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Special Issue "Groundwater Resources Assessment: Quantity and Quality"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Use and Scarcity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Jian Luo

Georgia Institute of Technology
E-Mail
Phone: 1-404-385-6390
Interests: groundwater contamination and remediation; groundwater flow and transport modelling; seawater intrusion; inverse modelling; geostatistics
Guest Editor
Prof. Chunhui Lu

Hohai University
E-Mail
Phone: 86-25-83736511
Interests: seawater intrusion, aquifer storage and recovery; variable-density flow; submarine groundwater discharge
Guest Editor
Prof. Jichun Wu

Nanjing University
E-Mail
Phone: 86-25-3595591
Interests: groundwater flow and solute transport modelling; land subsidence; seawater intrusion; water resources evaluation and management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Groundwater is a vital resource, providing water supplies for public potable water, agriculture, and industry. In the face of growing water demand and deteriorating water quality, scientists, engineers, and policy makers must take urgent action to understand the interactive physical, chemical, and biological processes in the subsurface, and to develop and test effective techniques, tools, and strategies for sustainble management of groundwater resources, particularly in developing countries where groundwater quantity and quality sacrifice for economic development. To this end, this Special Issue invites the submission of research articles, reviews, case studies, technical notes and policy and perspective discussion papers in all important areas related to groundwater resources, which include but are not limited to:

  • Sustainable goundwater resources management
  • Modeling of groundwater flow and transport
  • Groundwater contaminantion and remediation
  • Groundwater monitoring and characterization

Dr. Jian Luo
Prof. Jichun Wu
Prof. Chunhui Lu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Groundwater management
  • groundwater modeling
  • groundwater contamination and remediation
  • groundwater monitoring
  • subsurface characterization

