E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Groundwater Contamination and Remediation"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Ecosystems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2018)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Timothy D. Scheibe

Laboratory Fellow, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-509-371-7633
Interests: groundwater; reactive transport; biogeochemistry; microbial transport; heterogeneity; multiscale modelling; pore scale modelling; river-groundwater interactions; computational earth science
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. David C. Mays

Associate Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-303-315-7570
Interests: groundwater; porous media; remediation; complex systems; colloids; clogging; permeability; chaotic advection; urban contaminants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Groundwater is a critical natural resource that can be degraded by contamination.  Contaminants can have natural sources (e.g., arsenic or salinity) or anthropogenic sources (e.g., industrial chemicals, pesticides, or sewage effluent). Remediation activities aim to reduce or eliminate groundwater contaminants, and can include passive methods (e.g., monitored natural attenuation), ex-situ methods (e.g., pump-and-treat), or in-situ methods (e.g., bioremediation or chemical oxidation).

The aim of this Special Issue of Water is to present new research contributions in the broad area of groundwater contamination and remediation. This topic includes studies that elucidate critical processes controlling contaminant sources, transport, and fate in the subsurface environment, methods to identify the concentration and extent of contaminant plumes, as well as novel approaches to predict and enhance the performance of remediation techniques. We encourage contributions on both natural and anthropogenic contaminants, as well as emerging contaminants, such as manufactured nanoparticles or hydraulic fracturing fluids. The breadth of cutting-edge research addressing these topics is substantial, so accordingly this Special Issue will not be able to include studies specifically focused on evaluating the human health impacts of contaminants (i.e., epidemiological studies).

Dr. Timothy D. Scheibe
Prof. Dr. David C. Mays
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Groundwater
  • contamination
  • remediation
  • reactive transport
  • monitored natural attenuation
  • bioremediation
  • water quality

Published Papers (11 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-11
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research

Open AccessEditorial Groundwater Contamination, Subsurface Processes, and Remediation Methods: Overview of the Special Issue of Water on Groundwater Contamination and Remediation
Water 2018, 10(12), 1708; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121708
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 17 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
PDF Full-text (167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This special issue of Water brings together ten studies on groundwater contamination and remediation. Common themes include practical techniques for plume identification and delineation, the central role of subsurface processes, the pervasiveness of non-Fickian transport, and the importance of bacterial communities in the
[...] Read more.
This special issue of Water brings together ten studies on groundwater contamination and remediation. Common themes include practical techniques for plume identification and delineation, the central role of subsurface processes, the pervasiveness of non-Fickian transport, and the importance of bacterial communities in the broader context of biogeochemistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Contamination and Remediation) Printed Edition available

