Special Issue "Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) Eradication: Improved Understanding of Epidemiology, Diagnostics and Vaccine Efficacy"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Satya Parida
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory and Vaccine Specialist, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy
Interests: peste des petits ruminants virus; PPRV; FMDV; vaccines; pathogenesis of PPRV
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Throughout the developing world, the peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus (PPRV) places a huge disease burden on agriculture, in particular affecting small-ruminant production and contributing to poverty in many developing countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. The primary susceptible hosts of PPRV are sheep and goats; however, the virus also causes clinical disease in pigs, camels and other wild capra species. Sub-clinical infection, with accompanying seroconversion, is seen in cattle, buffaloes and African wild capra species.

A lack in the understanding of the key factors determining the transmission of the disease between species, host range, epidemiology and vaccine efficacy of PPRV poses a significant risk to the success of OIE and FAO’s nascent PPR eradication campaign by 2030. Improving the understanding of the transmission dynamics, early events of pathogenesis, epidemiology, new diagnostics and vaccine efficacy and underlying the differential susceptibility of goats, cattle, pigs and wild species will broadly enhance our knowledge of disease spread,  maintenance of virus in wildlife and cattle and host-specific disease-resistance mechanisms. Therefore, this Special Issue is aimed to have a great impact on PPR eradication.

Prof. Dr. Satya Parida
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV)
  • PPR
  • PPR in sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes and wildlife
  • eradication
  • epidemiology
  • transmission
  • diagnostics
  • vaccines and vaccine efficacy
  • pathogenesis
  • host range

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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Article
Retrospective Characterization of Initial Peste des petits ruminants Outbreaks (2008–2012) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Viruses 2021, 13(12), 2373; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13122373 - 26 Nov 2021
Viewed by 430
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, contagious viral disease of small ruminants, goats and sheep. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) was a PPR-free country until 2007, although in 2006, scare alerts were received from the east and the southwest [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, contagious viral disease of small ruminants, goats and sheep. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) was a PPR-free country until 2007, although in 2006, scare alerts were received from the east and the southwest of the country, reporting repeated mortalities, specifically in goats. In 2008, PPR outbreaks were seen in several villages in the west, leading to structured veterinary field operations. Blood, swabs and pathological specimens consisting of tissues from lungs, spleens, lymph nodes, kidneys, livers and hearts were ethically collected from clinically infected and/or dead animals, as appropriate, in 35 districts. Epidemiological information relating to major risk factors and socio-economic impact was progressively collected, revealing the deaths of 744,527 goats, which converted to a trade value of USD 35,674,600. Samples from infected and dead animals were routinely analyzed by the Central Veterinary Laboratory at Kinshasa for diagnosis, and after official declaration of PPR outbreaks by the FAO in July 2012, selected tissue samples were sent to The Pirbright Institute, United Kingdom, for genotyping. As a result of surveys undertaken between 2008 and 2012, PPR virus (PPRV)-specific antibodies were detected in 25 locations out of 33 tested (75.7%); PPRV nucleic acid was detected in 25 locations out of 35 (71.4%); and a typical clinical picture of PPR was observed in 23 locations out of 35 (65.7%). Analysis of the partial and full genome sequences of PPR viruses (PPRVs) obtained from lymphoid tissues of dead goats collected in Tshela in the DRC in 2012 confirmed the circulation of lineage IV PPRV, showing the highest homology (99.6−100%) with the viruses circulating in the neighboring countries of Gabon, in the Aboumi outbreak in 2011, and Nigeria (99.3% homology) in 2013, although recent outbreaks in 2016 and 2018 in the western part of the DRC that borders with East Africa demonstrated circulation of lineage II and lineage III PPRV. Full article
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Article
Exchange of C-Terminal Variable Sequences within Morbillivirus Nucleocapsid Protein Are Tolerated: Development and Evaluation of Two Marker (DIVA) Vaccines (Sungri/96 DIVA, Nigeria/75/1 DIVA) against PPR
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2320; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112320 - 21 Nov 2021
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Across Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) places a huge disease burden on agriculture, affecting, in particular, small ruminant production. The recent PPR outbreaks in Northern Africa, the European part of Turkey, and Bulgaria represent a significant [...] Read more.
