Special Issue "Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021) | Viewed by 13346

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Special Issue Editors

Dr. Marco S. Lucas
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Guest Editor
Vila Real Chemistry Center, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: advanced oxidation processes; biological treatments; environmental chemistry; emerging chemical contaminants; inactivation of pathogens; water reuse and circular economy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. José A. Peres
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Centre – Vila Real, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: environmental engineering; wastewater treatment; advanced oxidation processes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Gianluca Li Puma
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Epinal Way, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK
Interests: advanced functional nanomaterials and photocatalysts; water detoxification reuse and disinfection; process intensification and photoreaction engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increasing demand for clean and safe water represents a major challenge for public health and economic development. Water scarcity, disinfection, the elimination of emerging contaminants, and the growing need for water reuse allied to the limited treatment capacity of conventional wastewater plants are major challenges that need to be properly addressed.

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for water and wastewater treatment have received a great deal of attention in recent years. These processes are known for their capacity to mineralize a wide range of pollutants into CO2 and H2O. This Special Issue of Water is dedicated to the use of AOPs as an effective solution for the treatment (or a polishing step) of drinking water or urban/industrial wastewater treatment.

Within this context, we would like to invite you to contribute to this Issue and to disseminate and share findings on water and wastewater treatment.

Dr. Marco S. Lucas
Prof. Dr. José Alcides Peres
Prof. Dr. Gianluca Li Puma
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

Diverse topics related to AOPs will be covered, including but not limited to:

  • advanced oxidation processes
  • industrial wastewater treatment
  • processes integration
  • wastewater detoxification
  • water reuse
  • emerging contaminants
  • inactivation of pathogens
  • water reuse
  • circular economy
  • persistent organic pollutants

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Editorial
Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment
Water 2021, 13(9), 1309; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13091309 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
Technical and scientific developments have facilitated an increase in human life expectancy and quality, which is reflected in a large growth of global population [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)

