Special Issue "Human Picornaviruses"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Petri Susi
Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
Interests: Enterovirus; rhinovirus; parechovirus; integrin; bioprocess; cell culture techniques; virus evolution; clinical virology; diagnostics; oncolytic virotherapy; antibody technologies
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past two decades, we have witnessed a revolution in molecular techniques that have enabled unprecedented molecular diagnostics, genetic analysis, and the structural determination of human picornaviruses. Consequently, the number of novel and genome-sequenced picornavirus types and high-resolution picornavirus structures has increased tremendously over the years. At the same time, we have also witnessed uncontrolled outbreaks of emerging pathogenic picornaviruses that have attracted media attention and public concern. The grand challenge in picornavirus research is whether we can employ the current technologies and information to improve surveillance, predict epidemics, understand picornavirus life cycle and pathogenicity, and develop effective countermeasures against these ever-increasing viruses.

In this Special Issue of Viruses, we aim to discuss the recent developments and breakthroughs in structural determination, viral genome sequencing, epidemiology, evolution, diagnostics, and pathogenesis, receptor tropism and cellular life cycles, immunology, and therapy including the progress in the development of therapeutic antibodies and vaccines. I cordially invite you to contribute your most recent research findings and/or insights into this topic. We welcome reviews and original research articles including technical aspects.

Dr. Petri Susi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • enterovirus
  • picornaviral epidemiology
  • viral diagnostics
  • viral evolution
  • parechovirus
  • pathogenesis
  • receptor
  • recombination
  • rhinovirus
  • genome sequencing
  • structure

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue “Human Picornaviruses”
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010093 - 13 Jan 2020
Abstract
The Special Issue “Human Picornaviruses” in “Viruses” (Submission Deadline 30 September 2019, https://www [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle
Recombination Events and Conserved Nature of Receptor Binding Motifs in Coxsackievirus A9 Isolates
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010068 - 06 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9) is an enterically transmitted enterovirus and one of the most pathogenic type among human enteroviruses. CVA9 isolates use a distinctive RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motif within VP1 capsid protein that defines its ability to bind to integrin receptor(s) for cellular entry. To [...] Read more.
Coxsackievirus A9 (CVA9) is an enterically transmitted enterovirus and one of the most pathogenic type among human enteroviruses. CVA9 isolates use a distinctive RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motif within VP1 capsid protein that defines its ability to bind to integrin receptor(s) for cellular entry. To investigate CVA9 evolution and pathogenicity, genetic relationships and recombination events were analyzed between 54 novel clinical isolates of CVA9, as well as 21 previously published full length CVA9 sequences from GenBank. Samples were investigated by partial sequencing of the novel VP1 and 3Dpol genes, as well as including the corresponding areas from GenBank sequences. Phylogenetic analyses were combined with clinical data in a further attempt to analyze whether sequence evolution reflects CVA9 pathogenicity in the phylogenies. Furthermore, VP1 gene was also analyzed for receptor binding sites including the RGD motif and the putative heparan sulfate (HS) site. Analysis of the 559-nucleotide-long VP1 sequences identified six clades. Although most of the strains within each clade showed geographical clustering, the grouping pattern of the isolates in the analysis of the VP1 gene was strikingly different from grouping of 3Dpol, which suggests that recombination events may have occurred in the region encoding the nonstructural proteins. Inclusion of clinical data did not provide any evidence of symptom based phylogenetic clustering of CVA9 isolates. Amino acid sequence analysis of the VP1 polypeptide demonstrated that the RGD motif was fully conserved among the isolates while the putative HS binding site was only found in one isolate. These data suggest that integrin binding is essential for virus tropism, but do not explain the symptom repertoire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Enterovirus 71 VP1 Protein Regulates Viral Replication in SH-SY5Y Cells via the mTOR Autophagy Signaling Pathway
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010011 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen that causes severe hand, foot, and mouth disease with fatal neurological complications. However, its neurovirulence mechanism is still unclear. Candidate virulence sites were screened out at structural protein VP1, but the function of these candidate [...] Read more.
Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen that causes severe hand, foot, and mouth disease with fatal neurological complications. However, its neurovirulence mechanism is still unclear. Candidate virulence sites were screened out at structural protein VP1, but the function of these candidate virulence sites remains unclear. Several studies have shown that autophagy is associated with viral replication. However, the relationship between VP1 and autophagy in human neurons has not been studied. Methods: A recombinant virus—SDLY107-VP1, obtained by replacing the VP1 full-length gene of the SDLY107 strain with the VP1 full-length gene of the attenuated strain SDJN2015-01—was constructed and tested for replication and virulence. We then tested the effect of the recombinant virus on autophagy in nerve cells. The effect of autophagy on virus replication was detected by western blot and plaque test. Finally, the changes of mTOR signaling molecules during EV71 infection and the effect of mTOR on virus replication at the RNA level were detected. Results: Viral recombination triggered virulence attenuation. The replication ability of recombinant virus SDLY107-VP1 was significantly weaker than that of the parent strain SDLY107. The SDLY107 strain could inhibit autophagic flux and led to accumulation of autophagosomes, while the SDLY107-VP1 strain could not cause autophagosome accumulation. The synthesis of EV71 RNA was inhibited by inhibiting mTOR. Conclusions: Replacement of VP1 weakened the replication ability of virulent strains and reduced the level of autophagy in nerve cells. This autophagy facilitates the replication of virulent strains in nerve cells. VP1 is an important neurovirulence determinant of EV71, which affects virus replication by regulating cell autophagy. mTOR is a key molecule in this type of autophagy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
EV71 Infection Induces IFNβ Expression in Neural Cells
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121121 - 04 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) can invade the central nervous system (CNS) and cause neurological disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that EV71 can directly infect neurons in the CNS. Innate immune responses in the CNS have been known to play an essential role in limiting pathogen [...] Read more.
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) can invade the central nervous system (CNS) and cause neurological disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that EV71 can directly infect neurons in the CNS. Innate immune responses in the CNS have been known to play an essential role in limiting pathogen infections. Thus, investigating the effects of EV71 infection of neural cells is important for understanding disease pathogenesis. In this study, human neural cells were infected with EV71, and interferonβ (IFNβ) expression was examined. Our results show that IFNβ expression was upregulated in EV71-infected neural cells via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) sensing of virus RNA. The PRRs Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8), and melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5 (MDA-5), but not retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7), were found to be EV71-mediated IFNβ induction. Although viral proteins exhibited the ability to cleave mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-β (TRIF) in neural cells, levels of viral protein expression were low in these cells. Furthermore, neural cells efficiently produced IFNβ transcripts upon EV71 vRNA stimulation. Treating infected cells with anti-IFNβ antibodies resulted in increased virus replication, indicating that IFNβ release may play a role in limiting viral growth. These results indicate that EV71 infection can induce IFNβ expression in neural cells through PRR pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Host Cell Calpains Can Cleave Structural Proteins from the Enterovirus Polyprotein
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121106 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Enteroviruses are small RNA viruses that cause diseases with various symptoms ranging from mild to severe. Enterovirus proteins are translated as a single polyprotein, which is cleaved by viral proteases to release capsid and nonstructural proteins. Here, we show that also cellular calpains [...] Read more.
Enteroviruses are small RNA viruses that cause diseases with various symptoms ranging from mild to severe. Enterovirus proteins are translated as a single polyprotein, which is cleaved by viral proteases to release capsid and nonstructural proteins. Here, we show that also cellular calpains have a potential role in the processing of the enteroviral polyprotein. Using purified calpains 1 and 2 in an in vitro assay, we show that addition of calpains leads to an increase in the release of VP1 and VP3 capsid proteins from P1 of enterovirus B species, detected by western blotting. This was prevented with a calpain inhibitor and was dependent on optimal calcium concentration, especially for calpain 2. In addition, calpain cleavage at the VP3-VP1 interface was supported by a competition assay using a peptide containing the VP3-VP1 cleavage site. Moreover, a mass spectrometry analysis showed that calpains can cleave this same peptide at the VP3-VP1 interface, the cutting site being two amino acids aside from 3C’s cutting site. Furthermore, we show that calpains cannot cleave between P1 and 2A. In conclusion, we show that cellular proteases, calpains, can cleave structural proteins from enterovirus polyprotein in vitro. Whether they assist polyprotein processing in infected cells remains to be shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Nasal Cytokine Profiles of Patients Hospitalised with Respiratory Wheeze Associated with Rhinovirus C
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11111038 - 07 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Background: Rhinovirus C is an important pathogen of asthmatic and non-asthmatic children hospitalised with episodic wheeze. Previous studies on other respiratory viruses have shown that several host cytokines correlate with duration of hospitalisation, but this has yet to be investigated in children with [...] Read more.
