Special Issue "Emerging Contaminants (ECs) in Water"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Miren López de Alda Villaizán
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Water, Environmental and Food Chemistry Unit (ENFOCHEM), Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: environmental analytical chemistry; priority and emerging organic contaminants (polar pesticides, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals, cytostatics, estrogens, endocrine disrupting compounds, Watch List); advanced analytical techniques (online solid phase extraction, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, Orbitrap MS); water quality, reuse, and management; environmental monitoring; risk assessment; sewage epidemiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Emerging contaminants—or contaminants of emerging concern as some researchers prefer to say—include a wide variety of chemicals of different origin (agricultural, industrial, urban) that have been found in the aquatic environment and have raised concerns among scientists, regulators, and the society in general, due to the potential negative effects that their presence in the water cycle can have on the environment and human health. Chemical substances falling under this category include pesticides, flame retardants, detergents, plasticizers, anticorrosives, microplastics, nanomaterials, pharmaceuticals (antibiotics, psychiatric drugs, chemotherapy agents, analgesics, lipid regulators, etc.), illicit drugs, personal care products, artificial sweeteners, estrogens, endocrine disrupting compounds in general, disinfection byproducts, and transformation products of the above, among others. The aim of this Special Issue is to bring together recent research and reviews into the occurrence of these kinds of contaminants in the water cycle (including waste, regenerated, rain, surface, ground, drinking water, etc.) and the associated risks, as well as possible ways/treatments to counteract them. Submissions addressing their analysis, available certified/standard reference materials, environmental modeling and prediction, prioritization, and sewage epidemiology are also welcome.

Dr. Miren Lopez De Alda
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • emerging contaminants
  • endocrine disruptors
  • water quality
  • environmental monitoring
  • environmental modeling
  • environmental risk assessment
  • water analysis
  • water treatment
  • sewage epidemiology

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
Occurrence and Sources of Synthetic Musk Fragrances in the Sewage Treatment Plants and the Han River, Korea
Water 2021, 13(4), 392; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040392 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 549
Abstract
Levels of synthetic musk fragrances (SMFs) and various personal care products (PCPs) were measured in the Han River and its tributaries in Seoul, Korea. The most abundant SMF in all river and PCP samples was 4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-1,3,4,7-tetrahydrocyclopenta(g)sochromene (HHCB), followed by 1-(3,5,5,6,8,8-hexamethyl-6,7-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone (AHTN), musk ketone [...] Read more.
Levels of synthetic musk fragrances (SMFs) and various personal care products (PCPs) were measured in the Han River and its tributaries in Seoul, Korea. The most abundant SMF in all river and PCP samples was 4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-1,3,4,7-tetrahydrocyclopenta(g)sochromene (HHCB), followed by 1-(3,5,5,6,8,8-hexamethyl-6,7-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone (AHTN), musk ketone (MK), and 1,1,2,3,3-pentamethyl-2,5,6,7-tetrahydroinden-4-one (DPMI). The most abundant SMF in both PCPs and the Han River samples was HHCB, followed by AHTN. Moving from upstream to downstream in the Han River, the median SMF concentration was 6.756, 2.945, 0.304, and 0.141 μg/L in the sewage treatment plant (STP) influents, effluents, tributaries, and mainstream, respectively, implying that effective SMF removal was achieved during the sewage treatment process, followed by dilution in the receiving water. Four STPs using advanced biological treatment processes had removal efficiencies of 58.5%, 56.8%, and 38.1% for HHCB, AHTN, and MK, respectively. The highest SMF concentrations in the tributaries were observed at locations close to the STPs. Our study confirmed that the main source of SMFs in the receiving water were sewage effluents containing untreated SMFs, which largely originate from household PCPs, especially hair care products (e.g., shampoo) and perfumes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants (ECs) in Water)
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Article
A Novel Method for Determination of the Natural Toxin Ptaquiloside in Ground and Drinking Water
Water 2020, 12(10), 2852; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102852 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 899
Abstract
Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a carcinogenic compound naturally occurring in bracken ferns (Pteridium aquilinum). It is highly water soluble and prone to leaching from topsoil to surface and groundwaters. Due to possible human exposure via drinking water, PTA is considered as an [...] Read more.
Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a carcinogenic compound naturally occurring in bracken ferns (Pteridium aquilinum). It is highly water soluble and prone to leaching from topsoil to surface and groundwaters. Due to possible human exposure via drinking water, PTA is considered as an emerging contaminant. We present a sensitive and robust method for analysis of PTA and its degradation product pterosin B (PtB) in groundwater. The method comprises two steps: sample preservation at the field site followed by sample pre-concentration in the laboratory. The preservation step was developed by applying a Plackett–Burman experimental design testing the following variables: water type, pH, filtering, bottle type, storage temperature, transportation conditions and test time. The best sample preservation was obtained by using amber glass bottles, unfiltered solutions buffered at pH 6, transported without ice, stored at 4 °C and analysed within 48 h. The recovery was 94% to 100%. The sample purification step had a pre-concentration factor of 250, and the recovery percentages of the entire method were 85 ± 2 (PTA) and 91 ± 3 (PtB). The limits of detection (LOD) of the full method were 0.001 µg L−1 and 0.0001 µg L−1 for PTA and PtB, respectively. The method enables sensitive monitoring of PTA and PtB in groundwater. Carcinogenic PTA was detected in one groundwater well (0.35 µg L−1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants (ECs) in Water)
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Review

