Special Issue "Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Marco S. Lucas
Website
Guest Editor
Vila Real Chemistry Center, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: advanced oxidation processes; biological treatments; environmental chemistry; emerging chemical contaminants; inactivation of pathogens; water reuse and circular economy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. José A. Peres
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Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Chemistry Research Centre – Vila Real, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, UTAD, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: environmental engineering; wastewater treatment; advanced oxidation processes
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Gianluca Li Puma
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Epinal Way, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK
Interests: advanced functional nanomaterials and photocatalysts; water detoxification reuse and disinfection; process intensification and photoreaction engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increasing demand for clean and safe water represents a major challenge for public health and economic development. Water scarcity, disinfection, the elimination of emerging contaminants, and the growing need for water reuse allied to the limited treatment capacity of conventional wastewater plants are major challenges that need to be properly addressed.

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for water and wastewater treatment have received a great deal of attention in recent years. These processes are known for their capacity to mineralize a wide range of pollutants into CO2 and H2O. This Special Issue of Water is dedicated to the use of AOPs as an effective solution for the treatment (or a polishing step) of drinking water or urban/industrial wastewater treatment.

Within this context, we would like to invite you to contribute to this Issue and to disseminate and share findings on water and wastewater treatment.

Dr. Marco S. Lucas
Prof. Dr. José Alcides Peres
Prof. Dr. Gianluca Li Puma
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

Diverse topics related to AOPs will be covered, including but not limited to:

  • advanced oxidation processes
  • industrial wastewater treatment
  • processes integration
  • wastewater detoxification
  • water reuse
  • emerging contaminants
  • inactivation of pathogens
  • water reuse
  • circular economy
  • persistent organic pollutants