Background: Rhinovirus C is an important pathogen of asthmatic and non-asthmatic children hospitalised with episodic wheeze. Previous studies on other respiratory viruses have shown that several host cytokines correlate with duration of hospitalisation, but this has yet to be investigated in children with RV-C infection. We determined the nasal cytokine profiles of these children and investigated their relationship with RV-C load and clinical outcome. Flocked nasal swabs were collected from children aged 24–72 months presenting to the Emergency Department at Princess Margaret Hospital with a clinical diagnosis of acute wheeze and an acute upper respiratory tract viral infection. RV-C load was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and cytokine profiles were characterised by a commercial human cytokine 34-plex panel. RV-C was the most commonly detected virus in pre-school-aged children hospitalised with an episodic wheeze. RV-C load did not significantly differ between asthmatic and non-asthmatic patients. Both groups showed a Th2-based cytokine profile. However, Th17 response cytokines IL-17 and IL-1β were only elevated in RV-C-infected children with pre-existing asthma. Neither RV-C load nor any specific cytokines were associated illness severity in this study. Medically attended RV-C-induced wheeze is characterised by a Th2 inflammatory pattern, independent of viral load. Any therapeutic interventions should be aimed at modulating the host response following infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Detection and Characterization of Human Enteroviruses, Human Cosaviruses, and a New Human Parechovirus Type in Healthy Individuals in Osun State, Nigeria, 2016/2017
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11111037 - 07 Nov 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Human enteroviruses and human parechoviruses are associated with a broad range of diseases and even severe and fatal conditions. For human cosaviruses, the etiological role is yet unknown. Little is known about the circulation of non-polio enteroviruses, human parechoviruses, and human cosaviruses in [...] Read more.
Human enteroviruses and human parechoviruses are associated with a broad range of diseases and even severe and fatal conditions. For human cosaviruses, the etiological role is yet unknown. Little is known about the circulation of non-polio enteroviruses, human parechoviruses, and human cosaviruses in Nigeria. A total of 113 stool samples were collected from healthy individuals in Osun State between February 2016 and May 2017. RT-PCR assays targeting the 5′ non-coding region (5′ -NCR) were used to screen for human enteroviruses, human parechoviruses, and human cosaviruses. For human enteroviruses, species-specific RT-PCR assays targeting the VP1 regions were used for molecular typing. Inoculation was carried out on RD-A, CaCo-2, HEp-2C, and L20B cell lines to compare molecular and virological assays. Ten samples tested positive for enterovirus RNA with 11 strains detected, including CV-A13 (n = 3), E-18 (n = 2), CV-A20 (n = 1), CV-A24 (n = 1), EV-C99 (n = 1), and EV-C116 (n = 2). Three samples tested positive for human parechovirus RNA, and full genome sequencing on two samples allowed assignment to a new Parechovirus A type (HPeV-19). Thirty-three samples tested positive for cosavirus with assignment to species Cosavirus D and Cosavirus A based on the 5′-NCR region. Screening of stool samples collected from healthy individuals in Nigeria in 2016 and 2017 revealed a high diversity of circulating human enteroviruses, human parechoviruses, and human cosaviruses. Molecular assays for genotyping showed substantial benefits compared with those of cell-culture assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Sample Bias and Experimental Artefacts on the Statistical Phylogenetic Analysis of Picornaviruses
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 1032; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11111032 - 06 Nov 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Statistical phylogenetic methods are a powerful tool for inferring the evolutionary history of viruses through time and space. The selection of mathematical models and analysis parameters has a major impact on the outcome, and has been relatively well-described in the literature. The preparation [...] Read more.
