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Water 2018, 10(7), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070842

Spatial Pattern of Bacterial Community Diversity Formed in Different Groundwater Field Corresponding to Electron Donors and Acceptors Distributions at a Petroleum-Contaminated Site

1,2,3
,
1,* , 1,3
,
1,4
,
1
and
1,2,3
1
Institute of Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050061, China
2
School of Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China
3
Key Laboratory of Groundwater Remediation of Hebei Province, Zhengding 050083, China
4
School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, HeFei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Contamination and Remediation)
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Abstract

The benefits of an electron-transfer mechanism for petroleum biodegrading have been widely acknowledged, but few have studied the spatial pattern of microbial community diversity in groundwater fields, and few discuss the bacterial community’s diversity in relation to electron donors-acceptors distribution, which is largely determined by groundwater flow. Eleven samples in different groundwater fields are collected at a petroleum-contaminated site, and the microbial communities are investigated using 16S rRNA gene sequences with multivariate statistics. These are mainly linked to the chemical composition analysis of electron donor indexes COD, BTEX and electron acceptor indexes DO, NO3, Fe2+, Mn2+, and SO42−, HCO3. The spatial pattern of the bacterial community’s diversity is characterized and the effect of the electron redox reaction on bacterial community formation in different groundwater field zones is elucidated. It is found that a considerable percentage (>65%) of the bacterial communities related to petroleum degrading suggest that petroleum biodegrading is occurring in groundwater. The communities are subject to the redox reaction in different groundwater field zones: The side plume zone and the upstream of the source zone are under aerobic redox or denitrification redox, and the corresponding bacteria are Rhodoferax, Novosphingobium, Hydrogenophaga, and Comamonas; the source zone and downstream of the source zone are under Fe3+, Mn4+, and SO42− reduction redox, and the corresponding bacteria are Rhodoferax, Treponema, Desulfosporosinus, Hydrogenophaga, and Acidovorax. These results imply that groundwater flow plays a definitive role in the bacterial community’s diversity spatial pattern formation by influencing the distribution of electron donor and acceptor. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater; bacterial community diversity; petroleum contamination; electron acceptor; electron donor; groundwater flow path groundwater; bacterial community diversity; petroleum contamination; electron acceptor; electron donor; groundwater flow path
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Ning, Z.; Zhang, M.; He, Z.; Cai, P.; Guo, C.; Wang, P. Spatial Pattern of Bacterial Community Diversity Formed in Different Groundwater Field Corresponding to Electron Donors and Acceptors Distributions at a Petroleum-Contaminated Site. Water 2018, 10, 842.

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