Special Issue "Climate-Water-Ecosystem-Interaction"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Water Quality and Ecosystems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Franco Salerno
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Water Research Institute, National Research Counsil (CNR-IRSA), Brugherio (MB), Italy
Interests: environment; sustainable development; climate change; environmental impact assessment; climatology; geochemistry; biogeochemistry; hydrology; water quality; lakes; precipitation cartography; remote sensing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Diego Copetti
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Water Research Institute, National Research Council (CNR-IRSA), Brugherio (MB), Italy
Interests: applied ecology; water quality; biogeochemistry; environmental monitoring and modelling; management of water resources; sustainability; ecosystem services

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The interaction between fresh water ecosystems and climate is rapidly changing because of the impact of incoming climate changes. Clear evidence of these impacts are available for the thermal regime of lakes and rivers, for the glacier ice cover and for the distribution of precipitation and runoff just to mention the most important ones. These modifications directly influence the quality and availability of the water resource. Impact on the biogeochemical cycles, on the food web and on the productivity of water ecosystems have been also documented.

The aim of this Special Issue of Water is to present contribution in the broad field of water resources and climate interactions including both the effects on water quantity and quality. Authors are stimulated to present advanced integrated research to forecast, control and manage climate related impact on the water resources with particular respect to the provision ecosystem services. Contribution focused on natural or urban/anthropized systems are both welcome. The integration of natural sciences with economic and social sciences is also very much appreciated.

Dr. Franco Salerno
Dr. Copetti Diego
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • global change
  • freshwater ecosystem
  • climate change
  • ecological health
  • water quality
  • freshwater organism
  • fish habitat
  • biodiversity
  • ecosystem services
  • biotic interactions
  • resilience
  • ecosystem functioning
  • food webs

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Responses of Phytoplankton Communities in Selected Eutrophic Lakes to Variable Weather Conditions
Water 2019, 11(6), 1207; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061207 - 10 Jun 2019
Abstract
It is well-known that recent climatic changes have strongly affected aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we examined the complex factors determining the development of phytoplankton communities during the vegetative growth season in eutrophic lakes located in a temperate zone in eastern Poland. Our [...] Read more.
It is well-known that recent climatic changes have strongly affected aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we examined the complex factors determining the development of phytoplankton communities during the vegetative growth season in eutrophic lakes located in a temperate zone in eastern Poland. Our analysis enabled us to divide the data into two different periods: years with a cold winter and low total precipitation, and those with a mild winter and high total precipitation. The analysis showed that the soluble and total nitrogen content, concentration of chlorophyll a, total phytoplankton biomass, and biomasses of Cyanobacteria and Cryptophyceae were significantly higher in the vegetative growth season in the year after a mild winter, whereas the soluble and total phosphorus content and phytoplankton biodiversity were significantly lower in these years. Hence, climate warming indirectly led to the loss of biodiversity in the phytoplankton communities in the studied lakes of temperate zone. During this study, we also tested the effects of increases in air temperature and total precipitation on phytoplankton communities over short time periods (14 and 28 days). The results showed that the total phytoplankton biomass and the chlorophyll a concentration were only positively correlated with the air temperature. All of the features described in this study showed how sensitive lake ecosystems are to climatic fluctuations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate-Water-Ecosystem-Interaction)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Extended-Range Runoff Forecasting Using a One-Way Coupled Climate–Hydrological Model: Case Studies of the Yiluo and Beijiang Rivers in China
Water 2019, 11(6), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061150 - 31 May 2019
Abstract
Extended-range runoff forecasting is important for water resources management and energy planning. Experimental extended-range runoff was hindcasted, based on an extended-range climate model, developed by National Climate Center of the China Meteorological Administration, and semi-distributed hydrological model HBV-D. The skill of the runoff [...] Read more.
