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Water 2018, 10(8), 1037;

Multivariate and Spatial Analysis of Physicochemical Parameters in an Irrigation District, Chihuahua, Mexico

Facultad de Zootecnia y Ecología, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Periférico Francisco R. Almada, Km 1, Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31453, México
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua. Circuito Universitario s/n, Campus II, Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31125, México
Facultad de Ciencias Agrotecnológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Av. Pascual Orozco s/n, Campus I, Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31200, México
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 14 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 5 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Contamination and Remediation)
PDF [7506 KB, uploaded 20 August 2018]


Water quality is relevant due to the complexity of the interaction of physicochemical and biological parameters. The Irrigation District 005 (ID005) is one of the most important agricultural region in Chihuahua, México; for that reason, it was proposed to investigate the water quality of the site. Water samples were collected in two periods: Summer (S1) and Fall (S2). The samples were taken from 65 wells in S1, and 54 wells in S2. Physicochemical parameters (PhP) such as Arsenic (As), Temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Oxide Reduction Potential (ORP), Hardness, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), and Turbidity were analyzed. The data were subjected to statistical principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA) and spatial variability tests. In both seasons, the TDS exceeded the Mexican maximum permissible level (MPL) (35% S1, 39% S2). Turbidity exceeded the MPL in S1 (29%) and in S2 (12%). Arsenic was above the MPL for water of agricultural use in 9% (S1) and 13% (S2) of the wells. The PCA results suggested that most variations in water quality in S1 were due to As, pH and Temperature, followed by EC, TDS and Hardness; while in S2 to EC, TDS and Hardness, followed by As and pH. View Full-Text
Keywords: spatial distribution; PCA; CA; water quality spatial distribution; PCA; CA; water quality

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Prieto-Amparán, J.A.; Rocha-Gutiérrez, B.A.; Ballinas-Casarrubias, M.D.L.; Valles-Aragón, M.C.; Peralta-Pérez, M.D.R.; Pinedo-Alvarez, A. Multivariate and Spatial Analysis of Physicochemical Parameters in an Irrigation District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Water 2018, 10, 1037.

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