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Systematic Analysis of Geothermal Resources in the Coastal Bedrock Area of Chunxiao Town (China) by Using Geochemistry and Geophysics Methods
Water 2019, 11(2), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020214
Received: 8 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
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Abstract
Geochemical and geophysical investigations were carried out to obtain more evidence of the potential of geothermal resources in Chunxiao Town (China). Hydrochemical data indicate the possible existence of mixing process between deep geothermal water and shallow groundwater. Analysis with SiO2 geothermometer shows [...] Read more.
Geochemical and geophysical investigations were carried out to obtain more evidence of the potential of geothermal resources in Chunxiao Town (China). Hydrochemical data indicate the possible existence of mixing process between deep geothermal water and shallow groundwater. Analysis with SiO2 geothermometer shows that the geothermal reservoir temperature was estimated around 40–60 °C. In addition, combination investigations with CSAMT, radioactive radon, and soil thermal-released mercury detection reveal the specific location of the conduction fractures for thermal water circulation. Furthermore, the drilling work shows the deep thermal water temperature of >55 °C and the thermal water yield of 300 m3/d. All these results could provide important guidance for the scientific exploration and effective utilization of geothermal resources in coastal area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resources Assessment: Quantity and Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Infiltration and Anti-Filtration Recharge-Pumping Well and Laboratory Recharge Tests
Water 2018, 10(12), 1834; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121834
Received: 20 October 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 7 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
Infiltration and anti-filtration recharge-pumping wells (hereinafter, referred to as IAF recharge-pumping wells) can enable rain-flood flowing in rivers or channel recharge to aquifers, in flood periods, and pump groundwater to be utilized in non-flood periods. In this study, a round IAF recharge-pumping well [...] Read more.
Infiltration and anti-filtration recharge-pumping wells (hereinafter, referred to as IAF recharge-pumping wells) can enable rain-flood flowing in rivers or channel recharge to aquifers, in flood periods, and pump groundwater to be utilized in non-flood periods. In this study, a round IAF recharge-pumping well and a square IAF recharge-pumping well were developed, the structure and characteristic were introduced, the calculation equations of single-well recharge quantity of IAF recharge-pumping wells, in unconfined aquifers were deduced, and the steady-state flow recharge test was conducted in the laboratory. The conclusions were as follows. The theoretical equation of the single-well recharge quantity was reasonable. Compared to existing anti-filtration recharge wells, the new IAF recharge-pumping well had stronger anti-deposit and anti-scour abilities and the single-well recharge quantity increased by 400%. Compared to the square IAF recharge-pumping well, the round IAF recharge-pumping well had a better inlet flow pattern and a larger single-well recharge quantity. With an increase in the test times, the single-well recharge quantity gradually decreased and tended to be stable. The existence of the pumping pipe had a little influence on the single-well recharge quantity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resources Assessment: Quantity and Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Multiple Approaches to Investigate the Hydrochemistry Evolution of Groundwater in an Arid Region: Nomhon, Northwestern China
Water 2018, 10(11), 1667; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111667
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 23 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
Groundwater is a critical water resource for human survival and economic development in arid and semi-arid areas. It is crucial to understand the groundwater circulation and hydrochemical evolution for sustainable management and utilization of groundwater resources in those areas. To this end, an [...] Read more.
Groundwater is a critical water resource for human survival and economic development in arid and semi-arid areas. It is crucial to understand the groundwater circulation and hydrochemical evolution for sustainable management and utilization of groundwater resources in those areas. To this end, an investigation of the hydrochemical characteristics of surface water and groundwater was conducted in Nomhon, an arid area located in the Qaidam Basin, northwest China, by using hydrochemical (major and trace elements) and stable isotopes (δD and δ18O) approaches. Stable isotopes and ion ratios were analyzed to determine the recharge sources, hydrochemistry characteristics, and major hydrogeochemical processes. Meanwhile, inverse geochemistry modeling was applied to quantitatively determine the mass transfer of hydrogeochemical processes. The results showed that groundwater in the study area is mainly recharged by atmospheric precipitation in mountainous areas, and the groundwater in the center of basin might originate from ancient water in cold and humid environments. Along the groundwater flow path, the TDS of groundwater increased gradually from fresh to salty (ranging from 462.50 to 19,604.40 mg/L), and the hydrochemical type changed from Cl·HCO3–Na·Mg·Ca to Cl–Na. Groundwater chemical composition and mass balance modeling results indicated that from alluvial fan to lacustrine plain, the main hydrogeochemical processes changed from the dissolution of halite and albite and the precipitation of dolomite and kaolinite to the dissolution of halite and gypsum, precipitation of calcite, redox (SO42− reduction), and cation exchange. This study would be helpful for water resources management in this area and other similar areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resources Assessment: Quantity and Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in the Vicinity of Khurrianwala Industrial Zone, Pakistan
Water 2018, 10(10), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101321
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 24 September 2018
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Abstract
The industrial augmentation and unguided anthropogenic activities contaminate water sources in most parts of the world especially in developing countries like Pakistan. High concentration of pollutants in groundwater affects human, soil, and crop health badly. The present study was conducted to investigate groundwater [...] Read more.