Extended-range runoff forecasting is important for water resources management and energy planning. Experimental extended-range runoff was hindcasted, based on an extended-range climate model, developed by National Climate Center of the China Meteorological Administration, and semi-distributed hydrological model HBV-D. The skill of the runoff forecasts was explored using mean square skill score (MSSS), anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC), and areas under the relative operating characteristics curve (AUC) for three terciles for three experimental 51-day periods during flood season (June 1 to July 21, July 1 to August 20 and August 1 to September 20) for two rivers in China. The results revealed decreasing trends of the five indices, and varying length of the continuous longest skilful time slice from 3 days to 6 weeks depending on index, period and river location. In most cases, skilful abnormal terciles forecast occurred more often or with similar frequency to deterministic forecasts. It suggests that ensemble probability forecasting is a method with potential for extended-range river runoff forecast. Further, abnormal terciles are more skillful than normal terciles, and above normal are more skillful than below normal. In terms of a temporal mean of the MSSS and ACC, deterministic forecasts are skillful for both rivers in all three periods, but more skillful for the Beijiang River than for the Yiluo River in most cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate-Water-Ecosystem-Interaction)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Application of the Simple Biosphere Model 2 (SiB2) with Irrigation Module to a Typical Low-Hilly Red Soil Farmland and the Sensitivity Analysis of Modeled Energy Fluxes in Southern China
Water 2019, 11(6), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061128 - 29 May 2019
Abstract
Land surface processes are an important part of the Earth’s mass and energy cycles. The application of a land surface process model for farmland in the low-hilly red soil region of southern China continues to draw research attention. Conventional model does not perform [...] Read more.
Land surface processes are an important part of the Earth’s mass and energy cycles. The application of a land surface process model for farmland in the low-hilly red soil region of southern China continues to draw research attention. Conventional model does not perform well in the simulation of irrigated farmland, because the influence of land surface water is not considered. In this study, an off-line version of the Simple Biosphere model 2 (SiB2) was locally parameterized in a typical farmland of the low-hilly red soil region using field observations and remote sensing data. The performance of SiB2 was then evaluated through comparison to Bowen-ratio direct measurements in a second growing period of rice in 2015 (late rice from 23 July to 31 October). The results show that SiB2 underestimated latent heat flux (LE) by 16.0% and overestimated sensible heat flux (H) by 16.7%, but net radiation flux (Rn) and soil heat flux were reasonably simulated. The single factor sensitivity analysis of Rn, H, and LE modeled in SiB2 indicated that downward shortwave radiation (DSR) and downward longwave radiation (DLR) had a significant effect on Rn simulation. In driving data, DSR, DLR and wind speed (u) were the main factors that could cause a distinct change in sensible heat flux. An irrigation module was added to the original SiB2 model to simulate the influence of irrigated paddy fields according to the sensitivity analysis results of the parameters (C1, bulk boundary-layer resistance coefficient; C2, ground to canopy air-space resistance coefficient; and Ws, volumetric water content at soil surface layer). The results indicate that application of the parameterized SiB2 with irrigation module could be better in southern Chinese farmland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate-Water-Ecosystem-Interaction)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Production of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) in Laboratory Cultures of Arctic Sea Ice Algae
Water 2019, 11(5), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11050926 - 01 May 2019
Abstract
Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is highly enriched in bottom sea ice in the Arctic during ice algal blooms, giving rise to multifaceted ecological implications in both the sea ice and the underlying seawater. We conducted laboratory culture incubations to assess the potential [...] Read more.
Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is highly enriched in bottom sea ice in the Arctic during ice algal blooms, giving rise to multifaceted ecological implications in both the sea ice and the underlying seawater. We conducted laboratory culture incubations to assess the potential role of ice algae in the accumulation of CDOM in Arctic sea ice. Non-axenic monocultures of Attheya septentrionalis and Nitzschia frigida and a natural ice algal assemblage (NIAA) were grown at 4 °C in an f/2 medium under cool white fluorescent light. Culture samples were collected several days apart throughout the exponential, stationary, and senescent phases, and analyzed for CDOM absorbance, chlorophyll a, and bacterial cell abundance. The cultures displayed apparent specific growth rates of algal and bacterial cells comparable to those in the field. Accumulations of CDOM were observed in all cultures during the time-course incubations, with the senescent phase showing the largest accumulations and the highest production rates. The senescent-phase production rate for NIAA was ~40% higher than that for A. septentrionalis. The chlorophyll a-normalized CDOM production rates in the cultures are comparable to those reported for Arctic first-year sea ice. The absorption spectra of CDOM in the cultures exhibited characteristic short-ultraviolet shoulders similar to those previously identified in sea ice. This study demonstrates that ice algal-derived CDOM can account for the springtime accumulation of CDOM in Arctic sea ice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate-Water-Ecosystem-Interaction)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Water Environment Variation in the Three Gorges Tributary and Its Influencing Factors on Different Scales
Water 2018, 10(12), 1831; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121831 - 12 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Long River is a small tributary typical of the Three Gorges Reservoir. In order to clarify the influence of hydro-meteorological factors and human regulation of the reservoir water level on the water environment, we monitored water environment parameters at six sites along Long [...] Read more.
