Advanced Treatment and Disinfection Technologies for Water and Wastewater

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2024 | Viewed by 12543

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Northwest Water Resource, Environment and Ecology, MOE, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China
Interests: drinking water source; tap water; reservior water; disinfection; advanced oxidation process; disinfection by-products; orangic matter characterization and treatment

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Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of Dongting Lake Aquatic Eco-Environmental Control and Restoration of Hunan Province; School of Hydraulic Engineering, Changsha University of Science & Technology, Changsha 410114, China
Interests: advanced oxidation process; drinking water safety; photocatalysis; microcystins; bacteria-algae system; aerobic granular sludge; dredging sediment; solid waste recycling

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Guest Editor
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
Interests: advanced treatment for drinking water; municipal and industrial wastewater; municipal and industrial wastewater reuse; disinfection by-products

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The advanced treatment and disinfection of drinking water and wastewater is essential to human health. Emerging contaminants, especially organic contaminants and pathogens, are the most important pollutants that need to be controlled. This Special Issue focuses on contaminants during the advanced treatment of drinking water and wastewater, new mitigation strategies to address the presence of contaminants, and health implications related to the exposure to contaminants and the control of oxidation/disinfection by-products. The topics of this issue include, but are not limited to: (1) innovative technologies related to the advanced treatment of water and wastewater;(2) innovative technologies and practices related to water and wastewater disinfection;(3) biostability control in drinking water; (4) the formation, fate and control of oxidation/disinfection by-products; (5) risk-based assessment approaches for the processes involved in water and wastewater treatment; and (6) other water treatment technologies and water quality improvement strategies.

Prof. Dr. Gang Wen
Prof. Dr. Shiquan Sun
Prof. Dr. Zhengqian Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • drinking water
  • wastewater
  • advanced treatment
  • emerging organic contaminants
  • pathogen
  • advanced oxidation process
  • disinfection
  • by-products
  • health risks
  • mechanisms

