Special Issue "Water Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Ecosystems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mirjam Blokker
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Groningenhaven 7, 3433 PE Nieuwegein, the Netherlands
Tel. +31 30 6069533
Interests: water quality; drinking water distribution systems; drinking water demand; discoloration; self-cleaning networks; network design; water age; QMRA; biofilm
Dr. Joost Van Summeren
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Groningenhaven 7, 3433 PE Nieuwegein, the Netherlands
Interests: water quality; drinking water distribution systems: discoloration; sensor placement; soft sensors; experimental setup design
Dr. Vanessa Speight
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Sheffield, UK
Tel. +44 (0) 114 222 0259
Interests: water quality; drinking water distribution systems; chlorination; QMRA; life cycle energy analysis; water reuse

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Safe drinking water is paramount for the health and wellbeing of all populations. Water is extracted from surface and groundwater sources and treated to comply with drinking water standards. The water is then circulated through the drinking water distribution system (DWDS). During travel within the DWDS, water quality can deteriorate due to microbiological growth, chemical reactions, interactions with ageing and deteriorating infrastructure, and through maintenance and repair activities. Some DWDS actions may serve to improve water quality, however, these can also adversely impact the drinking water system and cause instances of poor water quality or disease outbreaks. 

We invite papers to examine DWDS design and operational practices and their impact on water quality. A wide range of water quality aspects are of interest, such as discoloration, water age, chlorination, biofilm, (fecal) contamination, etc. We welcome papers based on practical research in real DWDS and lab test facilities. We also welcome papers on novel modeling approaches.

Dr. Mirjam Blokker
Dr. Joost van Summeren
Dr. Vanessa Speight
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Water quality
  • Drinking Water Distribution Systems
  • chlorination
  • discoloration
  • infection risk
  • biofilm
  • contamination
  • water age
  • cleaning

