Special Issue "Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) Eradication: Improved Understanding of Epidemiology, Diagnostics and Vaccine Efficacy"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Satya Parida
Website
Guest Editor
The Pirbright Institute, Woking, Surrey, UK
Interests: peste des petits ruminants virus, PPRV, FMDV, vaccines, pathogenesis of PPRV

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Throughout the developing world, the peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus (PPRV) places a huge disease burden on agriculture, in particular affecting small-ruminant production and contributing to poverty in many developing countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. The primary susceptible hosts of PPRV are sheep and goats; however, the virus also causes clinical disease in pigs, camels and other wild capra species. Sub-clinical infection, with accompanying seroconversion, is seen in cattle, buffaloes and African wild capra species.

A lack in the understanding of the key factors determining the transmission of the disease between species, host range, epidemiology and vaccine efficacy of PPRV poses a significant risk to the success of OIE and FAO’s nascent PPR eradication campaign by 2030. Improving the understanding of the transmission dynamics, early events of pathogenesis, epidemiology, new diagnostics and vaccine efficacy and underlying the differential susceptibility of goats, cattle, pigs and wild species will broadly enhance our knowledge of disease spread,  maintenance of virus in wildlife and cattle and host-specific disease-resistance mechanisms. Therefore, this Special Issue is aimed to have a great impact on PPR eradication.

Prof. Dr. Satya Parida
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV)
  • PPR
  • PPR in sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes and wildlife
  • eradication
  • epidemiology
  • transmission
  • diagnostics
  • vaccines and vaccine efficacy
  • pathogenesis
  • host range

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Peste des petits ruminants Virus Transmission Scaling and Husbandry Practices That Contribute to Increased Transmission Risk: An Investigation among Sheep, Goats, and Cattle in Northern Tanzania
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12090930 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an infectious disease of high morbidity and mortality among sheep and goats which impacts millions of livestock keepers globally. PPRV transmission risk varies by production system, but a deeper understanding of how transmission scales in these [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an infectious disease of high morbidity and mortality among sheep and goats which impacts millions of livestock keepers globally. PPRV transmission risk varies by production system, but a deeper understanding of how transmission scales in these systems and which husbandry practices impact risk is needed. To investigate transmission scaling and husbandry practice-associated risk, this study combined 395 household questionnaires with over 7115 cross-sectional serosurvey samples collected in Tanzania among agropastoral and pastoral households managing sheep, goats, or cattle (most managed all three, n = 284, 71.9%). Although self-reported compound-level herd size was significantly larger in pastoral than agropastoral households, the data show no evidence that household herd force of infection (FOI, per capita infection rate of susceptible hosts) increased with herd size. Seroprevalence and FOI patterns observed at the sub-village level showed significant spatial variation in FOI. Univariate analyses showed that household herd FOI was significantly higher when households reported seasonal grazing camp attendance, cattle or goat introduction to the compound, death, sale, or giving away of animals in the past 12 months, when cattle were grazed separately from sheep and goats, and when the household also managed dogs or donkeys. Multivariable analyses revealed that species, production system type, and goat or sheep introduction or seasonal grazing camp attendance, cattle or goat death or sales, or goats given away in the past 12 months significantly increased odds of seroconversion, whereas managing pigs or cattle attending seasonal grazing camps had significantly lower odds of seroconversion. Further research should investigate specific husbandry practices across production systems in other countries and in systems that include additional atypical host species to broaden understanding of PPRV transmission. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
RNAseq Reveals the Contribution of Interferon Stimulated Genes to the Increased Host Defense and Decreased PPR Viral Replication in Cattle
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040463 - 20 Apr 2020
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is known to replicate in a wide variety of ruminants causing very species-specific clinical symptoms. Small ruminants (goats and sheep) are susceptible to disease while domesticated cattle and buffalo are dead-end hosts and do not display clinical [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is known to replicate in a wide variety of ruminants causing very species-specific clinical symptoms. Small ruminants (goats and sheep) are susceptible to disease while domesticated cattle and buffalo are dead-end hosts and do not display clinical symptoms. Understanding the host factors that influence differential pathogenesis and disease susceptibility could help the development of better diagnostics and control measures. To study this, we generated transcriptome data from goat and cattle peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) experimentally infected with PPRV in-vitro. After identifying differentially expressed genes, we further analyzed these immune related pathway genes using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) and selected candidate genes were validated using in-vitro experiments. Upon PPRV infection, we identified 12 and 22 immune related genes that were differentially expressed in goat and cattle respectively. In both species, this included the interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) IFI44, IFI6, IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3, ISG15, Mx1, Mx2, OAS1X, RSAD2, IRF7, DDX58 and DHX58 that were transcribed significantly higher in cattle. PPRV replication in goat PBMCs significantly increased the expression of phosphodiesterase 12 (PDE12), a 2′,5′-oligoadenylate degrading enzyme that contributes to the reduced modulation of interferon-regulated gene targets. Finally, a model is proposed for the differential susceptibility between large and small ruminants based on the expression levels of type-I interferons, ISGs and effector molecules. