# Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Dam Discharge and Flood Routing in Wudu Reservoir

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

^{3}/s, and 108 m, respectively. The dam satisfies the safety demand under different water levels but close attention should be paid to the dam foundation, especially around the incident points of the discharge flow. Complex turbulent flow patterns, including collision, reflection, and vortices, are captured by three-dimensional simulation. The numerical simulation can assist the reservoir management vividly, so as to guarantee the stability of the dam operation.

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Study Area

^{3}. The powerhouse at the dam toe is installed with a capacity of 150,000 KW. The main technical indicators are shown in Table 1.

## 3. Materials and Methods

#### 3.1. Hydraulic Structures

#### 3.2. Terrain Generation

#### 3.2.1. Terrain Generation Based on DEM Data

#### 3.2.2. Terrain Generation Based on Contour Lines

#### 3.2.3. Comparison of the Two Terrain Generation Methods

#### 3.3. Hydrodynamic Model

#### 3.4. Model Configuration

#### 3.4.1. Boundary Conditions

#### 3.4.2. Initial Conditions

## 4. Scenario Analysis

## 5. Model Validation

## 6. Results

#### 6.1. Water Depth

^{3}/s, and the hydraulic jump is approximately 110 m. Energy is stored in the reservoir is high enough. Under such conditions, both the dam and the downstream environment are facing flood risk challenges. By comparing Figure 9, it can be seen that the length of the hydraulic jump in the bottom outlet is slightly longer than that in the spillway. Before the jet falls down on the downstream water body, most of the energy exists in the form of impact kinetic energy. After the jets hit the riverbed, energy is consumed by the interaction with the riverbed, which brings about severe riverbed scouring. The downstream flow pattern gradually becomes steadier, indicating that the working condition is fine at normal water level.

#### 6.2. Dynamic Pressure

#### 6.3. Instantaneous Flow Field

#### 6.4. Details of Local Flow

#### 6.5. Flood Inundation

^{2}, and the highest water level can drown the house with approximately 1 m of water, as shown in Figure 15. The house interior flow process is calculated to quantify flood risk. The flooding process into the building’s interior emphasizes the vertical velocity due to the obstacle of the enclosing walls of the building. The complexity and transient characteristics are the primary features of the flow field around the structures. The downstream cities have to deal with the emergency if a long-term dam discharge occurs. In general, even though the dam discharge has high energy dissipater ratios and stable flow patterns, the maximum discharge would bring a disaster to the downstream environment. The dam operation should take all the factors into consideration to draw a reasonable rule.

## 7. Discussion

## 8. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**Wudu reservoir. (

**a**) location of Wudu reservoir; (

**b**) layout of the dam structures; (

**c**) perspective view of the dam.

**Figure 5.**Initial condition configuration. (

**a**) arrangement of probe points; (

**b**) mesh of the partial computational domain.

**Figure 6.**Numerical validation. (

**a**) arrangement of probe points; (

**b**) flow depth distribution at T = 14.5 s.

**Figure 7.**Comparison between experiment result and simulation result. (

**a**) water depth at #5 probe point; (

**b**) water depth at #6 probe point.

**Figure 8.**Water depth distribution under the normal water level. (

**a**) water depth distribution at T = 5 s; (

**b**)water depth distribution at T = 10 s; (

**c**) water depth distribution at T = 20 s; (

**d**) water depth distribution at T = 30 s; (

**e**) water depth distribution at T = 40 s; (

**f**) water depth distribution at T=50 s.

**Figure 9.**Dam discharge flow profile. (

**a**) dam discharge through the surface spillway; (

**b**) dam discharge through the bottom outlet.

**Figure 10.**Pressure distribution under the normal water level. (

**a**) pressure distribution at T = 5 s; (

**b**) pressure distribution at T = 10 s; (

**c**) pressure distribution at T = 20 s; (

**d**) pressure distribution at T = 30 s; (

**e**) pressure distribution at T = 40 s; (

**f**) pressure distribution at T = 50 s.

**Figure 12.**Partially enlarged view of local flow pattern under the normal water level. (

**a**) local flow pattern from right-wing view; (

**b**) local flow pattern from top view; (

**c**) local flow pattern from left-wing view.

Main Characteristics | Features |
---|---|

Check flood level | 659.43 m |

Design flood level | 656.96 m |

Normal water level | 658.00 m |

Dead water level | 645.00 m |

Limited water level of controlling flood | 624.00 m |

Minimum elevation of building base | 541.00 m |

Height of the crest of the dam | 660.14 m |

Maximum height of the dam | 120.00 m |

Crest length | 727.00 m |

Method | Terrain Generation Based on Contour Lines | Terrain Generation Based on DEM Data |
---|---|---|

Application scope | The surveying control point is used as a data source and is suitable for high-resolution scenes. | Point-line-surface-entity modeling process requires simple data structure to develop codes instructing the component generation. |

Advantage | The elevation gradient is smooth and close to the real terrain, and a more accurate flow field could be solved. | The grid cell is intended to approximate the actual terrain surface Enormous elevation gradient of the terrain departs from reality and high-resolution DEM is required. |

Disadvantage | Large amount of abundant data makes the terrain files inconvenient for numerical simulation. An exhausted field survey to measure all the feature points is inevitable. | The code cannot satisfy the demand for unstructured terrain mesh generation. Spatial Quadrilateral confines the construction of body-fitted terrain. |

Case | Scenarios | Working Condition |
---|---|---|

case 1 | dead water level | bottom outlet and intake of power plant are fully open |

case 2 | water level at 8:00 o’clock on 18 June2018 (validation) | bottom outlet and intake of power plant are fully open |

case 3 | the normal water level | intake of power plant and bottom outlet are fully open with spillway discharge |

case 4 | the normal water level | intake of power plant and bottom outlet are fully open, without spillway discharge |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Rong, Y.; Zhang, T.; Peng, L.; Feng, P. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Dam Discharge and Flood Routing in Wudu Reservoir. *Water* **2019**, *11*, 2157.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102157

**AMA Style**

Rong Y, Zhang T, Peng L, Feng P. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Dam Discharge and Flood Routing in Wudu Reservoir. *Water*. 2019; 11(10):2157.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102157

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Rong, Youtong, Ting Zhang, Ling Peng, and Ping Feng. 2019. "Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of Dam Discharge and Flood Routing in Wudu Reservoir" *Water* 11, no. 10: 2157.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102157