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 967 KiB  
Article
Recovery of Sb(Ⅲ) from Aqueous Solution as Cubic Sb2O3 by Fluidized-Bed Granulation Process
by Jingjing Yang, Jie Zhang, Jintong Liu, Quanxin Yang, Bingdang Wu, Xiaoyi Xu and Tianyin Huang
Water 2024, 16(12), 1690; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16121690 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 200
Abstract
In order to recover the antimony from wastewater, a custom-designed fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) was employed to treat antimony-containing wastewater. By single-factor experiments, the effects of the solution pH, the molar ratio of [TA]/[Sb3+], the seed size and dosage, the up-flow velocity [...] Read more.
In order to recover the antimony from wastewater, a custom-designed fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) was employed to treat antimony-containing wastewater. By single-factor experiments, the effects of the solution pH, the molar ratio of [TA]/[Sb3+], the seed size and dosage, the up-flow velocity (U), and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) on antimony recovery were investigated based on the antimony removal and granulation efficiency. The optimum conditions for antimony recovery were obtained at pH 9.0, the molar ratio of [TA]/[Sb3+] of 2, 6 g/L of 13–38 μm Sb2O3 as the fluidized seed, and the U and HRT of 42 m/h and 40 min, respectively; the antimony removal and granulation efficiency reached 95% and 91%, respectively. The granular products were analyzed by an X-ray polycrystalline diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as cubic Sb2O3, widely used in various industries. The fluidized-bed reactor was operated continuously for 7 days, during which the antimony removal and granulation efficiency were stable at 96% and 93%, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of the fluidized-bed granulation process for the recovery of antimony from wastewater. It provides a novel approach for retrieving and managing antimony-containing wastewater. Full article
18 pages, 11384 KiB  
Article
Preparation of CeO2 Supported on Graphite Catalyst and Its Catalytic Performance for Diethyl Phthalate Degradation during Ozonation
by Xin-Yi Tao, Yu-Hong Cui and Zheng-Qian Liu
Water 2024, 16(9), 1274; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091274 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Catalysts for the efficient catalytic decomposition of ozone to generate reactive free radicals to oxidize pollutants are needed. The graphite-supported CeO2 catalyst was optimally prepared, and its activity in ozonation was evaluated using the degradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) as an index. [...] Read more.
Catalysts for the efficient catalytic decomposition of ozone to generate reactive free radicals to oxidize pollutants are needed. The graphite-supported CeO2 catalyst was optimally prepared, and its activity in ozonation was evaluated using the degradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) as an index. The stability of CeO2/graphite catalyst and the influence of operating conditions on its catalytic activity were investigated, and the mechanism of CeO2/graphite catalytic ozonation was analyzed. CeO2/graphite had the highest catalytic activity at a Ce load of 3.5% and a pyrolysis temperature of 400 °C with the DEP degradation efficiency of 75.0% and the total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency of 48.3%. No dissolution of active components was found during the repeated use of CeO2/graphite catalyst. The ozone dosage, catalyst dosage, initial pH, and reaction temperature have positive effects on the DEP degradation by CeO2/graphite catalytic ozonation. The presence of tert-butanol significantly inhibits the degradation of DEP at an initial pH of 3.0, 5.8, or 9.0, and the experimental results of the OH probe compound pCBA indicate that the CeO2/graphite catalyst can efficiently convert ozone into OH in solution. The DEP degradation in the CeO2/graphite catalytic ozonation mainly depends on the OH in the bulk solution formed by ozone decomposition. Full article
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18 pages, 1772 KiB  
Article
Chlorine Photolysis: A Step Forward in Inactivating Acanthamoeba and Their Endosymbiont Bacteria
by Carmen Menacho, Maria Soler, Patricia Chueca, Maria P. Ormad and Pilar Goñi
Water 2024, 16(5), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16050668 - 24 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 821
Abstract
Chlorine and solar disinfection are widely used disinfectants in water treatment. However, certain potential pathogens can resist these methods, posing a public health risk. One such case is Acanthamoeba, a resistant free-living amoeba that protects pathogens inside from disinfection, thus endangering the [...] Read more.