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Characterisation of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Disease in Pastoralist Flocks in Ngorongoro District of Northern Tanzania and Bluetongue Virus Co-Infection
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040389 - 31 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease was first confirmed in Tanzania in 2008 in sheep and goats in Ngorongoro District, northern Tanzania, and is now endemic in this area. This study aimed to characterise PPR disease in pastoralist small ruminant flocks in Ngorongoro [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease was first confirmed in Tanzania in 2008 in sheep and goats in Ngorongoro District, northern Tanzania, and is now endemic in this area. This study aimed to characterise PPR disease in pastoralist small ruminant flocks in Ngorongoro District. During June 2015, 33 PPR-like disease reports were investigated in different parts of the district, using semi-structured interviews, clinical examinations, PPR virus rapid detection test (PPRV-RDT), and laboratory analysis. Ten flocks were confirmed as PPRV infected by PPRV-RDT and/or real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and two flocks were co-infected with bluetongue virus (BTV), confirmed by RT-qPCR. Phylogenetic analysis of six partial N gene sequences showed that the PPR viruses clustered with recent lineage III Tanzanian viruses, and grouped with Ugandan, Kenyan and Democratic Republic of Congo isolates. No PPR-like disease was reported in wildlife. There was considerable variation in clinical syndromes between flocks: some showed a full range of PPR signs, while others were predominantly respiratory, diarrhoea, or oro-nasal syndromes, which were associated with different local disease names (olodua—a term for rinderpest, olkipiei—lung disease, oloirobi—fever, enkorotik—diarrhoea). BTV co-infection was associated with severe oro-nasal lesions. This clinical variability makes the field diagnosis of PPR challenging, highlighting the importance of access to pen-side antigen tests and multiplex assays to support improved surveillance and targeting of control activities for PPR eradication. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Peste des Petits Ruminants at the Wildlife–Livestock Interface in the Northern Albertine Rift and Nile Basin, East Africa
Viruses 2020, 12(3), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030293 - 07 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
In the recent past, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) emerged in East Africa causing outbreaks in small livestock across different countries, with evidences of spillover to wildlife. In order to understand better PPR at the wildlife–livestock interface, we investigated patterns of peste des [...] Read more.
In the recent past, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) emerged in East Africa causing outbreaks in small livestock across different countries, with evidences of spillover to wildlife. In order to understand better PPR at the wildlife–livestock interface, we investigated patterns of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) exposure, disease outbreaks, and viral sequences in the northern Albertine Rift. PPRV antibodies indicated a widespread exposure in apparently healthy wildlife from South Sudan (2013) and Uganda (2015, 2017). African buffaloes and Uganda kobs <1-year-old from Queen Elizabeth National Park (2015) had antibodies against PPRV N-antigen and local serosurvey captured a subsequent spread of PPRV in livestock. Outbreaks with PPR-like syndrome in sheep and goats were recorded around the Greater Virunga Landscape in Kasese (2016), Kisoro and Kabale (2017) from western Uganda, and in North Kivu (2017) from eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This landscape would not be considered typical for PPR persistence as it is a mixed forest–savannah ecosystem with mostly sedentary livestock. PPRV sequences from DRC (2017) were identical to strains from Burundi (2018) and confirmed a transboundary spread of PPRV. Our results indicate an epidemiological linkage between epizootic cycles in livestock and exposure in wildlife, denoting the importance of PPR surveillance on wild artiodactyls for both conservation and eradication programs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Identifying Age Cohorts Responsible for Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Transmission among Sheep, Goats, and Cattle in Northern Tanzania
