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Water 2018, 10(10), 1335;

Expanded Application of the Passive Flux Meter: In-Situ Measurements of 1,4-Dioxane, Sulfate, Cr(VI) and RDX

Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, 217 A.P. Black Hall, P.O. Box 116450, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
CDM Smith, 14432 S.E. Eastgate Way, Suite 100, Bellevue, WA 98007, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater Contamination and Remediation)
PDF [3424 KB, uploaded 26 September 2018]


Passive flux meters (PFMs) have become invaluable tools for site characterization and evaluation of remediation performance at groundwater contaminated sites. To date, PFMs technology has been demonstrated in the field to measure midrange hydrophobic contaminants (e.g., chlorinated ethenes, fuel hydrocarbons, perchlorate) and inorganic ions (e.g., uranium and nitrate). However, flux measurements of low partitioning contaminants (e.g., 1,4-dioxane, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX)) and reactive ions-species (e.g., sulfate (SO42−), Chromium(VI) (Cr(VI)) are still challenging because of their low retardation during transport and quick transformation under highly reducing conditions, respectively. This study is the first application of PFMs for in-situ mass flux measurements of 1,4-dioxane, RDX, Cr(VI) and SO42− reduction rates. Laboratory experiments were performed to model kinetic uptake rates and extraction efficiency for sorbent selections. Silver impregnated granular activated carbon (GAC) was selected for the capture of 1,4-dioxane and RDX, whereas Purolite 300A (Bala Cynwyd, PA, USA) was selected for Cr(VI) and SO42−. PFM field demonstrations measured 1,4-dioxane fluxes ranging from 13.3 to 55.9 mg/m2/day, an RDX flux of 4.9 mg/m2/day, Cr(VI) fluxes ranging from 2.3 to 2.8 mg/m2/day and SO42− consumption rates ranging from 20 to 100 mg/L/day. This data suggests other low-partitioning contaminates and reactive ion-species could be monitored using the PFM. View Full-Text
Keywords: TCE; RDX; sulfate; PFM; mass flux; remediation TCE; RDX; sulfate; PFM; mass flux; remediation

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Haluska, A.A.; Thiemann, M.S.; Evans, P.J.; Cho, J.; Annable, M.D. Expanded Application of the Passive Flux Meter: In-Situ Measurements of 1,4-Dioxane, Sulfate, Cr(VI) and RDX. Water 2018, 10, 1335.

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