Chlorine and solar disinfection are widely used disinfectants in water treatment. However, certain potential pathogens can resist these methods, posing a public health risk. One such case is Acanthamoeba, a resistant free-living amoeba that protects pathogens inside from disinfection, thus endangering the health of water users. This work is the first evaluation of the inactivation efficiency achieved by combining NaClO (Cl2) and solar radiation (SR) against two Acanthamoeba strains from different sources (freshwater and pool water) and their endosymbiont bacteria (EB). Amoebae were exposed to different Cl2 doses (0–500 mg/L), SR wavelength ranges (280–800 nm and 320–800 nm), used as gold standards, and their combinations. The EB exhibited resistance to conventional Cl2 and SR treatments, requiring up to 20 times higher disinfectant doses than those needed to inactivate their protective Acanthamoeba. The pool strain and its EB demonstrated greater resistance to all treatments compared to the freshwater strain. Treatments with Cl2 (5 mg/L)/SR280–800nm completely inactivated both Acanthamoeba and EB of the freshwater strain, reducing up to 100 times the necessary Cl2 doses, suggesting that chlorine photolysis is an attractive treatment for disinfecting freshwater and preventing waterborne diseases associated with Acanthamoebae and its EB. Full article
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14 pages, 6645 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Determination of PMS, PDS, and H2O2 Concentrations with Multi-Step Iodometry
by Mingxuan Wang, Yuehan Zhou, Songyu Yang, Xinxin Jiang, Xue Jiang, Zhenxiang Xing and Yinghong Guan
Water 2023, 15(12), 2190; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15122190 - 10 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1607
Abstract
Peroxodisulfate (PDS), peroxymonosulfate (PMS), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) might coexist in a persulfate system. It leads to the mutual interference in concentration determination due to their similar structures. Simultaneous detection of the three peroxides involves limited reporting. Herein, a [...] Read more.
Peroxodisulfate (PDS), peroxymonosulfate (PMS), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) might coexist in a persulfate system. It leads to the mutual interference in concentration determination due to their similar structures. Simultaneous detection of the three peroxides involves limited reporting. Herein, a multi-step iodometry was established to simultaneously determine the concentrations of PDS, PMS, and H2O2 coexisting in a solution. Firstly, molybdate–NaHCO3-buffered iodometry was proposed to uplift the overall detection of peroxides since the recovery rate of H2O2 was unexpectedly lower in the peroxide mixture than in the single H2O2 solution with reported NaHCO3-buffered iodometry. Then, multi-step iodometry was proposed based on the established molybdate–NaHCO3-buffered iodometry using the combination with catalase and revised acetate-buffered iodometry (pH 3). The multi-step iodometry determined the coexisting PMS, PDS, and H2O2 with the recovery rate of 95–105% and a standard deviation of ≤7% of two replicates at the individual centration of 13–500 μmol∙L−1. The recovery rates of peroxides were within 95–105% at pH 3–11 and within 90–110% in the presence of Cl (0–150 mg∙L−1), F (0–1.5 mg∙L−1), SO42− (0–150 mg∙L−1), or NO3 (0–20 mg∙L−1). The recovery rate of H2O2 was lowered down to 91% or 87% in the sample containing 100 mg/L Ca2+ or Mg2+, respectively, but was lifted up to 100% or 93% once pretreated by adding 0.11–1.06 g∙L−1 Na2CO3. In the background of tap water, surface water, and ground water, peroxides were all detected in 90–110%, which indicates the applicability of multi-step iodometry in real waters. Full article
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14 pages, 5523 KiB  
Article
Identification of Priority Pollutants in Groundwater: A Case Study in Xiong’an New Region, China
by Xiaocui Qiao, Xue Li, Tong Qi and Yan Liu
Water 2023, 15(8), 1565; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15081565 - 17 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1452
Abstract
The pollution of man-made groundwater has become a major global problem that threatens human health and affects the aquatic environment. The establishment of an effective screening system for water pollution assessment is of great importance for maintaining the ecological health of groundwater. In [...] Read more.
The pollution of man-made groundwater has become a major global problem that threatens human health and affects the aquatic environment. The establishment of an effective screening system for water pollution assessment is of great importance for maintaining the ecological health of groundwater. In this study, the concentrations of natural and non-natural pollutants in the groundwater of Xiong’an New Area were measured, and the degree of pollution degree and toxicity index of pollutants were used to construct a novel screening method. The result shows that it was more suitable to use the weighted summation method with weights of 0.5, 0.25, and 0.25 for toxicity, total pollution degree, and median pollution degree, respectively. According to the proposed screening method, Benzo[a]pyrene, Hexachlorobenzene, As, Se, Atrazine, Benzo[b]fluoranthene, Ni, Mo, Ti, and naphthalene were identified as the dominant pollutants in the study area and their levels should be strictly monitored. Full article
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15 pages, 2717 KiB  
Article
Quantitative Evaluation of Municipal Wastewater Disinfection by 280 nm UVC LED
by Linlong Yu, Nicole Acosta, Maria A. Bautista, Janine McCalder, Jode Himann, Samuel Pogosian, Casey R. J. Hubert, Michael D. Parkins and Gopal Achari
Water 2023, 15(7), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15071257 - 23 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