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Support Tool for Identifying In Situ Remediation Technology for Sites Contaminated by Hexavalent Chromium
Water 2018, 10(10), 1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101344
Received: 12 August 2018 / Revised: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 25 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (708 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sites contaminated by hexavalent chromium raise concerns relating to the toxicity of the pollutant, as well as for the increased solubility of its compounds, which helps it to seep into aquifers. Chemical and biological in situ treatment technologies, with good potential in terms
[...] Read more.
Sites contaminated by hexavalent chromium raise concerns relating to the toxicity of the pollutant, as well as for the increased solubility of its compounds, which helps it to seep into aquifers. Chemical and biological in situ treatment technologies, with good potential in terms of environmental sustainability, have recently been designed and implemented on a wide scale. A useful support tool is shown in the manuscript in the preliminary phase of assessing possible technologies applicable according to the site-specific characteristics of sites. The actual efficacy of the technologies identified should nevertheless be verified in laboratory trials and pilot tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Contamination and Remediation) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Expanded Application of the Passive Flux Meter: In-Situ Measurements of 1,4-Dioxane, Sulfate, Cr(VI) and RDX
Water 2018, 10(10), 1335; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101335
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3424 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Passive flux meters (PFMs) have become invaluable tools for site characterization and evaluation of remediation performance at groundwater contaminated sites. To date, PFMs technology has been demonstrated in the field to measure midrange hydrophobic contaminants (e.g., chlorinated ethenes, fuel hydrocarbons, perchlorate) and inorganic
[...] Read more.
Passive flux meters (PFMs) have become invaluable tools for site characterization and evaluation of remediation performance at groundwater contaminated sites. To date, PFMs technology has been demonstrated in the field to measure midrange hydrophobic contaminants (e.g., chlorinated ethenes, fuel hydrocarbons, perchlorate) and inorganic ions (e.g., uranium and nitrate). However, flux measurements of low partitioning contaminants (e.g., 1,4-dioxane, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX)) and reactive ions-species (e.g., sulfate (SO42−), Chromium(VI) (Cr(VI)) are still challenging because of their low retardation during transport and quick transformation under highly reducing conditions, respectively. This study is the first application of PFMs for in-situ mass flux measurements of 1,4-dioxane, RDX, Cr(VI) and SO42− reduction rates. Laboratory experiments were performed to model kinetic uptake rates and extraction efficiency for sorbent selections. Silver impregnated granular activated carbon (GAC) was selected for the capture of 1,4-dioxane and RDX, whereas Purolite 300A (Bala Cynwyd, PA, USA) was selected for Cr(VI) and SO42−. PFM field demonstrations measured 1,4-dioxane fluxes ranging from 13.3 to 55.9 mg/m2/day, an RDX flux of 4.9 mg/m2/day, Cr(VI) fluxes ranging from 2.3 to 2.8 mg/m2/day and SO42− consumption rates ranging from 20 to 100 mg/L/day. This data suggests other low-partitioning contaminates and reactive ion-species could be monitored using the PFM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Contamination and Remediation) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Coupled Thermally-Enhanced Bioremediation and Renewable Energy Storage System: Conceptual Framework and Modeling Investigation
Water 2018, 10(10), 1288; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101288
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 16 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3010 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a novel method to couple an environmental bioremediation system with a subsurface renewable energy storage system. This method involves treating unsaturated contaminated soil using in-situ thermally enhanced bioremediation; the thermal system is powered by renewable energy. After remediation goals are
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel method to couple an environmental bioremediation system with a subsurface renewable energy storage system. This method involves treating unsaturated contaminated soil using in-situ thermally enhanced bioremediation; the thermal system is powered by renewable energy. After remediation goals are achieved, the thermal system can then be used to store renewable energy in the form of heat in the subsurface for later use. This method can be used for enhanced treatment of environmental pollutants for which temperature is considered a limiting factor. For instance, this system can be used at a wide variety of petroleum-related sites that are likely contaminated with hydrocarbons such as oil refineries and facilities with above- and underground storage tanks. In this paper, a case-study example was analyzed using a previously developed numerical model of heat transfer in unsaturated soil. Results demonstrate that coupling energy storage and thermally-enhanced bioremediation systems offer an efficient and sustainable way to achieve desired temperature–moisture distribution in soil that will ultimately enhance the microbial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Contamination and Remediation) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Use of a Polymer Inclusion Membrane for Arsenate Determination in Groundwater
Water 2018, 10(8), 1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081093
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (774 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing the ionic liquid methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) as the carrier has been used satisfactorily for the preconcentration of arsenate present in groundwater samples, allowing its determination by a simple colorimetric method. The optimization of different chemical and
[...] Read more.
A polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing the ionic liquid methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) as the carrier has been used satisfactorily for the preconcentration of arsenate present in groundwater samples, allowing its determination by a simple colorimetric method. The optimization of different chemical and physical parameters affecting the membrane performance allowed its applicability to be broadened. The transport of As(V) was not affected by the polymer used to make the PIM (cellulose triacetate (CTA) or poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)) nor the thickness of the membrane. Moreover, the use of a 2 M NaCl solution as a stripping phase was found to allow the effective transport of arsenate despite the presence of other major anions in groundwater. Using the PIM for the analysis of different groundwaters spiked at 100 μg L−1 resulted in recoveries from 79% to 124% after only 5 h of contact time. Finally, the validated PIM-based method was successfully applied to the analysis of waters containing naturally occurring arsenate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Contamination and Remediation) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Bacterial Productivity in a Ferrocyanide-Contaminated Aquifer at a Nuclear Waste Site
Water 2018, 10(8), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081072
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 5 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1139 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study examined potential microbial impacts of cyanide contamination in an aquifer affected by ferrocyanide disposal from nuclear waste processing at the US Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in south-eastern Washington State (USA). We examined bacterial productivity and microbial cell density in groundwater
[...] Read more.
This study examined potential microbial impacts of cyanide contamination in an aquifer affected by ferrocyanide disposal from nuclear waste processing at the US Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in south-eastern Washington State (USA). We examined bacterial productivity and microbial cell density in groundwater (GW) from wells with varying levels of recent and historical total cyanide concentrations. We used tritiated leucine (3H-Leu) uptake as a proxy for heterotrophic, aerobic bacterial productivity in the GW, and we measured cell density via nucleic acid staining followed by epifluorescence microscopy. Bacterial productivity varied widely, both among wells that had high historical and recent total cyanide (CN) concentrations and among wells that had low total CN values. Standing microbial biomass varied less, and was generally greater than that observed in a similar study of uranium-contaminated hyporheic-zone groundwater at the Hanford Site. Our results showed no correlation between 3H-Leu uptake and recent or historical cyanide concentrations in the wells, consistent with what is known about cyanide toxicity with respect to iron speciation. However, additional sampling of the CN affected groundwater, both in space and time, would be needed to confirm that the CN contamination is not affecting the GW biota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Contamination and Remediation) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Assessing Decadal Trends of a Nitrate-Contaminated Shallow Aquifer in Western Nebraska Using Groundwater Isotopes, Age-Dating, and Monitoring
Water 2018, 10(8), 1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081047
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3835 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Shallow aquifers are prone to nitrate contamination worldwide. In western Nebraska, high groundwater nitrate concentrations ([NO3]) have resulted in the exploration of new groundwater and nitrogen management regulations in the North Platte Natural Resources District (NPNRD). A small region of
[...] Read more.
Shallow aquifers are prone to nitrate contamination worldwide. In western Nebraska, high groundwater nitrate concentrations ([NO3]) have resulted in the exploration of new groundwater and nitrogen management regulations in the North Platte Natural Resources District (NPNRD). A small region of NPNRD (“Dutch Flats”) was the focus of intensive groundwater sampling by the United States Geological Survey from 1995 to 1999. Nearly two decades later, notable shifts have occurred in variables related to groundwater recharge and [NO3], including irrigation methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate how changes in these variables, in part due to regulatory changes, have impacted nitrate-contaminated groundwater in the Dutch Flats area. Groundwater samples were collected to assess changes in: (1) recharge rates; (2) biogeochemical processes; and (3) [NO3]. Groundwater age increased in 63% of wells and estimated recharge rates were lower for 88% of wells sampled (n = 8). However, mean age and recharge rate estimated in 2016 (19.3 years; R = 0.35 m/year) did not differ significantly from mean values determined in 1998 (15.6 years; R = 0.50 m/year). δ15N-NO3 (n = 14) and dissolved oxygen data indicate no major changes in biogeochemical processes. Available long-term data suggest a downward trend in normalized [NO3] from 1998 to 2016, and lower [NO3] was observed in 60% of wells sampled in both years (n = 87), but median values were not significantly different. Collectively, results suggest the groundwater system is responding to environmental variables to a degree that is detectable (e.g., trends in [NO3]), although more time and/or substantial changes may be required before it is possible to detect significantly different mean recharge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Contamination and Remediation) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Multivariate and Spatial Analysis of Physicochemical Parameters in an Irrigation District, Chihuahua, Mexico
Water 2018, 10(8), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10081037
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 5 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7506 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water quality is relevant due to the complexity of the interaction of physicochemical and biological parameters. The Irrigation District 005 (ID005) is one of the most important agricultural region in Chihuahua, México; for that reason, it was proposed to investigate the water quality
[...] Read more.
Water quality is relevant due to the complexity of the interaction of physicochemical and biological parameters. The Irrigation District 005 (ID005) is one of the most important agricultural region in Chihuahua, México; for that reason, it was proposed to investigate the water quality of the site. Water samples were collected in two periods: Summer (S1) and Fall (S2). The samples were taken from 65 wells in S1, and 54 wells in S2. Physicochemical parameters (PhP) such as Arsenic (As), Temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Oxide Reduction Potential (ORP), Hardness, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), and Turbidity were analyzed. The data were subjected to statistical principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA) and spatial variability tests. In both seasons, the TDS exceeded the Mexican maximum permissible level (MPL) (35% S1, 39% S2). Turbidity exceeded the MPL in S1 (29%) and in S2 (12%). Arsenic was above the MPL for water of agricultural use in 9% (S1) and 13% (S2) of the wells. The PCA results suggested that most variations in water quality in S1 were due to As, pH and Temperature, followed by EC, TDS and Hardness; while in S2 to EC, TDS and Hardness, followed by As and pH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Contamination and Remediation) Printed Edition available