Statistical phylogenetic methods are a powerful tool for inferring the evolutionary history of viruses through time and space. The selection of mathematical models and analysis parameters has a major impact on the outcome, and has been relatively well-described in the literature. The preparation of a sequence dataset is less formalized, but its impact can be even more profound. This article used simulated datasets of enterovirus sequences to evaluate the effect of sample bias on picornavirus phylogenetic studies. Possible approaches to the reduction of large datasets and their potential for introducing additional artefacts were demonstrated. The most consistent results were obtained using “smart sampling”, which reduced sequence subsets from large studies more than those from smaller ones in order to preserve the rare sequences in a dataset. The effect of sequences with technical or annotation errors in the Bayesian framework was also analyzed. Sequences with about 0.5% sequencing errors or incorrect isolation dates altered by just 5 years could be detected by various approaches, but the efficiency of identification depended upon sequence position in a phylogenetic tree. Even a single erroneous sequence could profoundly destabilize the whole analysis by increasing the variance of the inferred evolutionary parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
An Emerging Human Parechovirus Type 5 Causing Sepsis-Like Illness in Infants in Australia
Viruses 2019, 11(10), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100913 - 03 Oct 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Human parechovirus (HPeV), particularly type 3 (HPeV3), is an important cause of sepsis-/meningitis-like illness in young infants. Laboratory records identified a total of ten HPeV-positive cases in Southeastern Australia between January and July 2019. The HPeV present in these cases were typed by [...] Read more.
Human parechovirus (HPeV), particularly type 3 (HPeV3), is an important cause of sepsis-/meningitis-like illness in young infants. Laboratory records identified a total of ten HPeV-positive cases in Southeastern Australia between January and July 2019. The HPeV present in these cases were typed by Sanger sequencing of the partial viral capsid protein 1 (VP1) region and selected cases were further characterised by additional Sanger or Ion Torrent near-full length virus sequencing. In seven of the ten cases, an HPeV type 5 (HPeV5) was identified, and in the remaining three cases, an HPeV type 1 was identified. The HPeV5-positive cases were infants under the age of 3 months admitted to hospital with fever, rash, lethargy and/or sepsis-like clinical signs. Near full-length virus sequencing revealed that the HPeV5 was most likely a recombinant virus, with structural genes most similar to an HPeV5 from Belarus in 2018, and a polymerase gene most similar to an HPeV3 from Australia in 2013/14. While HPeV5 is not typically associated with severe clinical signs, the HPeV5 identified here may have been able to cause more severe disease in young infants through the acquisition of genes from a more virulent HPeV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Statistical Phylogenetics for Investigation of Enterovirus 71 Genotype A Reintroduction into Circulation
Viruses 2019, 11(10), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100895 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Neurovirulent enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) caused a massive epidemic in China in 2008–2011. While subgenotype C4 was the major causative agent, a few isolates were almost identical to the prototype EV-A71 strain and belonged to genotype A. This variant was allegedly extinct since 1970, [...] Read more.
Neurovirulent enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) caused a massive epidemic in China in 2008–2011. While subgenotype C4 was the major causative agent, a few isolates were almost identical to the prototype EV-A71 strain and belonged to genotype A. This variant was allegedly extinct since 1970, and its identification in this epidemic suggests reintroduction of the archive virus. Regression analysis of genetic distances (TempEst software) was of moderate utility due to the low resolution of classical phylogenetic methods. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis (BEAST software) suggested artificial introduction event based on highly aberrant phylogenetic tree branch rates that differed by over three standard deviations from the mean substitution rate for EV71. Manual nucleotide-level analysis was used to further explore the virus spread pattern after introduction into circulation. Upon reintroduction, the virus accumulated up to seven substitutions in VP1, most of them non-synonymous and located within the capsid’s canyon or at its rims, compatible with readaptation of a lab strain to natural circulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Aichi Virus Induces Antiviral Host Defense in Primary Murine Intestinal Epithelial Cells
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080763 - 19 Aug 2019
Abstract
The picornavirus Aichi virus (AiV) is a non-enveloped RNA virus that causes acute gastroenteritis symptoms, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Antiviral host defense involves the fast response of type I interferon (IFN) and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines against [...] Read more.