Long River is a small tributary typical of the Three Gorges Reservoir. In order to clarify the influence of hydro-meteorological factors and human regulation of the reservoir water level on the water environment, we monitored water environment parameters at six sites along Long River for three years, and were able to assess the degree to which variation in the water environment was affected from the micro-scale to macro-scale processes. We found that the water environment parameters have obvious seasonal variation and spatial distribution patterns. From upstream to the estuary, the influence of the backwater was gradually enhanced, whereas the influence of inflow gradually weakened. The distance coefficient between the samples in the backwater area and control sites in the upstream and the Yangtze River had a significant longitudinal gradient pattern (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Through redundancy analysis (RDA) forward selection, we found that cumulative precipitation, water level, cumulative net radiation, daily average temperature, daily net radiation, and daily precipitation all had significant influences on the water environment of the Long River (global permutation test, p < 0.05). The perennial backwater area was mostly affected by water level fluctuations (explaining 39.9% of data variation), whereas the fluctuation backwater area and the upstream inflow area were most affected by cumulative precipitation (explaining 42.9% and 44.0% of data variation, respectively). On the macroscale, the contribution rate of monthly change to the variation of water environment variables reached 54.9%, and the contribution rate of geographical change to the variation of water environment variables was only 7.2%, indicating that the water environment of Long River was mainly affected by exogenous input factors driven by the monsoon climate. Furthermore, we showed that the spatial interpolation method combined with the distance coefficient can easily and efficiently describe the complicated dynamic influences of the upstream inflow and the Yangtze River backwater on the water environment in the Long River bay. The conclusions are helpful in explaining the driving mechanisms of the water environment in the tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir, which can provide reference for water environmental protection and management in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate-Water-Ecosystem-Interaction)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Environmental Factors and the Microbial Quality of Urban Drinking Water in a Low-Income Country: The Case of Madagascar
Water 2018, 10(10), 1450; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101450 - 15 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Access to piped water is often limited to urban areas in low-income countries, and the microbiological quality of drinking water varies due to technical and environmental constraints. To analyse the parameters that modulate the contamination of these systems, this study examines 16 years [...] Read more.
Access to piped water is often limited to urban areas in low-income countries, and the microbiological quality of drinking water varies due to technical and environmental constraints. To analyse the parameters that modulate the contamination of these systems, this study examines 16 years of microbial quality data for water supplied in 32 urban areas of Madagascar. A discriminant statistical approach and agglomerative hierarchical clusters were applied to environmental and climatic data. The microbial contamination varied between sites from 3.3 to 17.5%, and 78% of the supply systems showed large variations between years or months. Agglomerative hierarchical clusters (AHCs) revealed four supply system profiles that share a similar bacteriological evolution. Heavy rainfall and dry periods sustained increasing contamination, as reflected in levels of spores of sulphite-reducing clostridia (SSRC) and/or total coliforms (TC). SSRC were dominant in three profiles, with faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) dominant in the other. Principal component analysis demonstrated the main drivers of contamination: type of water source, implemented treatment, location of the site, population growth, lack of protection, agriculture, urbanization/sanitation, and flooding threats. Contamination increased over the 16-year period, reaching alarming levels. The protection of water sources should be a concern for public authorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate-Water-Ecosystem-Interaction)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
N2O Fluxes and Rates of Nitrification and Denitrification at the Sediment–Water Interface in Taihu Lake, China
Water 2018, 10(7), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10070911 - 10 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Because of global concerns regarding pollution and eutrophication in fresh water, China’s Taihu Lake has gained attention both for these issues and as a source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. In this study, we investigated N2O fluxes and nitrification [...] Read more.
