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Special Issue "Water Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Ecosystems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Mirjam Blokker

KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Groningenhaven 7, 3433 PE Nieuwegein, the Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +31 30 6069533
Interests: water quality; drinking water distribution systems; drinking water demand; discoloration; self-cleaning networks; network design; water age; QMRA; biofilm
Guest Editor
Dr. Joost Van Summeren

KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Groningenhaven 7, 3433 PE Nieuwegein, the Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Interests: water quality; drinking water distribution systems: discoloration; sensor placement; soft sensors; experimental setup design
Guest Editor
Dr. Vanessa Speight

University of Sheffield, UK
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +44 (0) 114 222 0259
Interests: water quality; drinking water distribution systems; chlorination; QMRA; life cycle energy analysis; water reuse

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Safe drinking water is paramount for the health and wellbeing of all populations. Water is extracted from surface and groundwater sources and treated to comply with drinking water standards. The water is then circulated through the drinking water distribution system (DWDS). During travel within the DWDS, water quality can deteriorate due to microbiological growth, chemical reactions, interactions with ageing and deteriorating infrastructure, and through maintenance and repair activities. Some DWDS actions may serve to improve water quality, however, these can also adversely impact the drinking water system and cause instances of poor water quality or disease outbreaks. 

We invite papers to examine DWDS design and operational practices and their impact on water quality. A wide range of water quality aspects are of interest, such as discoloration, water age, chlorination, biofilm, (fecal) contamination, etc. We welcome papers based on practical research in real DWDS and lab test facilities. We also welcome papers on novel modeling approaches.

Dr. Mirjam Blokker
Dr. Joost van Summeren
Dr. Vanessa Speight
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Water quality
  • Drinking Water Distribution Systems
  • chlorination
  • discoloration
  • infection risk
  • biofilm
  • contamination
  • water age
  • cleaning

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Efficacy of Flushing and Chlorination in Removing Microorganisms from a Pilot Drinking Water Distribution System
Water 2019, 11(5), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050903
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 29 April 2019
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Abstract
To ensure delivery of microbiologically safe drinking water, the physical integrity of the distribution system is an important control measure. During repair works or an incident the drinking water pipe is open and microbiologically contaminated water or soil may enter. Before taking the [...] Read more.
To ensure delivery of microbiologically safe drinking water, the physical integrity of the distribution system is an important control measure. During repair works or an incident the drinking water pipe is open and microbiologically contaminated water or soil may enter. Before taking the pipe back into service it must be cleaned. The efficacy of flushing and shock chlorination was tested using a model pipe-loop system with a natural or cultured biofilm to which a microbial contamination (Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens spores and phiX174) was added. On average, flushing removed 1.5–2.7 log microorganisms from the water, but not the biofilm. In addition, sand added to the system was not completely removed. Flushing velocity (0.3 or 1.5 m/s) did not affect the efficacy. Shock chlorination (10 mg/L, 1–24 h) was very effective against E. coli and phiX174, but C. perfringens spores were partly resistant. Chlorination was slightly more effective in pipes with a natural compared to a cultured biofilm. Flushing alone is thus not sufficient after high risk repair works or incidents, and shock chlorination should be considered to remove microorganisms to ensure microbiologically safe drinking water. Prevention via hygienic working procedures, localizing and isolating the contamination source and issuing boil water advisories remain important, especially during confirmed contamination events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Migration and Transformation of Ofloxacin by Free Chlorine in Water Distribution System
Water 2019, 11(4), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040817
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 16 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
This study investigated the degradation kinetics and product generation of ofloxacin (OFL) in the pipe network under different pipe materials, flow rate, pH, free chlorine concentration and temperature. The experiments done in the beaker and pipe network were compared. The results showed that [...] Read more.
This study investigated the degradation kinetics and product generation of ofloxacin (OFL) in the pipe network under different pipe materials, flow rate, pH, free chlorine concentration and temperature. The experiments done in the beaker and pipe network were compared. The results showed that the reaction rate of OFL chlorination with free chlorine increased with the increase of the free chlorine concentration in the pipe network and deionized water, and the degradation efficiency of OFL in the pipe network was higher than that in the deionized water, satisfying the second-order dynamics model. The degradation rate under different pHs was: neutral > acidic > alkaline. The influence of the flow rate is not significant while the influence of the pipe materials and temperature is obvious. The degradation rate of OFL increased with the increase of the temperature, indicating that the OFL degradation was an endothermic process. A liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer (LC-MS) was used to detect the chlorination intermediates, and the results showed that the piperazine ring was the main group involved in the chlorination reaction, and the main point involved in the chlorination reaction was the N4 atom on the piperazine ring. We also found that, as the reaction time increases, the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) increase and THMs mainly exist in the form of trichloromethane (TCM) while HAAs mainly exist in the form of monochloroacetic acid (MCAA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems)
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