Across Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) places a huge disease burden on agriculture, affecting, in particular, small ruminant production. The recent PPR outbreaks in Northern Africa, the European part of Turkey, and Bulgaria represent a significant threat to mainland Europe, as a source of disease. Although two safe and efficacious live attenuated vaccines (Sungri/96 and Nigeria/75/1) are available for the control of PPR, current serological tests do not enable the differentiation between naturally infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). The vaccinated animals develop a full range of immune responses to viral proteins and, therefore, cannot be distinguished serologically from those that have recovered from a natural infection. This poses a serious problem for the post-vaccinal sero-surveillance during the ongoing PPR eradication program. Furthermore, during the latter stages of any eradication program, vaccination is only possible if the vaccine used is fully DIVA compliant. Using reverse genetics, we have developed two live attenuated PPR DIVA vaccines (Sungri/96 DIVA and Nigeria/75/1 DIVA), in which the C-terminal variable region of the PPRV N-protein has been replaced with dolphin morbillivirus (DMV). As a proof of principle, both the DIVA vaccines were evaluated in goats in pilot studies for safety and efficacy, and all the animals were clinically protected against the intranasal virulent virus challenge, similar to the parent vaccines. Furthermore, it is possible to differentiate between infected animals and vaccinated animals using two newly developed ELISAs. Therefore, these DIVA vaccines and associated tests can facilitate the sero-monitoring process and speed up the implementation of global PPR eradication through vaccination. Full article
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Article
Ongoing Assessment of the Molecular Evolution of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Continues to Question Viral Origins
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2144; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112144 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 685
Abstract
Understanding the evolution of viral pathogens is critical to being able to define how viruses emerge within different landscapes. Host susceptibility, which is spread between different species and is a contributing factor to the subsequent epidemiology of a disease, is defined by virus [...] Read more.
Understanding the evolution of viral pathogens is critical to being able to define how viruses emerge within different landscapes. Host susceptibility, which is spread between different species and is a contributing factor to the subsequent epidemiology of a disease, is defined by virus detection and subsequent characterization. Peste des petits ruminants virus is a plague of small ruminant species that is a considerable burden to the development of sustainable agriculture across Africa and much of Asia. The virus has also had a significant impact on populations of endangered species in recent years, highlighting its significance as a pathogen of high concern across different regions of the globe. Here, we have re-evaluated the molecular evolution of this virus using novel genetic data to try and further resolve the molecular epidemiology of this disease. Viral isolates are genetically characterized into four lineages (I−IV), and the historic origin of these lineages is of considerable interest to the molecular evolution of the virus. Our re-evaluation of viral emergence using novel genome sequences has demonstrated that lineages I, II and IV likely originated in West Africa, in Senegal (I) and Nigeria (II and IV). Lineage III sequences predicted emergence in either East Africa (Ethiopia) or in the Arabian Peninsula (Oman and/or the United Arab Emirates), with a paucity of data precluding a more refined interpretation. Continual refinements of evolutionary emergence, following the generation of new data, is key to both understanding viral evolution from a historic perspective and informing on the ongoing genetic emergence of this virus. Full article
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Article
Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection at the Wildlife–Livestock Interface in the Greater Serengeti Ecosystem, 2015–2019
Viruses 2021, 13(5), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13050838 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1981