The industrial augmentation and unguided anthropogenic activities contaminate water sources in most parts of the world especially in developing countries like Pakistan. High concentration of pollutants in groundwater affects human, soil, and crop health badly. The present study was conducted to investigate groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes in an industrial zone of Pakistan. A GIS tool was used to investigate the spatial distribution of different physico-chemical parameters. In this study, the average results exceeding World Health Organization (WHO) and National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) were found for pH 7.84, total dissolved solids (TDS) 1492 mg/L, phosphate 0.51 mg/L, dissolved oxygen (DO) 9.92% saturation, F-coli 6.48 colonies/100 mL, Na+ 366 mg/L, HCO3 771 mg/L, sulfate 251 mg/L, chlorides 427 mg/L, total hardness (as CaCO3) 292 mg/L, electrical conductivity (EC) 2408 μS/cm, iron (Fe) 0.48 mg/L, chrome (Cr) 0.50 mg/L, arsenic (As) 0.04 mg/L, total phosphorus (TP) 0.17 mg/L, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) 9.76 (in meq/L), residual sodium carbonate (RSC) 9.28 meq/L, % ion balance 14.4 (in meq/L), percentage sodium ion (% Na+) concentration 58.9 meq/L, and water quality index (WQI) 69.0. The trend of cations and anions were (in meq/L) Na > Mg > Ca > K and HCO3 > Cl > CO3 > SO4 respectively. Although the results of the present study showed poor conditions of the groundwater for drinking as WQI but and irrigation purposes as SAR, it needs to improve some more conditions for the provision of safe drinking water and irrigation water quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resources Assessment: Quantity and Quality)
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Open AccessArticle
Long Term Hydrodynamic Effects in a Semi-Arid Mediterranean Multilayer Aquifer: Campo de Cartagena in South-Eastern Spain
Water 2018, 10(10), 1320; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101320
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 24 September 2018
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Abstract
The Mediterranean basin contains many semi-arid environments where aquifers are subject to intensive exploitation, generally to meet irrigation demands. The Campo de Cartagena aquifer is a clear example from such a semi-arid environment, and its hydrodynamic effects have aroused great scientific interest. The [...] Read more.
The Mediterranean basin contains many semi-arid environments where aquifers are subject to intensive exploitation, generally to meet irrigation demands. The Campo de Cartagena aquifer is a clear example from such a semi-arid environment, and its hydrodynamic effects have aroused great scientific interest. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the hydrodynamic effects that have occurred in the last century of anthropogenic activity in this aquifer system. This aquifer is subject to intensive exploitation and shows clear deficits in times of drought, with recharge by irrigation playing an important role. This study’s methodology includes groundwater modelling to reconstruct the transient evolution of the aquifer system during the last century, to generate water balances and to illustrate how the evolution of irrigation has, in many ways, changed the aquifer’s groundwater flow pattern. The results delineate the hydraulic communication of the aquifer stratums through specific geological structures, as well as the flow transfer from the Quaternary layer to the Mar Menor and the Mediterranean Sea. The reconstruction of the entire system’s temporal evolution shows a fragile water balance that is supported by surface-water contributions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resources Assessment: Quantity and Quality)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Recent Advances in Experimental Studies of Steady-State Dilution and Reactive Mixing in Saturated Porous Media
Water 2019, 11(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11010003
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
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Abstract
Transverse dispersive mixing plays an important role in controlling natural attenuation of contaminant plumes and the performance of engineered remediation strategies. The extent of transverse mixing can be significantly affected by porous media heterogeneity and anisotropy. For instance, flow focusing in the high-permeability [...] Read more.
Transverse dispersive mixing plays an important role in controlling natural attenuation of contaminant plumes and the performance of engineered remediation strategies. The extent of transverse mixing can be significantly affected by porous media heterogeneity and anisotropy. For instance, flow focusing in the high-permeability inclusions leads to an enhancement of dilution and reactive mixing in steady-state solute transport. Numerous modeling studies have been performed to understand the mechanism of conservative and reactive transport in homogeneous and complex heterogeneous porous media. However, experimental investigations are necessary to show an intuitive phenomenon and to validate the modeling results. This paper briefly reviews recent laboratory experimental studies on dilution and reactive mixing of steady-state transport in saturated homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media. In this context, setups and measuring techniques are described in pore-scale and Darcy-scale experiments. Parameters quantifying dilution and reactive mixing in the experiments are also introduced. Finally, we discuss the further experimental works necessary to deepen our understanding of dilution and reactive mixing in natural aquifers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resources Assessment: Quantity and Quality)
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report
Statistical and Numerical Assessments of Groundwater Resource Subject to Excessive Pumping: Case Study in Southwest Taiwan
Water 2019, 11(2), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11020360
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 20 February 2019
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Abstract
Groundwater, a salient water resource in Taiwan, has been subject to incessant and excessive pumping, inducing serious regional land subsidence and seawater intrusion. This study aims at assessing how excessive pumping impacts groundwater variations over the Pingtung Alluvial Plain (PAP) in Southwest Taiwan [...] Read more.
Groundwater, a salient water resource in Taiwan, has been subject to incessant and excessive pumping, inducing serious regional land subsidence and seawater intrusion. This study aims at assessing how excessive pumping impacts groundwater variations over the Pingtung Alluvial Plain (PAP) in Southwest Taiwan using both statistical and numerical techniques. We apply nonparametric methods to analyze the changing point and annual trend in various hydro-meteorological time series (e.g., rainfall, temperature, and groundwater levels (GLs)). Afterwards, we employ an integrated surface-subsurface model referred to as WASH123D to simulate GLs under the pumping-free scenario; any discrepancies identified between simulated and observed GLs could be an indicator of unregulated/illegal pumping. We find that annual GLs exhibit a significant increasing (decreasing) trend in the western (eastern) PAP. Our numerical experiment reveals diverging trends in simulated and observed GLs, mostly at the downstream of all the major tributaries, suggesting the consequence of unregulated/illegal pumping. Furthermore, upstream pumping may reduce lateral flow towards the downstream coastal area, triggering land subsidence in remote locations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Resources Assessment: Quantity and Quality)
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