Research

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Article
Erythromycin Abatement from Water by Electro-Fenton and Peroxyelectrocoagulation Treatments
Water 2021, 13(8), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13081129 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
Electro-Fenton (EF) and peroxyelectrocoagulation (PEC) processes were investigated to mineralize 10 mg L−1 erythromycin from ultrapure water, evaluating the influence of the anode material (BDD and Fe), current density (janode) (5 mA cm−2 and 10 mA cm−2 [...] Read more.
Electro-Fenton (EF) and peroxyelectrocoagulation (PEC) processes were investigated to mineralize 10 mg L−1 erythromycin from ultrapure water, evaluating the influence of the anode material (BDD and Fe), current density (janode) (5 mA cm−2 and 10 mA cm−2), oxygen flowrate injected to the cathode (0.8 L min−1 O2 and 2.0 L min−1 O2) and pH (2.8, 5.0 and 7.0) on the process efficiency and the electricity costs. 70% mineralization was reached after applying 0.32 A h L−1 under the best operational conditions: PEC treatment at 5 mA cm−2, 2.0 L min−1 O2 and pH 2.8. The electricity consumption of the electrochemical cell under these conditions was approximately 0.3 kWh m−3. Early-stage intermediates produced from erythromycin degradation were identified and quantified throughout the treatment and a potential erythromycin degradation pathway was proposed. The most appropriate operational conditions tested with synthetic solutions were applied to treat a real effluent from the tertiary treatment of an urban wastewater treatment plant. All emerging compounds listed in the EU Decision 2018/840 (Watch List 2018) were determined before and after the PEC treatment. All listed pollutants were degraded below their quantification limit, except estrone and 17-α-ethinylestradiol which were 99% removed from water. Electricity consumption of the electrochemical cell was 0.4 kWh m−3. Whilst awaiting future results that demonstrate the innocuity of the generated byproducts, the results of this investigation (high removal yields for emerging pollutants together with the low electricity consumption of the cell) indicate the promising high potential of PEC treatment as a water treatment/remediation/regeneration technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
Heterogeneous Catalytic Ozonation of Aniline-Contaminated Waters: A Three-Phase Modelling Approach Using TiO2/GAC
Water 2020, 12(12), 3448; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123448 - 08 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
This work aims to study the sustainable catalytic ozonation of aniline promoted by granular active carbon (GAC) doped with TiO2. Aniline was selected as a model compound for the accelerator manufacturing industries used in the manufacture of rubber due to its [...] Read more.
This work aims to study the sustainable catalytic ozonation of aniline promoted by granular active carbon (GAC) doped with TiO2. Aniline was selected as a model compound for the accelerator manufacturing industries used in the manufacture of rubber due to its environmental impact, low biodegradability, and harmful genotoxic effects on human health. Based on the evolution of total organic carbon (TOC), aniline concentration measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), pH and ozone concentration in liquid and gas phase, and catalyst loading, a three-phase reaction system has been modelled. The proposed three-phase model related the ozone transfer parameters and the pseudo-first order kinetic constants through three coefficients that involve the adsorption process, oxidation in the liquid, and the solid catalyst. The interpretation of the kinetic constants of the process allowed the predominance of the mechanism of Langmuir–Hinshelwood or modified Eley–Rideal to be elucidated. Seven intermediate aromatic reaction products, representative of the direct action of ozone and the radical pathway, were identified and quantified, as well as precursors of the appearance of turbidity, with which two possible routes of degradation of aniline being proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
Effect of Zr Impregnation on Clay-Based Materials for H2O2-Assisted Photocatalytic Wet Oxidation of Winery Wastewater
Water 2020, 12(12), 3387; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123387 - 02 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 831
Abstract
UV-activated Zr-doped composites were successfully produced through the impregnation of Zr on the crystal lattice of different clay materials by a one-step route. Fixing the amount of Zr available for dopage (4%), the influence of different supports, submitted to different chemical treatments, on [...] Read more.
UV-activated Zr-doped composites were successfully produced through the impregnation of Zr on the crystal lattice of different clay materials by a one-step route. Fixing the amount of Zr available for dopage (4%), the influence of different supports, submitted to different chemical treatments, on the photocatalytic activity of the resulting Zr-doped pillared clay materials (PILC) was assessed. Both chemical characterization and structural characterization suggest that the immobilization of Zr on montmorillonite and PILC structures occurred through isomorphic substitution between Si and Zr in the tetrahedral sheet of the clay material. This structural change was demonstrated by significant modifications on Si-OH stretching vibrations (1016 cm−1, 1100 cm−1 and 1150 cm−1), and resulted in improved textural properties, with an increase in surface area from 8 m2/g (natural montmorillonite) to 107 m2/g after the pillaring process, and to 118 m2/g after the pillaring and Zr-doping processes ((Zr)Al-Cu-PILC). These materials were tested in the UV-photodegradation of agro-industrial wastewater (AIW), characterized by high concentrations of recalcitrant contaminants. After Zr-dopage on AlCu-PILC heterogeneous catalyst, the total organic carbon (TOC) removals of 8.9% and 10.4% were obtained through adsorption and 77% and 86% by photocatalytic oxidation, at pH 4 and 7, respectively. These results suggest a synergetic effect deriving from the combination of Zr and Cu on the photocatalytic degradation process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
Oxidation of Selected Trace Organic Compounds through the Combination of Inline Electro-Chlorination with UV Radiation (UV/ECl2) as Alternative AOP for Decentralized Drinking Water Treatment
Water 2020, 12(11), 3275; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113275 - 21 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
A large variety of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) to degrade trace organic compounds during water treatment have been studied on a lab scale in the past. This paper presents the combination of inline electrolytic chlorine generation (ECl2) with low pressure UV [...] Read more.