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease of goats and sheep that occurs in Africa, the Middle East and Asia with a severe impact on livelihoods and livestock trade. Many wild artiodactyls are susceptible to PPR virus (PPRV) infection, and some [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease of goats and sheep that occurs in Africa, the Middle East and Asia with a severe impact on livelihoods and livestock trade. Many wild artiodactyls are susceptible to PPR virus (PPRV) infection, and some outbreaks have threatened endangered wild populations. The role of wild species in PPRV epidemiology is unclear, which is a knowledge gap for the Global Strategy for the Control and Eradication of PPR. These studies aimed to investigate PPRV infection in wild artiodactyls in the Greater Serengeti and Amboseli ecosystems of Kenya and Tanzania. Out of 132 animals purposively sampled in 2015–2016, 19.7% were PPRV seropositive by ID Screen PPR competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA; IDvet, France) from the following species: African buffalo, wildebeest, topi, kongoni, Grant’s gazelle, impala, Thomson’s gazelle, warthog and gerenuk, while waterbuck and lesser kudu were seronegative. In 2018–2019, a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected African buffalo and Grant’s gazelle herds was conducted. The weighted estimate of PPRV seroprevalence was 12.0% out of 191 African buffalo and 1.1% out of 139 Grant’s gazelles. All ocular and nasal swabs and faeces were negative by PPRV real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Investigations of a PPR-like disease in sheep and goats confirmed PPRV circulation in the area by rapid detection test and/or RT-qPCR. These results demonstrated serological evidence of PPRV infection in wild artiodactyl species at the wildlife–livestock interface in this ecosystem where PPRV is endemic in domestic small ruminants. Exposure to PPRV could be via spillover from infected small ruminants or from transmission between wild animals, while the relatively low seroprevalence suggests that sustained transmission is unlikely. Further studies of other major wild artiodactyls in this ecosystem are required, such as impala, Thomson’s gazelle and wildebeest. Full article
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Article
Temporal and Spatial Epidemiological Analysis of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Outbreaks from the Past 25 Years in Sheep and Goats and Its Control in India
Viruses 2021, 13(3), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030480 - 15 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 651
Abstract
This study was aimed to understand the temporal and spatial epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in India using national surveillance data available in the National Animal Diseases Referral Expert System (NADRES) along with its control plan undertaken. On analysis of the [...] Read more.
This study was aimed to understand the temporal and spatial epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in India using national surveillance data available in the National Animal Diseases Referral Expert System (NADRES) along with its control plan undertaken. On analysis of the outbreaks/cases reports in sheep and goats in NADRES database from 1995 to 2019, it was observed that PPR features among the top ten diseases and stands first among viral diseases, and among reported deaths, PPR accounts for 36% of mortality in sheep and goats. PPR outbreaks occur round the year in all the seasons but are encountered most frequently during the lean period especially, in the winter season (January to February) in different regions/zones. The reported outbreaks have been progressively declined in most of the states in India due to the implementation of a mass vaccination strategic program since 2011. On state-wise analysis, the PPR risk-areas showed wide variations with different levels of endemicity. Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, and Karnataka were the top three outbreaks reported states during 1995–2010, whereas Jharkhand and West Bengal states reported more outbreaks during 2011–2015 and 2016–2019 periods. The temporal and spatial distribution of PPR in India provides valuable information on the hotspot areas/zones to take appropriate policy decisions towards its prevention and control in different regions/zones of India. The study also identifies when and where intensive surveillance and vaccination along with biosecurity measures need to be implemented for the control and eradication of the disease from India in consonance with the PPR Global Control and Eradication Strategy. Full article
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Article
Caprine MAVS Is a RIG-I Interacting Type I Interferon Inducer Downregulated by Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Infection
Viruses 2021, 13(3), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13030409 - 05 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 901
Abstract
The mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, also known as VISA, IPS-1, or CARDIF) plays an essential role in the type I interferon (IFN) response and in retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) mediated antiviral innate immunity in mammals. In this study, the caprine MAVS gene [...] Read more.
The mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, also known as VISA, IPS-1, or CARDIF) plays an essential role in the type I interferon (IFN) response and in retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) mediated antiviral innate immunity in mammals. In this study, the caprine MAVS gene (caMAVS, 1566 bp) was identified and cloned. The caMAVS shares the highest amino acid similarity (98.1%) with the predicted sheep MAVS. Confocal microscopy analysis of partial deletion mutants of caMAVS revealed that the transmembrane and the so-called Non-Characterized domains are indispensable for intracellular localization to mitochondria. Overexpression of caMAVS in caprine endometrial epithelial cells up-regulated the mRNA levels of caprine interferon-stimulated genes. We concluded that caprine MAVS mediates the activation of the type I IFN pathway. We further demonstrated that both the CARD-like domain and the transmembrane domain of caMAVS were essential for the activation of the IFN-β promotor. The interaction between caMAVS and caprine RIG-I and the vital role of the CARD and NC domain in this interaction was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. Upon infection with the Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV, genus Morbillivirus), the level of MAVS was greatly reduced. This reduction was prevented by the addition of the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Moreover, we found that viral protein V could interact and colocalize with MAVS. Together, we identified caMAVS as a RIG-I interactive protein involved in the activation of type I IFN pathways in caprine cells and as a target for PPRV immune evasion. Full article
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Article
“FastCheckFLI PPR-like”—A Molecular Tool for the Fast Genome Detection of PPRV and Differential Diagnostic Pathogens
Viruses 2020, 12(11), 1227; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12111227 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 771
Abstract
To assist the global eradication of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), a molecular test for the rapid and reliable detection of PPRV was developed which additionally enables the detection of pathogens relevant for differential diagnostics. For this purpose, the necessary time frame [...] Read more.
To assist the global eradication of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), a molecular test for the rapid and reliable detection of PPRV was developed which additionally enables the detection of pathogens relevant for differential diagnostics. For this purpose, the necessary time frame of a magnetic bead-based nucleic acid extraction protocol was markedly shortened to 7 min and 13 s. The optimized extraction was run on a BioSprint 15 platform. Furthermore, a high-speed multi-well RT-qPCR for the genome detection of PPRV and additional important pathogens such as Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Parapoxvirus ovis, Goatpox virus, and Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae was established and combined with suitable internal control assays. The here-described qPCR is based on a lyophilized master mix and takes only around 30 to 40 min. Several qPCR cyclers were evaluated regarding their suitability for fast-cycling approaches and for their diagnostic performance in a high-speed RT-qPCR. The final evaluation was conducted on the BioRad CFX96 and also on a portable Liberty16 qPCR cycler. The new molecular test designated as “FastCheckFLI PPR-like”, which is based on rapid nucleic acid extraction and high-speed RT-qPCR, delivered reliable results in less than one hour, allowing its use also in a pen-side scenario. Full article
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Article
Peste des petits ruminants Virus Transmission Scaling and Husbandry Practices That Contribute to Increased Transmission Risk: An Investigation among Sheep, Goats, and Cattle in Northern Tanzania
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12090930 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2079
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an infectious disease of high morbidity and mortality among sheep and goats which impacts millions of livestock keepers globally. PPRV transmission risk varies by production system, but a deeper understanding of how transmission scales in these [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an infectious disease of high morbidity and mortality among sheep and goats which impacts millions of livestock keepers globally. PPRV transmission risk varies by production system, but a deeper understanding of how transmission scales in these systems and which husbandry practices impact risk is needed. To investigate transmission scaling and husbandry practice-associated risk, this study combined 395 household questionnaires with over 7115 cross-sectional serosurvey samples collected in Tanzania among agropastoral and pastoral households managing sheep, goats, or cattle (most managed all three, n = 284, 71.9%). Although self-reported compound-level herd size was significantly larger in pastoral than agropastoral households, the data show no evidence that household herd force of infection (FOI, per capita infection rate of susceptible hosts) increased with herd size. Seroprevalence and FOI patterns observed at the sub-village level showed significant spatial variation in FOI. Univariate analyses showed that household herd FOI was significantly higher when households reported seasonal grazing camp attendance, cattle or goat introduction to the compound, death, sale, or giving away of animals in the past 12 months, when cattle were grazed separately from sheep and goats, and when the household also managed dogs or donkeys. Multivariable analyses revealed that species, production system type, and goat or sheep introduction or seasonal grazing camp attendance, cattle or goat death or sales, or goats given away in the past 12 months significantly increased odds of seroconversion, whereas managing pigs or cattle attending seasonal grazing camps had significantly lower odds of seroconversion. Further research should investigate specific husbandry practices across production systems in other countries and in systems that include additional atypical host species to broaden understanding of PPRV transmission. Full article