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Spatial Pattern of Bacterial Community Diversity Formed in Different Groundwater Field Corresponding to Electron Donors and Acceptors Distributions at a Petroleum-Contaminated Site
Water 2018, 10(7), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070842
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2078 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The benefits of an electron-transfer mechanism for petroleum biodegrading have been widely acknowledged, but few have studied the spatial pattern of microbial community diversity in groundwater fields, and few discuss the bacterial community’s diversity in relation to electron donors-acceptors distribution, which is largely
[...] Read more.
The benefits of an electron-transfer mechanism for petroleum biodegrading have been widely acknowledged, but few have studied the spatial pattern of microbial community diversity in groundwater fields, and few discuss the bacterial community’s diversity in relation to electron donors-acceptors distribution, which is largely determined by groundwater flow. Eleven samples in different groundwater fields are collected at a petroleum-contaminated site, and the microbial communities are investigated using 16S rRNA gene sequences with multivariate statistics. These are mainly linked to the chemical composition analysis of electron donor indexes COD, BTEX and electron acceptor indexes DO, NO3, Fe2+, Mn2+, and SO42−, HCO3. The spatial pattern of the bacterial community’s diversity is characterized and the effect of the electron redox reaction on bacterial community formation in different groundwater field zones is elucidated. It is found that a considerable percentage (>65%) of the bacterial communities related to petroleum degrading suggest that petroleum biodegrading is occurring in groundwater. The communities are subject to the redox reaction in different groundwater field zones: The side plume zone and the upstream of the source zone are under aerobic redox or denitrification redox, and the corresponding bacteria are Rhodoferax, Novosphingobium, Hydrogenophaga, and Comamonas; the source zone and downstream of the source zone are under Fe3+, Mn4+, and SO42− reduction redox, and the corresponding bacteria are Rhodoferax, Treponema, Desulfosporosinus, Hydrogenophaga, and Acidovorax. These results imply that groundwater flow plays a definitive role in the bacterial community’s diversity spatial pattern formation by influencing the distribution of electron donor and acceptor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Contamination and Remediation) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Comparison of Time Nonlocal Transport Models for Characterizing Non-Fickian Transport: From Mathematical Interpretation to Laboratory Application
Water 2018, 10(6), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060778
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Non-Fickian diffusion has been increasingly documented in hydrology and modeled by promising time nonlocal transport models. While previous studies showed that most of the time nonlocal models are identical with correlated parameters, fundamental challenges remain in real-world applications regarding model selection and parameter
[...] Read more.
Non-Fickian diffusion has been increasingly documented in hydrology and modeled by promising time nonlocal transport models. While previous studies showed that most of the time nonlocal models are identical with correlated parameters, fundamental challenges remain in real-world applications regarding model selection and parameter definition. This study compared three popular time nonlocal transport models, including the multi-rate mass transfer (MRMT) model, the continuous time random walk (CTRW) framework, and the tempered time fractional advection–dispersion equation (tt-fADE), by focusing on their physical interpretation and feasibility in capturing non-Fickian transport. Mathematical comparison showed that these models have both related parameters defining the memory function and other basic-transport parameters (i.e., velocity v and dispersion coefficient D) with different hydrogeologic interpretations. Laboratory column transport experiments and field tracer tests were then conducted, providing data for model applicability evaluation. Laboratory and field experiments exhibited breakthrough curves with non-Fickian characteristics, which were better represented by the tt-fADE and CTRW models than the traditional advection–dispersion equation. The best-fit velocity and dispersion coefficient, however, differ significantly between the tt-fADE and CTRW. Fitting exercises further revealed that the observed late-time breakthrough curves were heavier than the MRMT solutions with no more than two mass-exchange rates and lighter than the MRMT solutions with power-law distributed mass-exchange rates. Therefore, the time nonlocal models, where some parameters are correlated and exchangeable and the others have different values, differ mainly in their quantification of pre-asymptotic transport dynamics. In all models tested above, the tt-fADE model is attractive, considering its small fitting error and the reasonable velocity close to the measured flow rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Contamination and Remediation) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Potential Impact of In-Situ Oil Shale Exploitation on Aquifer System
Water 2018, 10(5), 649; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10050649
Received: 18 March 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of heat on physical and hydraulic properties of oil shale were investigated. The porosity and water absorption of oil shale increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The porosity increased by 19.048% and water absorption increased by 0.76% when oil shale was heated
[...] Read more.
The effects of heat on physical and hydraulic properties of oil shale were investigated. The porosity and water absorption of oil shale increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. The porosity increased by 19.048% and water absorption increased by 0.76% when oil shale was heated to 500 °C. Thus, originally impermeable oil shale was converted to a permeable rock formation, facilitating interactions between surrounding groundwater and oil. Heated oil shale was immersed in water, which showed strong alkaline properties. The content of Ca2+ remained stable and a slight decrease in SO42− content was observed. Hydrocarbon content in the water samples reached maximum concentration within three days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Contamination and Remediation) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top