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Mapping Dynamics of Bacterial Communities in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System Using Flow Cytometry
Water 2019, 11(10), 2137; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102137 - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
Microbial monitoring of drinking water is required to guarantee high quality water and to mitigate health hazards. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast and robust method that determines bacterial concentrations in liquids. In this study, FCM was applied to monitor the dynamics of [...] Read more.
Microbial monitoring of drinking water is required to guarantee high quality water and to mitigate health hazards. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast and robust method that determines bacterial concentrations in liquids. In this study, FCM was applied to monitor the dynamics of the bacterial communities over one year in a full-scale drinking water distribution system (DWDS), following implementation of ultrafiltration (UF) combined with coagulation at the drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). Correlations between the environmental conditions in the DWDS and microbial regrowth were observed, including increases in total cell counts with increasing retention time (correlation coefficient R = 0.89) and increasing water temperature (up to 5.24-fold increase in cell counts during summer). Temporal and spatial biofilm dynamics affecting the water within the DWDS were also observed, such as changes in the percentage of high nucleic acid bacteria with increasing retention time (correlation coefficient R = −0.79). FCM baselines were defined for specific areas in the DWDS to support future management strategies in this DWDS, including a gradual reduction of chloramine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of the Quality of Tap Water and the Properties of Installation Materials on the Formation of Biofilms
Water 2019, 11(9), 1903; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11091903 - 12 Sep 2019
Abstract
The article presents changes in the quality of tap water depending on time spent in installation and its impact on the creation of biofilms on various materials (polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), chrome-nickel steel and galvanized steel). For the first time, quantitative analyses [...] Read more.
The article presents changes in the quality of tap water depending on time spent in installation and its impact on the creation of biofilms on various materials (polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), chrome-nickel steel and galvanized steel). For the first time, quantitative analyses of biofilm were performed using methods such as: Adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP) measurement, flow cytometry, heterotrophic plate count and using fractographical parameters. In the water, after leaving the experimental installation, the increase of turbidity, content of organic compounds, nitrites and nitrates was found, as well as the decrease in the content of chlorine compounds, dissolved oxygen and phosphorus compounds. There was an increase in the number of mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria. In addition, the presence of Escherichia coli was also found. The analysis of the quantitative determination of microorganisms in a biofilm indicates that galvanized steel is the most susceptible material for the adhesion of microorganisms. These results were also confirmed by the analysis of the biofilm morphology. The roughness profile, the thickness of the biofilm layer can be estimated at about 300 μm on galvanized steel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Nodal Infection Risks to Guide Interventions Following Accidental Intrusion due to Sustained Low Pressure Events in a Drinking Water Distribution System
Water 2019, 11(7), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071372 - 03 Jul 2019
Abstract
Improving the risk models to include the possible infection risk linked to pathogen intrusion into distribution systems during pressure-deficient conditions (PDCs) is essential. The objective of the present study was to assess the public health impact of accidental intrusion through leakage points in [...] Read more.
Improving the risk models to include the possible infection risk linked to pathogen intrusion into distribution systems during pressure-deficient conditions (PDCs) is essential. The objective of the present study was to assess the public health impact of accidental intrusion through leakage points in a full-scale water distribution system by coupling a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model with water quality calculations based on pressure-driven hydraulic analysis. The impacts on the infection risk of different concentrations of Cryptosporidium in raw sewage (minimum, geometric mean, mean, and maximum) and various durations of intrusion/PDCs (24 h, 10 h, and 1 h) were investigated. For each scenario, 200 runs of Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to assess the uncertainty associated with the consumers’ behavioral variability. By increasing the concentrations of Cryptosporidium in raw sewage from 1 to 560 oocysts/L for a 24-h intrusion, or by increasing the duration of intrusion from 1 to 24 h, with a constant concentration (560 oocysts/L), the simulated number of infected people was increased by 235-fold and 17-fold, respectively. On the first day of the 1-h PDCs/intrusion scenario, a 65% decrease in the number of infected people was observed when supposing no drinking water withdrawals during low-pressure conditions at nodes with low demand available (<5%) compared to no demand. Besides assessing the event risk for an intrusion scenario, defined as four days of observation, the daily number of infected people and nodal risk were also modeled on different days, including during and after intrusion days. The results indicate that, for the case of a 1-h intrusion, delaying the start of the necessary preventive/corrective actions for 5 h after the beginning of the intrusion may result in the infection of up to 71 people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Efficacy of Flushing and Chlorination in Removing Microorganisms from a Pilot Drinking Water Distribution System
Water 2019, 11(5), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050903 - 29 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
To ensure delivery of microbiologically safe drinking water, the physical integrity of the distribution system is an important control measure. During repair works or an incident the drinking water pipe is open and microbiologically contaminated water or soil may enter. Before taking the [...] Read more.
To ensure delivery of microbiologically safe drinking water, the physical integrity of the distribution system is an important control measure. During repair works or an incident the drinking water pipe is open and microbiologically contaminated water or soil may enter. Before taking the pipe back into service it must be cleaned. The efficacy of flushing and shock chlorination was tested using a model pipe-loop system with a natural or cultured biofilm to which a microbial contamination (Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens spores and phiX174) was added. On average, flushing removed 1.5–2.7 log microorganisms from the water, but not the biofilm. In addition, sand added to the system was not completely removed. Flushing velocity (0.3 or 1.5 m/s) did not affect the efficacy. Shock chlorination (10 mg/L, 1–24 h) was very effective against E. coli and phiX174, but C. perfringens spores were partly resistant. Chlorination was slightly more effective in pipes with a natural compared to a cultured biofilm. Flushing alone is thus not sufficient after high risk repair works or incidents, and shock chlorination should be considered to remove microorganisms to ensure microbiologically safe drinking water. Prevention via hygienic working procedures, localizing and isolating the contamination source and issuing boil water advisories remain important, especially during confirmed contamination events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Migration and Transformation of Ofloxacin by Free Chlorine in Water Distribution System
Water 2019, 11(4), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040817 - 19 Apr 2019
Abstract
This study investigated the degradation kinetics and product generation of ofloxacin (OFL) in the pipe network under different pipe materials, flow rate, pH, free chlorine concentration and temperature. The experiments done in the beaker and pipe network were compared. The results showed that [...] Read more.
This study investigated the degradation kinetics and product generation of ofloxacin (OFL) in the pipe network under different pipe materials, flow rate, pH, free chlorine concentration and temperature. The experiments done in the beaker and pipe network were compared. The results showed that the reaction rate of OFL chlorination with free chlorine increased with the increase of the free chlorine concentration in the pipe network and deionized water, and the degradation efficiency of OFL in the pipe network was higher than that in the deionized water, satisfying the second-order dynamics model. The degradation rate under different pHs was: neutral > acidic > alkaline. The influence of the flow rate is not significant while the influence of the pipe materials and temperature is obvious. The degradation rate of OFL increased with the increase of the temperature, indicating that the OFL degradation was an endothermic process. A liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS) was used to detect the chlorination intermediates, and the results showed that the piperazine ring was the main group involved in the chlorination reaction, and the main point involved in the chlorination reaction was the N4 atom on the piperazine ring. We also found that, as the reaction time increases, the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) increase and THMs mainly exist in the form of trichloromethane (TCM) while HAAs mainly exist in the form of monochloroacetic acid (MCAA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems)
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