Viruses 2020, 12(2), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12020186 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a contagious disease of high morbidity and mortality in global sheep and goat populations. To better control this disease and inform eradication strategies, an improved understanding of how PPRV transmission risk varies by age is needed. [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a contagious disease of high morbidity and mortality in global sheep and goat populations. To better control this disease and inform eradication strategies, an improved understanding of how PPRV transmission risk varies by age is needed. Our study used a piece-wise catalytic model to estimate the age-specific force of infection (FOI, per capita infection rate of susceptible hosts) among sheep, goats, and cattle from a cross-sectional serosurvey dataset collected in 2016 in Tanzania. Apparent seroprevalence increased with age, reaching 53.6%, 46.8%, and 11.6% (true seroprevalence: 52.7%, 52.8%, 39.2%) for sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly higher among pastoral animals than agropastoral animals across all ages, with pastoral sheep and goat seroprevalence approaching 70% and 80%, respectively, suggesting pastoral endemicity. The best fitting piece-wise catalytic models merged age groups: two for sheep, three for goats, and four for cattle. The signal of these age heterogeneities were weak, except for a significant FOI peak among 2.5–3.5-year-old pastoral cattle. The subtle age-specific heterogeneities identified in this study suggest that targeting control efforts by age may not be as effective as targeting by other risk factors, such as production system type. Further research should investigate how specific husbandry practices affect PPRV transmission. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Camelids and Cattle Are Dead-End Hosts for Peste-des-Petits-Ruminants Virus
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121133 - 08 Dec 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe respiratory disease in small ruminants. The possible impact of different atypical host species in the spread and planed worldwide eradication of PPRV remains to be clarified. Recent transmission trials with the virulent PPRV lineage IV (LIV)-strain Kurdistan/2011 [...] Read more.
Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe respiratory disease in small ruminants. The possible impact of different atypical host species in the spread and planed worldwide eradication of PPRV remains to be clarified. Recent transmission trials with the virulent PPRV lineage IV (LIV)-strain Kurdistan/2011 revealed that pigs and wild boar are possible sources of PPRV-infection. We therefore investigated the role of cattle, llamas, alpacas, and dromedary camels in transmission trials using the Kurdistan/2011 strain for intranasal infection and integrated a literature review for a proper evaluation of their host traits and role in PPRV-transmission. Cattle and camelids developed no clinical signs, no viremia, shed no or only low PPRV-RNA loads in swab samples and did not transmit any PPRV to the contact animals. The distribution of PPRV-RNA or antigen in lymphoid organs was similar in cattle and camelids although generally lower compared to suids and small ruminants. In the typical small ruminant hosts, the tissue tropism, pathogenesis and disease expression after PPRV-infection is associated with infection of immune and epithelial cells via SLAM and nectin-4 receptors, respectively. We therefore suggest a different pathogenesis in cattle and camelids and both as dead-end hosts for PPRV. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
MicroRNA Expression Profile in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Sheep Vaccinated with Nigeria 75/1 Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11111025 - 05 Nov 2019
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the highly contagious transboundary viral diseases of small ruminants. Host microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns may change in response to virus infection, and it mainly works as a post-transcriptional moderator in gene expression and affects viral [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the highly contagious transboundary viral diseases of small ruminants. Host microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns may change in response to virus infection, and it mainly works as a post-transcriptional moderator in gene expression and affects viral pathogenesis and replication. In this study, the change of miRNA expression profile in peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBMC) from sheep inoculated with PPR vaccine virus in vivo as well as primary sheep testicular (ST) cells inoculated with PPR vaccine virus in vitro were determined via deep sequencing technology. In PBMC cells, 373 and 115 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) were identified 3 days and 5 days post inoculated (dpi), respectively. While, 575 DEmiRNAs were identified when comparing miRNA profiles on 5 dpi with 3 dpi. Some of the DEmiRNAs were found to change significantly via time-course during PPR vaccine virus inoculated. Similarly, in ST cells, 136 DEmiRNAs were identified at 3 dpi in comparison with mock-inoculation. A total of 12 DEmiRNAs were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The oar-miR-150, oar-miR-370-3p and oar-miR-411b-3p were found common differentially expressed in both PPR vaccine virus-inoculated PBMC cells and ST cells. Targets prediction and functional analysis of the DEmiRNAs uncovered mainly gathering in antigen processing and presentation pathways, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum pathways and cell adhesion molecules pathways. Our study supplies information about the DEmiRNAs in PPR vaccine virus-inoculated PBMC cells and ST cells, and provides clues for further understanding the function of miRNAs in PPR vaccine virus replication. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus-Like Particles Induce a Potent Humoral and Cellular Immune Response in Goats