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Heterogeneous Fenton-Like Catalytic Degradation of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid by Nano-Scale Zero-Valent Iron Assembled on Magnetite Nanoparticles
Water 2020, 12(10), 2909; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102909 - 18 Oct 2020
Abstract
Fe0@Fe3O4 nanoparticles with dispersibility and stability better than single nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) were synthesized and combined with hydrogen peroxide to constitute a heterogeneous Fenton-like system, which was creatively applied in the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The [...] Read more.
Fe0@Fe3O4 nanoparticles with dispersibility and stability better than single nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) were synthesized and combined with hydrogen peroxide to constitute a heterogeneous Fenton-like system, which was creatively applied in the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The effects of different reaction conditions like pH, hydrogen peroxide concentration, temperature, and catalyst dosage on the removal of 2,4-D were evaluated. The target pollutant was completely removed in 90min; nearly 66% of them could be mineralized, and the main intermediate product was 2,4-dichlorophenol. Synergistic effects between nZVI and Fe3O4 made the 2,4-D degradation efficiency in the Fe0@Fe3O4/H2O2 system greater than in either of them alone. More than a supporter, Fe3O4 could facilitate the degradation process by releasing ferrous and ferric ions from the inner structure. The reduction of 2,4-D was mainly attributed to hydroxyl radicals including surface-bound OH and free OH in solution and was dominated by the former. The possible mechanism of this Fe0@Fe3O4 activated Fenton-like system was proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Removal Characteristics of Effluent Organic Matter (EfOM) in Pharmaceutical Tailwater by a Combined Coagulation and UV/O3 Process
Water 2020, 12(10), 2773; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102773 - 05 Oct 2020
Abstract
A novel coagulation combined with UV/O3 process was employed to remove the effluent organic matter (EfOM) from a biotreated pharmaceutical wastewater for harmlessness. The removal behavior of EfOM by UV/O3 process was characterized by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) integrating two-dimensional correlation [...] Read more.
A novel coagulation combined with UV/O3 process was employed to remove the effluent organic matter (EfOM) from a biotreated pharmaceutical wastewater for harmlessness. The removal behavior of EfOM by UV/O3 process was characterized by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) integrating two-dimensional correlation (2D-COS) and principal component analysis (PCA) technology. The highest dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ratio of UV254 and DOC (SUVA) removal efficiency reached 55.8% and 68.7% by coagulation-UV/O3 process after 60 min oxidation, respectively. Five main components of pharmaceutical tail wastewater (PTW) were identified by SFS. Spectral analysis revealed that UV/O3 was selective for the removal of different fluorescent components, especially fulvic acid-like fluorescent (FLF) component and humus-like fluorescent (HLF) component. Synchronous fluorescence/UV-visible two-dimensional correlation spectra analysis showed that the degradation of organic matter occurred sequentially in the order of HLF, FLF, microbial humus-like fluorescence component (MHLF), tryptophan-like fluorescent component (TRLF), tyrosine-like fluorescent component (TYLF). The UV/O3 process removed 95.6% of HLF, 80.0% of FLF, 56.0% of TRLF, 50.8% of MHLF and 44.4% of TYLF. Therefore, the coagulation-UV/O3 process was proven to be an attractive way to reduce the environmental risks of PTW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparing the Effects of Types of Electrode on the Removal of Multiple Pharmaceuticals from Water by Electrochemical Methods
Water 2020, 12(9), 2332; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092332 - 19 Aug 2020
Abstract
Considering the lack of information on simultaneously removing multiple pharmaceuticals from water or wastewater by electrochemical methods, this study aimed to investigate the removal of multiple pharmaceuticals by electro-coagulation and electro-oxidation based on two types of electrodes (aluminum and graphite). The synthetic wastewater [...] Read more.
Considering the lack of information on simultaneously removing multiple pharmaceuticals from water or wastewater by electrochemical methods, this study aimed to investigate the removal of multiple pharmaceuticals by electro-coagulation and electro-oxidation based on two types of electrodes (aluminum and graphite). The synthetic wastewater contained a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (diclofenac), a sulfonamide antibiotic (sulfamethoxazole) and a β-blocker (atenolol). The pharmaceutical removal with electro-oxidation was much higher than those with the electro-coagulation process, which was obtained from a five-cell graphite electrode system, while the removal of pharmaceuticals with aluminum electrodes was about 20% (20 µM). In the electro-coagulation system, pharmaceutical removal was mainly influenced by the solubility or hydrophilicity of the compound. In the electro-oxidation system, the removal mechanism was influenced by the dissociation status of the compounds, which are attracted to the anode due to electrostatic forces and have a higher mass transformation rate with the electro-oxidation process. Therefore, atenolol, which was undissociated, cannot adequately be eliminated by electro-oxidation, unless the electrode’s surface is large enough to increase the mass diffusion rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of the Mechanism of TOC and COD Degradation in Rhodamine B Wastewater by a Recycling-Flow Two- and Three-dimensional Electro-Reactor System
Water 2020, 12(7), 1853; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071853 - 28 Jun 2020
Abstract
Dye wastewater, as a kind of refractory wastewater (with a ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of less than 0.3), still needs advanced treatments in order to reach the discharge standard. In this work, the recycling-flow three-dimensional (3D) [...] Read more.
Dye wastewater, as a kind of refractory wastewater (with a ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of less than 0.3), still needs advanced treatments in order to reach the discharge standard. In this work, the recycling-flow three-dimensional (3D) electro-reactor system was designed for degrading synthetic rhodamine B (RhB) wastewater as dye wastewater (100 mg/L). After 180 min of degradation, the removal of total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of RhB wastewater were both approximately double the corresponding values in the recycling-flow two-dimensional (2D) electro-reactor system. Columnar granular activated carbon (CGAC), as micro-electrodes packed between anodic and cathodic electrodes in the recycling-flow 3D electro-reactor system, generated an obviously characteristic peak of anodic catalytic oxidation, increased the mass transfer rate and electrochemically active surface area (EASA) by 40%, and rapidly produced 1.52 times more hydroxyl radicals (·OH) on the surface of CGAC electrodes, in comparison to the recycling-flow 2D electro-reactor system. Additionally, the recycling-flow 3D electro-reactor system can maintain higher current efficiency (CE) and lower energy consumption (Es). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Recent Trends in Removal Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products by Electrochemical Oxidation and Combined Systems
Water 2020, 12(4), 1043; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041043 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Due to various potential toxicological threats to living organisms even at low concentrations, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in natural water are seen as an emerging environmental issue. The low efficiency of removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products by conventional wastewater treatment [...] Read more.
Due to various potential toxicological threats to living organisms even at low concentrations, pharmaceuticals and personal care products in natural water are seen as an emerging environmental issue. The low efficiency of removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products by conventional wastewater treatment plants calls for more efficient technology. Research on advanced oxidation processes has recently become a hot topic as it has been shown that these technologies can effectively oxidize most organic contaminants to inorganic carbon through mineralization. Among the advanced oxidation processes, the electrochemical advanced oxidation processes and, in general, electrochemical oxidation or anodic oxidation have shown good prospects at the lab-scale for the elimination of contamination caused by the presence of residual pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aqueous systems. This paper reviewed the effectiveness of electrochemical oxidation in removing pharmaceuticals and personal care products from liquid solutions, alone or in combination with other treatment processes, in the last 10 years. Reactor designs and configurations, electrode materials, operational factors (initial concentration, supporting electrolytes, current density, temperature, pH, stirring rate, electrode spacing, and fluid velocity) were also investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