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Article
RNAseq Reveals the Contribution of Interferon Stimulated Genes to the Increased Host Defense and Decreased PPR Viral Replication in Cattle
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040463 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2185
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is known to replicate in a wide variety of ruminants causing very species-specific clinical symptoms. Small ruminants (goats and sheep) are susceptible to disease while domesticated cattle and buffalo are dead-end hosts and do not display clinical [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is known to replicate in a wide variety of ruminants causing very species-specific clinical symptoms. Small ruminants (goats and sheep) are susceptible to disease while domesticated cattle and buffalo are dead-end hosts and do not display clinical symptoms. Understanding the host factors that influence differential pathogenesis and disease susceptibility could help the development of better diagnostics and control measures. To study this, we generated transcriptome data from goat and cattle peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) experimentally infected with PPRV in-vitro. After identifying differentially expressed genes, we further analyzed these immune related pathway genes using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) and selected candidate genes were validated using in-vitro experiments. Upon PPRV infection, we identified 12 and 22 immune related genes that were differentially expressed in goat and cattle respectively. In both species, this included the interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) IFI44, IFI6, IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3, ISG15, Mx1, Mx2, OAS1X, RSAD2, IRF7, DDX58 and DHX58 that were transcribed significantly higher in cattle. PPRV replication in goat PBMCs significantly increased the expression of phosphodiesterase 12 (PDE12), a 2′,5′-oligoadenylate degrading enzyme that contributes to the reduced modulation of interferon-regulated gene targets. Finally, a model is proposed for the differential susceptibility between large and small ruminants based on the expression levels of type-I interferons, ISGs and effector molecules. Full article
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Article
Characterisation of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Disease in Pastoralist Flocks in Ngorongoro District of Northern Tanzania and Bluetongue Virus Co-Infection
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040389 - 31 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1979
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease was first confirmed in Tanzania in 2008 in sheep and goats in Ngorongoro District, northern Tanzania, and is now endemic in this area. This study aimed to characterise PPR disease in pastoralist small ruminant flocks in Ngorongoro [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease was first confirmed in Tanzania in 2008 in sheep and goats in Ngorongoro District, northern Tanzania, and is now endemic in this area. This study aimed to characterise PPR disease in pastoralist small ruminant flocks in Ngorongoro District. During June 2015, 33 PPR-like disease reports were investigated in different parts of the district, using semi-structured interviews, clinical examinations, PPR virus rapid detection test (PPRV-RDT), and laboratory analysis. Ten flocks were confirmed as PPRV infected by PPRV-RDT and/or real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and two flocks were co-infected with bluetongue virus (BTV), confirmed by RT-qPCR. Phylogenetic analysis of six partial N gene sequences showed that the PPR viruses clustered with recent lineage III Tanzanian viruses, and grouped with Ugandan, Kenyan and Democratic Republic of Congo isolates. No PPR-like disease was reported in wildlife. There was considerable variation in clinical syndromes between flocks: some showed a full range of PPR signs, while others were predominantly respiratory, diarrhoea, or oro-nasal syndromes, which were associated with different local disease names (olodua—a term for rinderpest, olkipiei—lung disease, oloirobi—fever, enkorotik—diarrhoea). BTV co-infection was associated with severe oro-nasal lesions. This clinical variability makes the field diagnosis of PPR challenging, highlighting the importance of access to pen-side antigen tests and multiplex assays to support improved surveillance and targeting of control activities for PPR eradication. Full article
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Article
Peste des Petits Ruminants at the Wildlife–Livestock Interface in the Northern Albertine Rift and Nile Basin, East Africa
Viruses 2020, 12(3), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030293 - 07 Mar 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
In the recent past, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) emerged in East Africa causing outbreaks in small livestock across different countries, with evidences of spillover to wildlife. In order to understand better PPR at the wildlife–livestock interface, we investigated patterns of peste des [...] Read more.