A large variety of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) to degrade trace organic compounds during water treatment have been studied on a lab scale in the past. This paper presents the combination of inline electrolytic chlorine generation (ECl2) with low pressure UV reactors (UV/ECl2) in order to allow the operation of a chlorine-based AOP without the need for any chlorine dosing. Lab studies showed that from a Free Available Chlorine (FAC) concentration range between 1 and 18 mg/L produced by ECl2 up to 84% can be photolyzed to form, among others, hydroxyl radicals (OH) with an UV energy input of 0.48 kWh/m3. This ratio could be increased to 97% by doubling the UV energy input to 0.96 kWh/m3 and was constant throughout the tested FAC range. Also the achieved radical yield of 64% did not change along the given FAC concentration range and no dependence between pH 6 and pH 8 could be found, largely simplifying the operation of a pilot scale system in drinking water treatment. Whereas with ECl2 alone only 5% of benzotriazoles could be degraded, the combination with UV improved the degradation to 89%. Similar results were achieved for 4-methylbenzotriazole, 5-methylbenzotriazole and iomeprol. Oxipurinol and gabapentin were readily degraded by ECl2 alone. The trihalomethanes values were maintained below the Germany drinking water standard of 50 µg/L, provided residual chlorine concentrations are kept within the permissible limits. The here presented treatment approach is promising for decentralized treatment application but requires further optimization in order to reduce its energy requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
Degradation of Ketamine and Methamphetamine by the UV/H2O2 System: Kinetics, Mechanisms and Comparison
Water 2020, 12(11), 2999; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12112999 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 915
Abstract
The illegal use and low biodegradability of psychoactive substances has led to their introduction to the natural water environment, causing potential harm to ecosystems and human health. This paper compared the reaction kinetics and degradation mechanisms of ketamine (KET) and methamphetamine (METH) by [...] Read more.
The illegal use and low biodegradability of psychoactive substances has led to their introduction to the natural water environment, causing potential harm to ecosystems and human health. This paper compared the reaction kinetics and degradation mechanisms of ketamine (KET) and methamphetamine (METH) by UV/H2O2. Results indicated that the degradation of KET and METH using UV or H2O2 alone was negligible. UV/H2O2 had a strong synergizing effect, which could effectively remove 99% of KET and METH (100 μg/L) within 120 and 60 min, respectively. Their degradation was fully consistent with pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics (R2 > 0.99). Based on competition kinetics, the rate constants of the hydroxyl radical with KET and METH were calculated to be 4.43 × 109 and 7.91 × 109 M−1·s−1, respectively. The apparent rate constants of KET and METH increased respectively from 0.001 to 0.027 and 0.049 min−1 with the initial H2O2 dosage ranging from 0 to 1000 μM at pH 7. Their degradation was significantly inhibited by HCO3, Cl, NO3 and humic acid, with Cl having relatively little effect on the degradation of KET. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify the reaction intermediates, based on which the possible degradation pathways were proposed. These promising results clearly demonstrated the potential of the UV/H2O2 process for the effective removal of KET and METH from contaminated wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
Heterogeneous Fenton-Like Catalytic Degradation of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid by Nano-Scale Zero-Valent Iron Assembled on Magnetite Nanoparticles
Water 2020, 12(10), 2909; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102909 - 18 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Fe0@Fe3O4 nanoparticles with dispersibility and stability better than single nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) were synthesized and combined with hydrogen peroxide to constitute a heterogeneous Fenton-like system, which was creatively applied in the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The [...] Read more.
Fe0@Fe3O4 nanoparticles with dispersibility and stability better than single nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) were synthesized and combined with hydrogen peroxide to constitute a heterogeneous Fenton-like system, which was creatively applied in the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The effects of different reaction conditions like pH, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, and catalyst dosage on the removal of 2,4-D were evaluated. The target pollutant was completely removed in 90min; nearly 66% of them could be mineralized, and the main intermediate product was 2,4-dichlorophenol. Synergistic effects between nZVI and Fe3O4 made the 2,4-D degradation efficiency in the Fe0@Fe3O4/H2O2 system greater than in either of them alone. More than a supporter, Fe3O4 could facilitate the degradation process by releasing ferrous and ferric ions from the inner structure. The reduction of 2,4-D was mainly attributed to hydroxyl radicals including surface-bound OH and free OH in solution and was dominated by the former. The possible mechanism of this Fe0@Fe3O4 activated Fenton-like system was proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
Removal Characteristics of Effluent Organic Matter (EfOM) in Pharmaceutical Tailwater by a Combined Coagulation and UV/O3 Process
Water 2020, 12(10), 2773; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102773 - 05 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 759
Abstract
A novel coagulation combined with UV/O3 process was employed to remove the effluent organic matter (EfOM) from a biotreated pharmaceutical wastewater for harmlessness. The removal behavior of EfOM by UV/O3 process was characterized by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) integrating two-dimensional correlation [...] Read more.