1. Title: Erythromycin Abatement from Aqueous Complex Solutions by Electro-Fenton and Solar Photoelectro-Fenton Treatments
Authors: Serra-Clusellas, A. a; Herrero, P. b; Delpino-Rius, A. b; Correa, M.L. a; Sbardella, L. a; Casadellà, A. a; Martínez-Lladó, X. a
Affiliations: a Eurecat, Centre Tecnològic de Catalunya, Water, Air and Soil Unit. Plaça de la Ciència 2, 08242 Manresa, Spain
b Eurecat, Centre Tecnològic de Catalunya, Centre for Omic Sciences (Joint Unit Eurecat-Universitat Rovira i Virgili), Unique Scientific and Technical Infrastructure (ICTS), 43204 Reus, Spain

2. Title: Effect of Zr Impregnation on Clay-based Materials for Photocatalytic Oxidation of an Agro-industrial Wastewater
Authors: Vanessa Guimarães *, Ana R. Teixeira, Marco S. Lucas, José A. Peres
Affiliation: Centro de Química de Vila Real (CQVR), Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto ouro (UTAD), Quinta de Prados, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal 
Abstract: UV-activated Zr-doped composites were successfully produced through the impregnation of Zr on the crystal lattice of different clay materials by a one-step route. Fixing the amount of Zr available for dopage (4%), the influence of different supports, submitted to different chemical treatments, on the photocatalytic activity of the resulting Zr-doped PILC/clay materials was assessed. Both chemical characterization and structural characterization suggest that the immobilization of Zr on montmorillonite and PILC structures occurred through isomorphic substitution between Si and Zr in the tetrahedral sheet of the clay material. This structural change was demonstrated by significant modifications on Si-OH stretching vibrations (1016 cm^-1 , 1100 cm^-1 and 1150 cm^-1 ), and resulted into improved textural properties, with an increase of surface area from 8 m^2 /g (MT) to 107 m^2 /g after pillaring process, and to 118 m^2 /g after pillaring and Zr-doping processes. These materials were tested in the UV-photodegradation of agro-industrial wastewater (AIW), characterized by high concentrations of recalcitrant contaminants. After Zr-dopage on AlCu-PILC heterogeneous catalyst, TOC removals of 8.9 and 10.4 % were obtained through adsorption and 77 and 86% by photocatalytic oxidation, at pH 4 and 7, respectively. These results suggest a synergetic effect deriving from the combination of Zr and Cu on the photocatalytic degradation process.

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