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Open AccessArticle

Detection and Characterization of Human Enteroviruses, Human Cosaviruses, and a New Human Parechovirus Type in Healthy Individuals in Osun State, Nigeria, 2016/2017

1
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo 230222, Nigeria
2
Science Laboratory Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic, Ede 232101, Nigeria
3
Department of Infectious Diseases, Viral Gastroenteritis and Hepatitis Pathogens and Enteroviruses, Robert Koch Institute, 13353 Berlin, Germany
4
Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tuebingen, 72074 Tuebingen, Germany
5
National Reference Center for Polioviruses and Enteroviruses, Robert Koch Institute, 13353 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11111037
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 3 November 2019 / Accepted: 4 November 2019 / Published: 7 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Picornaviruses)
Human enteroviruses and human parechoviruses are associated with a broad range of diseases and even severe and fatal conditions. For human cosaviruses, the etiological role is yet unknown. Little is known about the circulation of non-polio enteroviruses, human parechoviruses, and human cosaviruses in Nigeria. A total of 113 stool samples were collected from healthy individuals in Osun State between February 2016 and May 2017. RT-PCR assays targeting the 5′ non-coding region (5′ -NCR) were used to screen for human enteroviruses, human parechoviruses, and human cosaviruses. For human enteroviruses, species-specific RT-PCR assays targeting the VP1 regions were used for molecular typing. Inoculation was carried out on RD-A, CaCo-2, HEp-2C, and L20B cell lines to compare molecular and virological assays. Ten samples tested positive for enterovirus RNA with 11 strains detected, including CV-A13 (n = 3), E-18 (n = 2), CV-A20 (n = 1), CV-A24 (n = 1), EV-C99 (n = 1), and EV-C116 (n = 2). Three samples tested positive for human parechovirus RNA, and full genome sequencing on two samples allowed assignment to a new Parechovirus A type (HPeV-19). Thirty-three samples tested positive for cosavirus with assignment to species Cosavirus D and Cosavirus A based on the 5′-NCR region. Screening of stool samples collected from healthy individuals in Nigeria in 2016 and 2017 revealed a high diversity of circulating human enteroviruses, human parechoviruses, and human cosaviruses. Molecular assays for genotyping showed substantial benefits compared with those of cell-culture assays. View Full-Text
Keywords: enteroviruses; parechoviruses; cosaviruses; poliovirus; containment; Nigeria; picornavirus enteroviruses; parechoviruses; cosaviruses; poliovirus; containment; Nigeria; picornavirus
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Osundare, F.A.; Opaleye, O.O.; Akindele, A.A.; Adedokun, S.A.; Akanbi, O.A.; Bock, C.-T.; Diedrich, S.; Böttcher, S. Detection and Characterization of Human Enteroviruses, Human Cosaviruses, and a New Human Parechovirus Type in Healthy Individuals in Osun State, Nigeria, 2016/2017. Viruses 2019, 11, 1037.

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