UV-LED irradiation has attracted attention in water and wastewater disinfection applications. However, no studies have quantitatively investigated the impact of light intensity on the UV dosage for the same magnitude of disinfection. This study presents a powerful 280 nm UV-LED photoreactor with adjustable [...] Read more.
UV-LED irradiation has attracted attention in water and wastewater disinfection applications. However, no studies have quantitatively investigated the impact of light intensity on the UV dosage for the same magnitude of disinfection. This study presents a powerful 280 nm UV-LED photoreactor with adjustable light intensity to disinfect municipal wastewater contaminated with E. coli, SARS-CoV-2 genetic materials and others. The disinfection performance of the 280 nm LED was also compared with 405 nm visible light LEDs, in terms of inactivating E. coli and total coliforms, as well as reducing cATP activities. The results showed that the UV dose needed per log reduction of E. coli and total coliforms, as well as cATP, could be decreased by increasing the light intensity within the investigated range (0–9640 µW/cm2). Higher energy consumption is needed for microbial disinfection using the 405 nm LED when compared to 280 nm LED. The signal of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material in wastewater and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in pure water decreased upon 280 nm UV irradiation. Full article
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13 pages, 2280 KiB  
Article
Quantity, Species, and Origin of Fungi in a Groundwater-Derived Water Source
by Wei Ren, Tinglin Huang and Gang Wen
Water 2023, 15(6), 1161; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15061161 - 17 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3256
Abstract
Fungi pollution in water can lead to serious problems, such as turbidity, odor, food pollution, mycotoxin production, and increased opportunistic infections among people with an immune deficiency. Few studies have reported the fungi community composition, quantity of fungi, and origin of fungi in [...] Read more.
Fungi pollution in water can lead to serious problems, such as turbidity, odor, food pollution, mycotoxin production, and increased opportunistic infections among people with an immune deficiency. Few studies have reported the fungi community composition, quantity of fungi, and origin of fungi in groundwater. To study the change of quantity and community composition of fungi in groundwater at different times of year, this study evaluated the number of fungi and dominant fungi genera in groundwater and the factors affecting fungi quantity. The results showed that 18 genera of fungi were observed in the study area’s groundwater, among which Penicillium (18–27%), Aspergillus (17–26%), Acremonium (12–28%) were the three most dominant. The numbers of dominant fungi genera were as follows: Penicillium (21–62 CFU/100 mL), Aspergillus (18–43 CFU/100 mL), and Acremonium (15–38 CFU/100 mL). The number of fungi in water closely correlates with environmental variables such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), turbidity, and total organic carbon (TOC). Various genera of fungi were affected differently by unique environmental variables. The fungi in the water were also affected by components of the external environment, such as rainfall, surface farming, surface water sources, and so on. This study aims to provide meaningful information for understanding fungi pollution in groundwater. Full article
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18 pages, 4480 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Water-Lifting Aerator Performance Based on the Volume of Fluid Method
by Zhiying Chang and Tinglin Huang
Water 2023, 15(5), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15050991 - 5 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
Water quality deterioration is a major problem faced by reservoirs globally, owing to the inflow of pollution from industrial and municipal activities. Water-lifting aeration is an in situ water quality improvement technology that mixes and oxygenates deep water bodies in reservoirs to improve [...] Read more.
Water quality deterioration is a major problem faced by reservoirs globally, owing to the inflow of pollution from industrial and municipal activities. Water-lifting aeration is an in situ water quality improvement technology that mixes and oxygenates deep water bodies in reservoirs to improve pollution control efficiency and water quality. While previous studies have mainly focused on the mixing process in the reservoir outside the water-lifting aerator (WLA), knowledge of the internal flow remains limited. In this study, a two-phase flow within a WLA system was numerically studied using the volume of fluid (VOF) method to comprehensively analyze the internal two-phase flow characteristics and the influence on the water-lifting and oxygenation performance of the system. The statistical analysis results showed that increasing the aeration chamber volume enhanced the bottom oxygenation performance by 27% because of the prolonged time of the deflector plate outlet outflow. Additionally, increasing the air release rate enhanced the water-lifting performance by 47%, which was induced by the shortened air piston release period. This study demonstrates the internal flow mechanism of the WLA and provides technical support for parameter optimization design, which has significant scientific research and engineering application value. Full article
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