A novel coagulation combined with UV/O3 process was employed to remove the effluent organic matter (EfOM) from a biotreated pharmaceutical wastewater for harmlessness. The removal behavior of EfOM by UV/O3 process was characterized by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) integrating two-dimensional correlation (2D-COS) and principal component analysis (PCA) technology. The highest dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ratio of UV254 and DOC (SUVA) removal efficiency reached 55.8% and 68.7% by coagulation-UV/O3 process after 60 min oxidation, respectively. Five main components of pharmaceutical tail wastewater (PTW) were identified by SFS. Spectral analysis revealed that UV/O3 was selective for the removal of different fluorescent components, especially fulvic acid-like fluorescent (FLF) component and humus-like fluorescent (HLF) component. Synchronous fluorescence/UV-visible two-dimensional correlation spectra analysis showed that the degradation of organic matter occurred sequentially in the order of HLF, FLF, microbial humus-like fluorescence component (MHLF), tryptophan-like fluorescent component (TRLF), tyrosine-like fluorescent component (TYLF). The UV/O3 process removed 95.6% of HLF, 80.0% of FLF, 56.0% of TRLF, 50.8% of MHLF and 44.4% of TYLF. Therefore, the coagulation-UV/O3 process was proven to be an attractive way to reduce the environmental risks of PTW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
Comparing the Effects of Types of Electrode on the Removal of Multiple Pharmaceuticals from Water by Electrochemical Methods
Water 2020, 12(9), 2332; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092332 - 19 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1316
Abstract
Considering the lack of information on simultaneously removing multiple pharmaceuticals from water or wastewater by electrochemical methods, this study aimed to investigate the removal of multiple pharmaceuticals by electro-coagulation and electro-oxidation based on two types of electrodes (aluminum and graphite). The synthetic wastewater [...] Read more.
Considering the lack of information on simultaneously removing multiple pharmaceuticals from water or wastewater by electrochemical methods, this study aimed to investigate the removal of multiple pharmaceuticals by electro-coagulation and electro-oxidation based on two types of electrodes (aluminum and graphite). The synthetic wastewater contained a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (diclofenac), a sulfonamide antibiotic (sulfamethoxazole) and a β-blocker (atenolol). The pharmaceutical removal with electro-oxidation was much higher than those with the electro-coagulation process, which was obtained from a five-cell graphite electrode system, while the removal of pharmaceuticals with aluminum electrodes was about 20% (20 µM). In the electro-coagulation system, pharmaceutical removal was mainly influenced by the solubility or hydrophilicity of the compound. In the electro-oxidation system, the removal mechanism was influenced by the dissociation status of the compounds, which are attracted to the anode due to electrostatic forces and have a higher mass transformation rate with the electro-oxidation process. Therefore, atenolol, which was undissociated, cannot adequately be eliminated by electro-oxidation, unless the electrode’s surface is large enough to increase the mass diffusion rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
A Comparison of the Mechanism of TOC and COD Degradation in Rhodamine B Wastewater by a Recycling-Flow Two- and Three-dimensional Electro-Reactor System
Water 2020, 12(7), 1853; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071853 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1112
Abstract
Dye wastewater, as a kind of refractory wastewater (with a ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of less than 0.3), still needs advanced treatments in order to reach the discharge standard. In this work, the recycling-flow three-dimensional (3D) [...] Read more.
Dye wastewater, as a kind of refractory wastewater (with a ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of less than 0.3), still needs advanced treatments in order to reach the discharge standard. In this work, the recycling-flow three-dimensional (3D) electro-reactor system was designed for degrading synthetic rhodamine B (RhB) wastewater as dye wastewater (100 mg/L). After 180 min of degradation, the removal of total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of RhB wastewater were both approximately double the corresponding values in the recycling-flow two-dimensional (2D) electro-reactor system. Columnar granular activated carbon (CGAC), as micro-electrodes packed between anodic and cathodic electrodes in the recycling-flow 3D electro-reactor system, generated an obviously characteristic peak of anodic catalytic oxidation, increased the mass transfer rate and electrochemically active surface area (EASA) by 40%, and rapidly produced 1.52 times more hydroxyl radicals (·OH) on the surface of CGAC electrodes, in comparison to the recycling-flow 2D electro-reactor system. Additionally, the recycling-flow 3D electro-reactor system can maintain higher current efficiency (CE) and lower energy consumption (Es). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Review

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Review
Recent Trends in Removal Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products by Electrochemical Oxidation and Combined Systems
Water 2020, 12(4), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041043 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2158
Abstract
Due to various potential toxicological threats to living organisms even at low concentrations, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in natural water are seen as an emerging environmental issue. The low efficiency of removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products by conventional wastewater treatment [...] Read more.
Due to various potential toxicological threats to living organisms even at low concentrations, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in natural water are seen as an emerging environmental issue. The low efficiency of removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products by conventional wastewater treatment plants calls for more efficient technology. Research on advanced oxidation processes has recently become a hot topic as it has been shown that these technologies can effectively oxidize most organic contaminants to inorganic carbon through mineralization. Among the advanced oxidation processes, the electrochemical advanced oxidation processes and, in general, electrochemical oxidation or anodic oxidation have shown good prospects at the lab-scale for the elimination of contamination caused by the presence of residual pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aqueous systems. This paper reviewed the effectiveness of electrochemical oxidation in removing pharmaceuticals and personal care products from liquid solutions, alone or in combination with other treatment processes, in the last 10 years. Reactor designs and configurations, electrode materials, operational factors (initial concentration, supporting electrolytes, current density, temperature, pH, stirring rate, electrode spacing, and fluid velocity) were also investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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