The picornavirus Aichi virus (AiV) is a non-enveloped RNA virus that causes acute gastroenteritis symptoms, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Antiviral host defense involves the fast response of type I interferon (IFN) and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines against pathogens. However, the intestinal inflammatory and antiviral response to AiV infection is poorly understood. This study evaluated the antiviral activity of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), which form a single-cell layer separating the bowel wall from pathogens. Isolated primary mouse IECs were subjected to AiV infection and virion production, inducing the mRNA expression of type I/type III IFNs and inflammatory cytokines. The mechanism involved induced the expression of phospho-IFN regulatory factor 3 and mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein of type I IFN signaling. These findings were also observed in AiV-infected human colon carcinoma cells. In summary, a viral productive and pathogenic infection of AiV in primary murine IECs is validated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)
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Open AccessArticle
Recombinant Strains of Human Parechovirus in Rural Areas in the North of Brazil
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11060488 - 29 May 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
We characterized the 24 nearly full-length genomes of human parechoviruses (PeV) from children in the north of Brazil. The initial phylogenetic analysis indicated that 17 strains belonged to genotype 1, 5 to genotype 4, and 1 to genotype 17. A more detailed analysis [...] Read more.
We characterized the 24 nearly full-length genomes of human parechoviruses (PeV) from children in the north of Brazil. The initial phylogenetic analysis indicated that 17 strains belonged to genotype 1, 5 to genotype 4, and 1 to genotype 17. A more detailed analysis revealed a high frequency of recombinant strains (58%): A total of 14 of our PeV-As were chimeric, with four distinct recombination patterns identified. Five strains were composed of genotypes 1 and 5 (Rec1/5); five strains shared a complex mosaic pattern formed by genotypes 4, 5, and 17 (Rec4/17/5); two strains were composed of genotypes 1 and 17 (Rec1/17); and two strains were composed of genotype 1 and an undetermined strain (Rec1/und). Coalescent analysis based on the Vp1 gene, which is free of recombination, indicated that the recombinant strains most likely arose in this region approximately 30 years ago. They are present in high frequencies and are circulating in different small and isolated cities in the state of Tocantins. Further studies will be needed to establish whether the detected recombinant strains have been replacing parental strains or if they are co-circulating in distinct frequencies in Tocantins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Other

Open AccessReview
Parechovirus A Pathogenesis and the Enigma of Genotype A-3
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11111062 - 14 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Parechovirus A is a species in the Parechovirus genus within the Picornaviridae family that can cause severe disease in children. Relatively little is known on Parechovirus A epidemiology and pathogenesis. This review aims to explore the Parechovirus A literature and highlight the differences [...] Read more.
Parechovirus A is a species in the Parechovirus genus within the Picornaviridae family that can cause severe disease in children. Relatively little is known on Parechovirus A epidemiology and pathogenesis. This review aims to explore the Parechovirus A literature and highlight the differences between Parechovirus A genotypes from a pathogenesis standpoint. In particular, the curious case of Parechovirus-A3 and the genotype-specific disease association will be discussed. Finally, a brief outlook on Parechovirus A research is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)
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Open AccessReview
Recombination in Enteroviruses, a Multi-Step Modular Evolutionary Process
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11090859 - 14 Sep 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
RNA recombination is a major driving force in the evolution and genetic architecture shaping of enteroviruses. In particular, intertypic recombination is implicated in the emergence of most pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, which have caused numerous outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis worldwide. Recent experimental studies [...] Read more.
RNA recombination is a major driving force in the evolution and genetic architecture shaping of enteroviruses. In particular, intertypic recombination is implicated in the emergence of most pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, which have caused numerous outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis worldwide. Recent experimental studies that relied on recombination cellular systems mimicking natural genetic exchanges between enteroviruses provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms of enterovirus recombination and enabled to define a new model of genetic plasticity for enteroviruses. Homologous intertypic recombinant enteroviruses that were observed in nature would be the final products of a multi-step process, during which precursor nonhomologous recombinant genomes are generated through an initial inter-genomic RNA recombination event and can then evolve into a diversity of fitter homologous recombinant genomes over subsequent intra-genomic rearrangements. Moreover, these experimental studies demonstrated that the enterovirus genome could be defined as a combination of genomic modules that can be preferentially exchanged through recombination, and enabled defining the boundaries of these recombination modules. These results provided the first experimental evidence supporting the theoretical model of enterovirus modular evolution previously elaborated from phylogenetic studies of circulating enterovirus strains. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the mechanisms of recombination in enteroviruses and presents a new evolutionary process that may apply to other RNA viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)
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Open AccessReview
Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans and Viral Attachment: True Receptors or Adaptation Bias?
