Special Issue "Water Resources Investigation: Geologic Controls on Groundwater Flow"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydraulics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Donald Sweetkind
Website
Guest Editor
U.S. Geological Survey DFC, MS 980 Denver, CO 80225 USA
Interests: surface and subsurface geologic mapping; structural geologic studies; water resource; geologic controls on fluid flow
Mr. Philip Gardner
Website
Guest Editor
U.S. Geological Survey Nevada Water Science Center, 2730 N. Deer Run Rd Carson City, NV 89701 USA
Interests: hydrology; groundwater resources; groundwater geochemistry; aquifers; geologic controls on fluid flow

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The geologic system often exerts considerable control on the surface and subsurface hydrologic system. Stratigraphy, juxtaposition across faults, physical properties of the faults themselves, 3D lithologic heterogeneity of aquifer systems, and variably connected fault-fracture networks can all affect the occurrence, movement, and quality of surface and groundwater. Water resource investigations may evaluate the degree of geologic control on hydrologic phenomenon through conceptualization of the hydrogeologic system, numerical modeling studies that include 3D geologic frameworks, or evaluation of aquifer tests that seek to define geologically controlled contrasts in hydraulic properties or fault zone properties. Water resource investigations develop and integrate geologic and hydrologic data at the watershed, basin, or regional scale, requiring expertise and judgement when determining what spatial scale of geologic feature or level of geologic detail to include. This Special Issue on “Water Resources Investigation: Geologic Controls on Groundwater Flow” invites papers that report on water resource studies in which the geologic setting plays a crucial role. These include, but are not limited to, regional groundwater assessments, basin-scale groundwater studies, numerical modeling studies that include 3D geologic frameworks, and use of geophysics to better characterize regional aquifer frameworks.

Dr. Donald  Sweetkind
Mr. Philip Gardner
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • hydrogeology
  • 3D framework
  • aquifers
  • heterogeneity
  • groundwater
  • water resources