Because of global concerns regarding pollution and eutrophication in fresh water, China’s Taihu Lake has gained attention both for these issues and as a source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. In this study, we investigated N2O fluxes and nitrification and denitrification rates at the sediment–water interface and analyzed monthly the relationships between these processes in different areas of Taihu Lake over a one-year period. Annual maximum nitrification and denitrification rate and N2O flux were observed during June in an algae-dominated area of the lake and measured 17.80, 235.51, and 31.49 µmol N m−2 h−1, respectively. The nitrification rate ranged from 0 to 1.18 µmol N m−2 h−1 at other sampling sites, with less variation. The denitrification rate showed clear seasonal variation, with lower levels between August and January (0.01–8.57 µmol N m−2 h−1; average = 1.49 µmol N m−2 h−1) and a rapid increase between February and July (1.03–235.51 µmol N m−2 h−1; average = 41.73 µmol N m−2 h−1).The N2O flux ranged from −0.64 to 1.5 µmol N m−2 h−1, with little variability except for a much higher rate (31.49 µmol N m−2 h−1) in June in algae-dominated areas. N2O flux was significantly positively correlated with nitrification and denitrification rates in most lake zones. By comparing the slopes of the regression equations, we found that N2O emissions from the sediment–water interface were influenced predominantly by nitrification, suggesting that lower N2O fluxes from the sediment–water interface in Taihu Lake are caused primarily by lower nitrification rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate-Water-Ecosystem-Interaction)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Stakeholder Oriented Modelling Framework for the Early Detection of Shortage in Water Supply Systems
Water 2018, 10(6), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10060762 - 11 Jun 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Management of water supply systems under shortage conditions due to drought requires computational tools able to relate the past precipitation regime over different time scales to future water resources availability. This work proposes a modelling framework to address the occurrence of shortage for [...] Read more.
Management of water supply systems under shortage conditions due to drought requires computational tools able to relate the past precipitation regime over different time scales to future water resources availability. This work proposes a modelling framework to address the occurrence of shortage for water supply systems whose resource is constituted by natural or artificial reservoirs. The proposed methodology aims at identifying “management triggers” for possible mitigation measures. Emphasis is given on the use of standardized indices to promote information sharing. The implemented tool is structured into five modules: “hydrological” module; “scenarios” module; “reservoir” module; a module for the evaluation of “indices of shortage”; and a “support to early-warning” module. The whole procedure has been applied to three Italian reservoirs. For each water body, a case specific shortage early-warning system, based on standardized precipitation indices has been identified, allowing the implementation of efficient local mitigation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate-Water-Ecosystem-Interaction)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Rice Intensification in a Changing Environment: Impact on Water Availability in Inland Valley Landscapes in Benin
Water 2018, 10(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10010074 - 15 Jan 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
This study assesses the impact of climate change on hydrological processes under rice intensification in three headwater inland valley watersheds characterized by different land conditions. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to simulate the combined impacts of two land use scenarios [...] Read more.
This study assesses the impact of climate change on hydrological processes under rice intensification in three headwater inland valley watersheds characterized by different land conditions. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to simulate the combined impacts of two land use scenarios defined as converting 25% and 75% of lowland savannah into rice cultivation, and two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. The simulations were performed based on the traditional and the rainfed-bunded rice cultivation systems and analyzed up to the year 2049 with a special focus on the period of 2030–2049. Compared to land use, climate change impact on hydrological processes was overwhelming at all watersheds. The watersheds with a high portion of cultivated areas are more sensitive to changes in climate resulting in a decrease of water yield of up to 50% (145 mm). Bunded fields cause a rise in surface runoff projected to be up to 28% (18 mm) in their lowlands, while processes were insignificantly affected at the vegetation dominated-watershed. Analyzing three watersheds instead of one as is usually done provides further insight into the natural variability and therefore gives more evidence of possible future processes and management strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate-Water-Ecosystem-Interaction)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop