ)
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Article
Optimal Regulation of the Cascade Gates Group Water Diversion Project in a Flow Adjustment Period
Water 2021, 13(20), 2825; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13202825 - 11 Oct 2021
Viewed by 640
Abstract
This study focuses on the regulation demand of the cascade gates group water diversion project during the flow adjustment period. A multi-objective optimization regulation model was coupled with the one-dimensional hydrodynamic model and the multi-objective genetic algorithm. Gate opening was used as the [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the regulation demand of the cascade gates group water diversion project during the flow adjustment period. A multi-objective optimization regulation model was coupled with the one-dimensional hydrodynamic model and the multi-objective genetic algorithm. Gate opening was used as the decision variable to generate the local operation-oriented cascade gates group regulation scheme. This study considered the Shijiazhuang to Beijing section of the middle route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. The optimal operation model has a better control effect than the conventional control method, and the number of gate operations was reduced by 23.38%. The average water level deviation was less than 0.15 m when the feedforward control time of the cascade gates group water diversion project was not more than 24 h. The basic mechanism of maintaining water level stability during the short-term scheduling of the cascade gates group water diversion project makes use of the volume capacity, or the space of the channel pool adjacent to the water demand change position, in advance. The multi-objective optimal regulation model of the cascade gates group that was constructed in this study can quickly generate regulation schemes for different application scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Dynamic Calculation and Simulation Ⅱ)
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Article
Definition of the Operational Curves by Modification of the Affinity Laws to Improve the Simulation of PATs
Water 2021, 13(14), 1880; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13141880 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
New technologies for water pressurized systems try to implement the introduction of strategies for the improvement of the sustainable indicators. One of these technologies is the implementation of pumps working as turbines. The use of these recovery machines was proposed some years ago, [...] Read more.
New technologies for water pressurized systems try to implement the introduction of strategies for the improvement of the sustainable indicators. One of these technologies is the implementation of pumps working as turbines. The use of these recovery machines was proposed some years ago, and the interest in this technology has increased over the last years. The simulation of these machines is necessary when analyzing pressurized water systems, or when optimization procedures are proposed for their management, great care must be taken. In these cases, the knowledge of the operation curves is crucial to reach accurate results. This study proposes different regression expressions to define three operational curves when the machines operate under variable rotational speed. These curves are the best efficiency head, the best power-head and the best power flow. The here proposed methods were compared with other five published methods. The comparison shows the proposed method was the best when it is compared with the rest of the published procedures, reducing the error values between 8 and 20%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Dynamic Calculation and Simulation Ⅱ)
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Article
Overland Flow Resistance Law under Sparse Stem Vegetation Coverage
Water 2021, 13(12), 1657; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121657 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1051
Abstract
To explore the characteristics of overland flow resistance under the condition of sparse vegetative stem coverage and improve the basic theoretical research of overland flow, the resistance characteristics of overland flow were systematically investigated under four slope gradients (S), seven flow [...] Read more.
To explore the characteristics of overland flow resistance under the condition of sparse vegetative stem coverage and improve the basic theoretical research of overland flow, the resistance characteristics of overland flow were systematically investigated under four slope gradients (S), seven flow discharges (Q), and six degrees of vegetation coverage (Cr). The results show that the Manning roughness coefficient (n) changes with the ratio of water depth to vegetation height (h/hv) while the Reynolds number (Re), Froude number (Fr), and slope (S) are closely related to vegetation coverage. Meanwhile, h/hv, Re, and Cr have strong positive correlations with n, while Fr and S have strong negative correlations with n. Through data regression analysis, a power function relationship between n and hydraulic parameters was observed and sensitivity analysis was performed. It was concluded that the relationship between n and h/hv, Re, Cr, Q, and S shows the same law; in particular, for sparse stem vegetation coverage, Cr is the dominant factor affecting overland flow resistance under zero slope condition, while Cr is no longer the first dominant factor affecting overland flow resistance under non-zero slope condition. In the relationship between n and Fr, Cr has the least effect on overland flow resistance. This indicates that when Manning roughness coefficient is correlated with different hydraulic parameters, the same vegetation coverage has different effects on overland flow resistance. Therefore, it is necessary to study overland flow resistance under the condition of sparse stalk vegetation coverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Dynamic Calculation and Simulation Ⅱ)
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