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070596 - 01 Jul 2019
Cited by 44
Abstract
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) are composed of unbranched, negatively charged heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides attached to a variety of cell surface or extracellular matrix proteins. Widely expressed, they mediate many biological activities, including angiogenesis, blood coagulation, developmental processes, and cell homeostasis. HSPG are [...] Read more.
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) are composed of unbranched, negatively charged heparan sulfate (HS) polysaccharides attached to a variety of cell surface or extracellular matrix proteins. Widely expressed, they mediate many biological activities, including angiogenesis, blood coagulation, developmental processes, and cell homeostasis. HSPG are highly sulfated and broadly used by a range of pathogens, especially viruses, to attach to the cell surface. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on HSPG–virus interactions and distinguish viruses with established HS binding, viruses that bind HS only after intra-host or cell culture adaptation, and finally, viruses whose dependence on HS for infection is debated. We also provide an overview of the antiviral compounds designed to interfere with HS binding. Many questions remain about the true importance of these receptors in vivo, knowledge that is critical for the design of future antiviral therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)
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Open AccessReview
Biological Function and Application of Picornaviral 2B Protein: A New Target for Antiviral Drug Development
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11060510 - 04 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Picornaviruses are associated with acute and chronic diseases. The clinical manifestations of infections are often mild, but infections may also lead to respiratory symptoms, gastroenteritis, myocarditis, meningitis, hepatitis, and poliomyelitis, with serious impacts on human health and economic losses in animal husbandry. Thus [...] Read more.
Picornaviruses are associated with acute and chronic diseases. The clinical manifestations of infections are often mild, but infections may also lead to respiratory symptoms, gastroenteritis, myocarditis, meningitis, hepatitis, and poliomyelitis, with serious impacts on human health and economic losses in animal husbandry. Thus far, research on picornaviruses has mainly focused on structural proteins such as VP1, whereas the non-structural protein 2B, which plays vital roles in the life cycle of the viruses and exhibits a viroporin or viroporin-like activity, has been overlooked. Viroporins are viral proteins containing at least one amphipathic α-helical structure, which oligomerizes to form transmembrane hydrophilic pores. In this review, we mainly summarize recent research data on the viroporin or viroporin-like activity of 2B proteins, which affects the biological function of the membrane, regulates cell death, and affects the host immune response. Considering these mechanisms, the potential application of the 2B protein as a candidate target for antiviral drug development is discussed, along with research challenges and prospects toward realizing a novel treatment strategy for picornavirus infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)
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Other

Open AccessBrief Report
Coxsackievirus-B4 Infection of Human Primary Pancreatic Ductal Cell Cultures Results in Impairment of Differentiation into Insulin-Producing Cells
Viruses 2019, 11(7), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11070597 - 02 Jul 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Coxsackievirus-B4 (CV-B4) E2 can persist in the pancreatic ductal-like cells (Panc-1 cell line), which results in an impaired differentiation of these cells into islet-like cell aggregates (ICA). In this study, primary pancreatic ductal cells obtained as a by-product of islet isolation from the [...] Read more.
Coxsackievirus-B4 (CV-B4) E2 can persist in the pancreatic ductal-like cells (Panc-1 cell line), which results in an impaired differentiation of these cells into islet-like cell aggregates (ICA). In this study, primary pancreatic ductal cells obtained as a by-product of islet isolation from the pancreas of seven brain-dead adults were inoculated with CV-B4 E2, followed-up for 29 days, and the impact was investigated. Viral titers in culture supernatants were analyzed throughout the culture. Intracellular viral RNA was detected by RT-PCR. Levels of ductal cell marker CK19 mRNA and of insulin mRNA were evaluated by qRT-PCR. The concentration of c-peptide in supernatants was determined by ELISA. Ductal cells exposed to trypsin and serum-free medium formed ICA and resulted in an increased insulin secretion. Ductal cells from five brain-dead donors were severely damaged by CV-B4 E2, whereas the virus persisted in cultures of cells obtained from the other two. The ICAs whose formation was induced on day 14 post-inoculation were scarce and appeared tiny in infected cultures. Also, insulin mRNA expression and c-peptide levels were strongly reduced compared to the controls. In conclusion, CV-B4 E2 lysed human primary pancreatic ductal cells or persisted in these cells, which resulted in the impairment of differentiation into insulin-producing cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)
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