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Combining Hydraulic Head Analysis with Airborne Electromagnetics to Detect and Map Impermeable Aquifer Boundaries
Water 2018, 10(8), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10080975 - 25 Jul 2018
Abstract
Impermeable aquifer boundaries affect the flow of groundwater, transport of contaminants, and the drawdown of water levels in response to pumping. Hydraulic methods can detect the presence of such boundaries, but these methods are not suited for mapping complex, 3D geological bodies. Airborne [...] Read more.
Impermeable aquifer boundaries affect the flow of groundwater, transport of contaminants, and the drawdown of water levels in response to pumping. Hydraulic methods can detect the presence of such boundaries, but these methods are not suited for mapping complex, 3D geological bodies. Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) methods produce 3D geophysical images of the subsurface at depths relevant to most groundwater investigations. Interpreting a geophysical model requires supporting information, and hydraulic heads offer the most direct means of assessing the hydrostratigraphic function of interpreted geological units. This paper presents three examples of combined hydraulic and AEM analysis of impermeable boundaries in glacial deposits of eastern Nebraska, USA. Impermeable boundaries were detected in a long-term hydrograph from an observation well, a short-duration pumping test, and a water table map. AEM methods, including frequency-domain and time-domain AEM, successfully imaged the impermeable boundaries, providing additional details about the lateral extent of the geological bodies. Hydraulic head analysis can be used to verify the hydrostratigraphic interpretation of AEM, aid in the correlation of boundaries through areas of noisy AEM data, and inform the design of AEM surveys at local to regional scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Investigation: Geologic Controls on Groundwater Flow)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Karst Conduit Network Using Long-Distance Tracer Test in Lijiang, Southwestern China
Water 2018, 10(7), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070949 - 16 Jul 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
The Ancient City in Lijiang of southwestern China was endowed as World Cultural Heritage by UNESCO, and the karst springs located in Black Dragon Pool are its main water source. However, the springs have dried up several times in recent years, which caused [...] Read more.
The Ancient City in Lijiang of southwestern China was endowed as World Cultural Heritage by UNESCO, and the karst springs located in Black Dragon Pool are its main water source. However, the springs have dried up several times in recent years, which caused serious damages to the landscape as well as the city water supply. Triggered by the dried-up event in Black Dragon Pool, a long-distance artificial tracer test up to 17 km was employed to investigate the karst conduit network distributing in the study area. Based on the tracer concentration breakthrough curves (BTCs), the hydraulic connection from the same injection point (located in a giant depression named the Jiuzi Sea) to the springs on both sides of the topography watershed was proven, and the conduit structure was discussed. According to the characteristics of BTCs and considering the low tracer concentration and tracer recovery, a conceptual structure of leaky reservoir with threshold effect above a certain groundwater level was established to interpret why the springs in Black Dragon Pool dried up several times in history, but those in the Ancient City never did. Furthermore, a method of injecting surface water into the Jiuzi Sea to raise the groundwater level up to the height of Black Dragon Pool was proposed to restore the springs. Our study provides insights into the long-distance artificial tracer test, and opens a new avenue for groundwater resource recovery of this Ancient City. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Investigation: Geologic Controls on Groundwater Flow)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study of Spatial Behavior of Solute Particle Transport in Single Fracture with Variable Apertures
Water 2018, 10(6), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060673 - 23 May 2018
Abstract
The aim of this study is to numerically analyze spatial behaviors of solute particle transport in a single fracture with spatially correlated variable apertures under application of effective normal stress conditions. The numerical results show that solute particle transport in a single fracture [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to numerically analyze spatial behaviors of solute particle transport in a single fracture with spatially correlated variable apertures under application of effective normal stress conditions. The numerical results show that solute particle transport in a single fracture is strongly affected by spatial correlation length of variable apertures and applied effective normal stress. As spatial correlation length increases, mean residence time of solute particles decreases and tortuosity and Peclet number (a dimensionless number representing the relationship between the rate of advection of solute particles by the flow and the rate of diffusion of solute particles) also decreases. These results indicate that the geometry of the aperture distribution is favorable to solute particle transport when the spatial correlation length is increased. However, as effective normal stress increases, the mean residence time and tortuosity tend to increase but the Peclet number decreases. The main reason for a decreasing Peclet number is that the solute particle is transported by one or two channels with relatively higher localized flow rates owing to increase in contact areas resulting from increasing effective normal stress. Based on the numerical results of the solute particle transport produced in this study, an exponential-type correlation formula between the mean residence time and the effective normal stress is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Investigation: Geologic Controls on Groundwater Flow)
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Open AccessArticle
The Upwelling Water Flux Feeding Springs: Hydrogeological and Hydraulic Features
Water 2018, 10(4), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040501 - 18 Apr 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The upwelling groundwater flux has been investigated by deep piezometers in a spring area characterized by alluvial deposits covering a karst substratum in Southern Italy. The piezometers are of varying depth located in a flat area. They have been monitored for a long [...] Read more.
The upwelling groundwater flux has been investigated by deep piezometers in a spring area characterized by alluvial deposits covering a karst substratum in Southern Italy. The piezometers are of varying depth located in a flat area. They have been monitored for a long period (about 40 years), and when measured, a good relationship between spring discharge and hydraulic head was observed. The local upwelling groundwater flux has been deducted by the increasing of the hydraulic head in depth, which allows the estimation of ascendant hydraulic gradient and groundwater velocity during the dry and wet seasons. A specific analytical solution has been used to estimate the zone involved by the ascendant flow, and could also be used in other spring areas. Some physical and chemical characteristics of spring water have been collected, including the radon (222Rn) activity, to support the phenomenon of the ascendant flux. The man geological and hydrogeological features leading to ascendant flux in karst environments is also discussed for some areas of Southern Italy, where many springs are affected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Investigation: Geologic Controls on Groundwater Flow)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrochemical Characteristics and Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Natural Water System: A Case Study in Kangding County, Southwestern China
Water 2018, 10(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010080 - 19 Jan 2018
Cited by 13
Abstract
The utilization for water resource has been of great concern to human life. To assess the natural water system in Kangding County, the integrated methods of hydrochemical analysis, multivariate statistics and geochemical modelling were conducted on surface water, groundwater, and thermal water samples. [...] Read more.
The utilization for water resource has been of great concern to human life. To assess the natural water system in Kangding County, the integrated methods of hydrochemical analysis, multivariate statistics and geochemical modelling were conducted on surface water, groundwater, and thermal water samples. Surface water and groundwater were dominated by Ca-HCO3 type, while thermal water belonged to Ca-HCO3 and Na-Cl-SO4 types. The analyzing results concluded the driving factors that affect hydrochemical components. Following the results of the combined assessments, hydrochemical process was controlled by the dissolution of carbonate and silicate minerals with slight influence from anthropogenic activity. The mixing model of groundwater and thermal water was calculated using silica-enthalpy method, yielding cold-water fraction of 0.56–0.79 and an estimated reservoir temperature of 130–199 °C, respectively. δD and δ18O isotopes suggested that surface water, groundwater and thermal springs were of meteoric origin. Thermal water should have deep circulation through the Xianshuihe fault zone, while groundwater flows through secondary fractures where it recharges with thermal water. Those analytical results were used to construct a hydrological conceptual model, providing a better understanding of the natural water system in Kangding County. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources Investigation: Geologic Controls on Groundwater Flow)
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