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Review
Finding Nano: Challenges Involved in Monitoring the Presence and Fate of Engineered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Aquatic Environments
Water 2021, 13(5), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050734 - 08 Mar 2021
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Abstract
In recent years, titanium dioxide (TiO2) has increasingly been used as an inorganic ultraviolet (UV) filter for sun protection. However, nano-TiO2 may also pose risks to the health of humans and the environment. Thus, to adequately assess its potential adverse [...] Read more.
In recent years, titanium dioxide (TiO2) has increasingly been used as an inorganic ultraviolet (UV) filter for sun protection. However, nano-TiO2 may also pose risks to the health of humans and the environment. Thus, to adequately assess its potential adverse effects, a comprehensive understanding of the behaviour and fate of TiO2 in different environments is crucial. Advances in analytical and modelling methods continue to improve researchers’ ability to quantify and determine the state of nano-TiO2 in various environments. However, due to the complexity of environmental and nanoparticle factors and their interplay, this remains a challenging and poorly resolved feat. This paper aims to provide a focused summary of key particle and environmental characteristics that influence the behaviour and fate of sunscreen-derived TiO2 in swimming pool water and natural aquatic environments and to review the current state-of-the-art of single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) approaches to detect and characterise TiO2 nanoparticles in aqueous media. Furthermore, it critically analyses the capability of existing fate and transport models to predict environmental TiO2 levels. Four particle and environmental key factors that govern the fate and behaviour of TiO2 in aqueous environments are identified. A comparison of SP-ICP-MS studies reveals that it remains challenging to detect and characterise engineered TiO2 nanoparticles in various matrices and highlights the need for the development of new SP-ICP-MS pre-treatment and analysis approaches. This review shows that modelling studies are an essential addition to experimental studies, but they still lack in spatial and temporal resolution and mostly exclude surface transformation processes. Finally, this study identifies the use of Bayesian Network-based models as an underexplored but promising modelling tool to overcome data uncertainties and incorporates interconnected variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants (ECs) in Water)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Rapid Thermal Assisted Nanocrystal Engineering of Heterojunction Photocatalyst of p-Cu2O/n-TiO2 for degradation of Organic Pollutants
Authors: Negar Dasineh Khiavi; reza katal; Teo Ying Shen; Iman Jafari; Saeid Masudy panah; Jiangyong Hu
Affiliation: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576, Singapore
Abstract: Poor photocatalytic activity and driven by the ultraviolet (UV) light are the main limiting factors of Cu2O and TiO2 photocatalysts, respectively. In this paper, a highly efficient visible-light-driven heterojunction photocatalyst of p-Cu2O/n-TiO2 was developed for photodegradation of organic pollutants by nanocrystal engineering of Cu2O and TiO2 layers. Nanocrystal engineering was performed by rapid thermal treatment (RTT) of fabricated p-Cu2O/n-TiO2 photocatalyst at different temperatures. Impact of RTT on the crystal quality, material chemistry, and photocatalytic activity of the prepared photocatalyst was investigated in detail by using XRD, optical spectroscopy, AFM, and IPCE analysis. It is shown that annealing at higher temperatures could significantly affect the crystallinity, surface morphology and interface properties between Cu2O and TiO2 and hence drastically impact the photocatalytic degradation characteristics of the fabricated photocatalyst.

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