In the recent past, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) emerged in East Africa causing outbreaks in small livestock across different countries, with evidences of spillover to wildlife. In order to understand better PPR at the wildlife–livestock interface, we investigated patterns of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) exposure, disease outbreaks, and viral sequences in the northern Albertine Rift. PPRV antibodies indicated a widespread exposure in apparently healthy wildlife from South Sudan (2013) and Uganda (2015, 2017). African buffaloes and Uganda kobs <1-year-old from Queen Elizabeth National Park (2015) had antibodies against PPRV N-antigen and local serosurvey captured a subsequent spread of PPRV in livestock. Outbreaks with PPR-like syndrome in sheep and goats were recorded around the Greater Virunga Landscape in Kasese (2016), Kisoro and Kabale (2017) from western Uganda, and in North Kivu (2017) from eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This landscape would not be considered typical for PPR persistence as it is a mixed forest–savannah ecosystem with mostly sedentary livestock. PPRV sequences from DRC (2017) were identical to strains from Burundi (2018) and confirmed a transboundary spread of PPRV. Our results indicate an epidemiological linkage between epizootic cycles in livestock and exposure in wildlife, denoting the importance of PPR surveillance on wild artiodactyls for both conservation and eradication programs. Full article
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Article
Identifying Age Cohorts Responsible for Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus Transmission among Sheep, Goats, and Cattle in Northern Tanzania
Viruses 2020, 12(2), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12020186 - 07 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2129
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a contagious disease of high morbidity and mortality in global sheep and goat populations. To better control this disease and inform eradication strategies, an improved understanding of how PPRV transmission risk varies by age is needed. [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a contagious disease of high morbidity and mortality in global sheep and goat populations. To better control this disease and inform eradication strategies, an improved understanding of how PPRV transmission risk varies by age is needed. Our study used a piece-wise catalytic model to estimate the age-specific force of infection (FOI, per capita infection rate of susceptible hosts) among sheep, goats, and cattle from a cross-sectional serosurvey dataset collected in 2016 in Tanzania. Apparent seroprevalence increased with age, reaching 53.6%, 46.8%, and 11.6% (true seroprevalence: 52.7%, 52.8%, 39.2%) for sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly higher among pastoral animals than agropastoral animals across all ages, with pastoral sheep and goat seroprevalence approaching 70% and 80%, respectively, suggesting pastoral endemicity. The best fitting piece-wise catalytic models merged age groups: two for sheep, three for goats, and four for cattle. The signal of these age heterogeneities were weak, except for a significant FOI peak among 2.5–3.5-year-old pastoral cattle. The subtle age-specific heterogeneities identified in this study suggest that targeting control efforts by age may not be as effective as targeting by other risk factors, such as production system type. Further research should investigate how specific husbandry practices affect PPRV transmission. Full article
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Article
Camelids and Cattle Are Dead-End Hosts for Peste-des-Petits-Ruminants Virus
Viruses 2019, 11(12), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11121133 - 08 Dec 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1743
Abstract
Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe respiratory disease in small ruminants. The possible impact of different atypical host species in the spread and planed worldwide eradication of PPRV remains to be clarified. Recent transmission trials with the virulent PPRV lineage IV (LIV)-strain Kurdistan/2011 [...] Read more.
Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe respiratory disease in small ruminants. The possible impact of different atypical host species in the spread and planed worldwide eradication of PPRV remains to be clarified. Recent transmission trials with the virulent PPRV lineage IV (LIV)-strain Kurdistan/2011 revealed that pigs and wild boar are possible sources of PPRV-infection. We therefore investigated the role of cattle, llamas, alpacas, and dromedary camels in transmission trials using the Kurdistan/2011 strain for intranasal infection and integrated a literature review for a proper evaluation of their host traits and role in PPRV-transmission. Cattle and camelids developed no clinical signs, no viremia, shed no or only low PPRV-RNA loads in swab samples and did not transmit any PPRV to the contact animals. The distribution of PPRV-RNA or antigen in lymphoid organs was similar in cattle and camelids although generally lower compared to suids and small ruminants. In the typical small ruminant hosts, the tissue tropism, pathogenesis and disease expression after PPRV-infection is associated with infection of immune and epithelial cells via SLAM and nectin-4 receptors, respectively. We therefore suggest a different pathogenesis in cattle and camelids and both as dead-end hosts for PPRV. Full article
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Article
MicroRNA Expression Profile in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Sheep Vaccinated with Nigeria 75/1 Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11111025 - 05 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the highly contagious transboundary viral diseases of small ruminants. Host microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns may change in response to virus infection, and it mainly works as a post-transcriptional moderator in gene expression and affects viral [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the highly contagious transboundary viral diseases of small ruminants. Host microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns may change in response to virus infection, and it mainly works as a post-transcriptional moderator in gene expression and affects viral pathogenesis and replication. In this study, the change of miRNA expression profile in peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBMC) from sheep inoculated with PPR vaccine virus in vivo as well as primary sheep testicular (ST) cells inoculated with PPR vaccine virus in vitro were determined via deep sequencing technology. In PBMC cells, 373 and 115 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) were identified 3 days and 5 days post inoculated (dpi), respectively. While, 575 DEmiRNAs were identified when comparing miRNA profiles on 5 dpi with 3 dpi. Some of the DEmiRNAs were found to change significantly via time-course during PPR vaccine virus inoculated. Similarly, in ST cells, 136 DEmiRNAs were identified at 3 dpi in comparison with mock-inoculation. A total of 12 DEmiRNAs were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The oar-miR-150, oar-miR-370-3p and oar-miR-411b-3p were found common differentially expressed in both PPR vaccine virus-inoculated PBMC cells and ST cells. Targets prediction and functional analysis of the DEmiRNAs uncovered mainly gathering in antigen processing and presentation pathways, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum pathways and cell adhesion molecules pathways. Our study supplies information about the DEmiRNAs in PPR vaccine virus-inoculated PBMC cells and ST cells, and provides clues for further understanding the function of miRNAs in PPR vaccine virus replication. Full article
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Article
Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus-Like Particles Induce a Potent Humoral and Cellular Immune Response in Goats
Viruses 2019, 11(10), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100918 - 05 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1326
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants is a highly contagious acute or subacute disease of small ruminants caused by the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), and it is responsible for significant economic losses in animal husbandry. Vaccination represents the most effective means of controlling [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants is a highly contagious acute or subacute disease of small ruminants caused by the peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), and it is responsible for significant economic losses in animal husbandry. Vaccination represents the most effective means of controlling this disease, with virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines offering promising vaccine candidates. In this study, a PPRV VLP-based vaccine was developed using a baculovirus expression system, allowing for the simultaneous expression of the PPRV matrix (M), hemagglutinin (H), fusion (F) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins in insect cells. Immunization of mice and goats with PPRV VLPs elicited a robust neutralization response and a potent cellular immune response. Mouse studies demonstrated that VLPs induced a more robust IFN-γ response in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells than PPRV Nigeria 75/1 and recruited and/or activated more B cells and dendritic cells in inguinal lymph nodes. In addition, PPRV VLPs induced a strong Th1 class response in mice, as indicated by a high IgG2a to IgG1 ratio. Goat studies demonstrated that PPRV VLPs can induce the production of antibodies specific for F and H proteins and can also stimulate the production of virus neutralizing antibodies to the same magnitude as the PPRV Nigeria 75/1 vaccine. Higher amounts of IFN-γ in VLP-immunized animal serum suggested that VLPs also elicited a cellular immune response in goats. These results demonstrated that VLPs elicit a potent immune response against PPRV infection in small ruminants, making PPRV VLPs a potential candidate for PPRV vaccine development. Full article
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Article
Rapid Detection of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV) Nucleic Acid Using a Novel Low-Cost Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) Assay for Future Use in Nascent PPR Eradication Programme
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 699; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080699 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2680