Viruses 2019, 11(10), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100918 - 05 Oct 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants is a highly contagious acute or subacute disease of small ruminants caused by the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), and it is responsible for significant economic losses in animal husbandry. Vaccination represents the most effective means of controlling [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants is a highly contagious acute or subacute disease of small ruminants caused by the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), and it is responsible for significant economic losses in animal husbandry. Vaccination represents the most effective means of controlling this disease, with virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines offering promising vaccine candidates. In this study, a PPRV VLP-based vaccine was developed using a baculovirus expression system, allowing for the simultaneous expression of the PPRV matrix (M), hemagglutinin (H), fusion (F) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins in insect cells. Immunization of mice and goats with PPRV VLPs elicited a robust neutralization response and a potent cellular immune response. Mouse studies demonstrated that VLPs induced a more robust IFN-γ response in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells than PPRV Nigeria 75/1 and recruited and/or activated more B cells and dendritic cells in inguinal lymph nodes. In addition, PPRV VLPs induced a strong Th1 class response in mice, as indicated by a high IgG2a to IgG1 ratio. Goat studies demonstrated that PPRV VLPs can induce the production of antibodies specific for F and H proteins and can also stimulate the production of virus neutralizing antibodies to the same magnitude as the PPRV Nigeria 75/1 vaccine. Higher amounts of IFN-γ in VLP-immunized animal serum suggested that VLPs also elicited a cellular immune response in goats. These results demonstrated that VLPs elicit a potent immune response against PPRV infection in small ruminants, making PPRV VLPs a potential candidate for PPRV vaccine development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Rapid Detection of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV) Nucleic Acid Using a Novel Low-Cost Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) Assay for Future Use in Nascent PPR Eradication Programme
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080699 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a disease of small ruminants caused by peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), and is endemic in Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Effective control combines the application of early warning systems, accurate laboratory diagnosis and reporting, [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a disease of small ruminants caused by peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), and is endemic in Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Effective control combines the application of early warning systems, accurate laboratory diagnosis and reporting, animal movement restrictions, suitable vaccination and surveillance programs, and the coordination of all these measures by efficient veterinary services. Molecular assays, including conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) have improved the sensitivity and rapidity of diagnosing PPR. However, currently these assays are only performed within laboratory settings; therefore, the development of field diagnostics for PPR would improve the fast implementation of control policies, particularly when PPR has been targeted to be eradicated by 2030. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays are simple to use, rapid, and have sensitivity and specificity within the range of RT-qPCR; and can be performed in the field using disposable consumables and portable equipment. This study describes the development of a novel RT-LAMP assay for the detection of PPRV nucleic acid by targeting the N-protein gene. The RT-LAMP assay was evaluated using cell culture propagated PPRVs, field samples from clinically infected animals and samples from experimentally infected animals encompassing all four lineages (I-IV) of PPRV. The test displayed 100% concordance with RT-qPCR when considering an RT-qPCR cut-off value of CT >40. Further, the RT-LAMP assay was evaluated using experimental and outbreak samples without prior RNA extraction making it more time and cost-effective. This assay provides a solution for a pen-side, rapid and inexpensive PPR diagnostic for use in the field in nascent PPR eradication programme. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Eradicating the Scourge of Peste Des Petits Ruminants from the World
Viruses 2020, 12(3), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030313 - 15 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of both domestic (goats and sheep) and wild ruminants. Caused by a morbillivirus, that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae. The disease is clinically and pathologically similar to rinderpest of cattle and human [...] Read more.
Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of both domestic (goats and sheep) and wild ruminants. Caused by a morbillivirus, that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae. The disease is clinically and pathologically similar to rinderpest of cattle and human measles. PPR is one of the most economically devastating viral diseases of small ruminants. In April 2015, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) launched the PPR Global Control and Eradication Strategy (PPR GCES) with the vision for global eradication by 2030. There is a strong and lasting international consensus to eradicate the disease in order to protect the livelihoods of the world’s poorest populations. As with any disease, eradication is feasible when, policy, scientific and technical challenges are addressed. Ten majors challenges are described in this paper namely: understanding small ruminant production, facilitating research to support eradication, refining laboratory testing, improving epidemiological understanding of the virus, defining infection of wildlife and other species, optimizing vaccine delivery and novel vaccines, developing better control of animal movement, heightening serological monitoring, understanding socio-economic impact, and garnering funding and political will. Full article
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