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Open AccessArticle

2-D Characteristics of Wave Deformation Due to Wave-Current Interactions with Density Currents in an Estuary

1
Department of Ocean Civil Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Tongyeong 53064, Korea
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(1), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010183
Received: 15 October 2019 / Revised: 28 December 2019 / Accepted: 2 January 2020 / Published: 9 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Dynamic Calculation and Simulation)
In this study, numerical simulations were conducted in order to understand the role of wave-current interactions in wave deformation. The wave-current interaction mechanisms, wave reflection and energy loss due to currents, the effect of incident conditions on wave-current interactions, the advection-diffusion characteristics of saltwater, and the effect of density currents on wave-current interactions were discussed. In addition, the effect of saltwater–freshwater density on wave-current interactions was investigated under a hypopycnal flow field via numerical model testing. Turbulence was stronger under the influence of wave-current interactions than under the influence of waves alone, as wave-current interactions reduced wave energy, which led to decreases in wave height. This phenomenon was more prominent under shorter wave periods and higher current velocities. These results increase our understanding of hydrodynamic phenomena in estuaries in which saltwater–freshwater and wave-current pairs coexist. View Full-Text
Keywords: wave-current interaction; hypopycnal flow; estuarine hydraulics; estuarine currents; Navier–Stokes solver wave-current interaction; hypopycnal flow; estuarine hydraulics; estuarine currents; Navier–Stokes solver
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, W.-D.; Mizutani, N.; Hur, D.-S. 2-D Characteristics of Wave Deformation Due to Wave-Current Interactions with Density Currents in an Estuary. Water 2020, 12, 183.

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