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a disease of small ruminants caused by peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), and is endemic in Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Effective control combines the application of early warning systems, accurate laboratory diagnosis and reporting, [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a disease of small ruminants caused by peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), and is endemic in Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Effective control combines the application of early warning systems, accurate laboratory diagnosis and reporting, animal movement restrictions, suitable vaccination and surveillance programs, and the coordination of all these measures by efficient veterinary services. Molecular assays, including conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) have improved the sensitivity and rapidity of diagnosing PPR. However, currently these assays are only performed within laboratory settings; therefore, the development of field diagnostics for PPR would improve the fast implementation of control policies, particularly when PPR has been targeted to be eradicated by 2030. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays are simple to use, rapid, and have sensitivity and specificity within the range of RT-qPCR; and can be performed in the field using disposable consumables and portable equipment. This study describes the development of a novel RT-LAMP assay for the detection of PPRV nucleic acid by targeting the N-protein gene. The RT-LAMP assay was evaluated using cell culture propagated PPRVs, field samples from clinically infected animals and samples from experimentally infected animals encompassing all four lineages (I-IV) of PPRV. The test displayed 100% concordance with RT-qPCR when considering an RT-qPCR cut-off value of CT >40. Further, the RT-LAMP assay was evaluated using experimental and outbreak samples without prior RNA extraction making it more time and cost-effective. This assay provides a solution for a pen-side, rapid and inexpensive PPR diagnostic for use in the field in nascent PPR eradication programme. Full article
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Review

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Review
Progress towards Eradication of Peste des Petits Ruminants through Vaccination
Viruses 2021, 13(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13010059 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1448
Abstract
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a transboundary viral disease that threatens more than 1.74 billion goats and sheep in approximately 70 countries globally. In 2015, the international community set the goal of eradicating PPR by 2030, and, since then, Food and Agriculture [...] Read more.
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a transboundary viral disease that threatens more than 1.74 billion goats and sheep in approximately 70 countries globally. In 2015, the international community set the goal of eradicating PPR by 2030, and, since then, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) have jointly developed and implemented the Global Control and Eradication Strategy for PPR. Here, data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Statistical Database (FAOSTAT), the OIE World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS), Regional Roadmap Meetings, and countries’ responses to PPR Monitoring and Assessment Tool (PMAT) questionnaires were analyzed to inform on current progress towards PPR eradication. OIE recorded the use of over 333 million doses of vaccine in 12 countries from 2015 to 2018, 41.8% of which were used in Asia and 58.2% in Africa. Between 2015 and 2019, a total of 12,757 PPR outbreaks were reported to OIE: 75.1% in Asia, 24.8% in Africa, and 0.1% in Europe. The number of global outbreaks in 2019 fell to 1218, compared with 3688 in 2015. Analysis of vaccine use and PPR outbreaks in countries indicates that disease control strategies, particularly vaccination campaigns and vaccine distribution strategies, still require scientific evaluation. It is imperative that vaccination is undertaken based on the epidemiology of the disease in a region and is coordinated between neighboring countries to restrict transboundary movements. Strengthening surveillance and post-vaccination sero-monitoring at the national level is also essential. The PPR vaccine stock/bank established by FAO, OIE, and other partners have improved the quality assurance and supply of vaccines. However, to achieve PPR eradication, filling the funding gap for vaccination campaigns and other program activities will be critical. Full article
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Review
Eradicating the Scourge of Peste Des Petits Ruminants from the World
Viruses 2020, 12(3), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12030313 - 15 Mar 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1603
Abstract
Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of both domestic (goats and sheep) and wild ruminants. Caused by a morbillivirus, that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae. The disease is clinically and pathologically similar to rinderpest of cattle and human [...] Read more.
Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious viral disease of both domestic (goats and sheep) and wild ruminants. Caused by a morbillivirus, that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae. The disease is clinically and pathologically similar to rinderpest of cattle and human measles. PPR is one of the most economically devastating viral diseases of small ruminants. In April 2015, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) launched the PPR Global Control and Eradication Strategy (PPR GCES) with the vision for global eradication by 2030. There is a strong and lasting international consensus to eradicate the disease in order to protect the livelihoods of the world’s poorest populations. As with any disease, eradication is feasible when, policy, scientific and technical challenges are addressed. Ten majors challenges are described in this paper namely: understanding small ruminant production, facilitating research to support eradication, refining laboratory testing, improving epidemiological understanding of the virus, defining infection of wildlife and other species, optimizing vaccine delivery and novel vaccines, developing better control of animal movement, heightening serological monitoring, understanding socio-economic impact, and garnering funding and political will. Full article
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