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Open AccessArticle

Peste des petits ruminants Virus Transmission Scaling and Husbandry Practices That Contribute to Increased Transmission Risk: An Investigation among Sheep, Goats, and Cattle in Northern Tanzania

1
Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
2
Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
3
MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK
4
Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology, Arusha Box 447, Tanzania
5
Department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries, Dodoma Box 2870, Tanzania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12090930
Received: 31 May 2020 / Revised: 19 August 2020 / Accepted: 20 August 2020 / Published: 24 August 2020
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes an infectious disease of high morbidity and mortality among sheep and goats which impacts millions of livestock keepers globally. PPRV transmission risk varies by production system, but a deeper understanding of how transmission scales in these systems and which husbandry practices impact risk is needed. To investigate transmission scaling and husbandry practice-associated risk, this study combined 395 household questionnaires with over 7115 cross-sectional serosurvey samples collected in Tanzania among agropastoral and pastoral households managing sheep, goats, or cattle (most managed all three, n = 284, 71.9%). Although self-reported compound-level herd size was significantly larger in pastoral than agropastoral households, the data show no evidence that household herd force of infection (FOI, per capita infection rate of susceptible hosts) increased with herd size. Seroprevalence and FOI patterns observed at the sub-village level showed significant spatial variation in FOI. Univariate analyses showed that household herd FOI was significantly higher when households reported seasonal grazing camp attendance, cattle or goat introduction to the compound, death, sale, or giving away of animals in the past 12 months, when cattle were grazed separately from sheep and goats, and when the household also managed dogs or donkeys. Multivariable analyses revealed that species, production system type, and goat or sheep introduction or seasonal grazing camp attendance, cattle or goat death or sales, or goats given away in the past 12 months significantly increased odds of seroconversion, whereas managing pigs or cattle attending seasonal grazing camps had significantly lower odds of seroconversion. Further research should investigate specific husbandry practices across production systems in other countries and in systems that include additional atypical host species to broaden understanding of PPRV transmission. View Full-Text
Keywords: epidemiology; peste des petits ruminants; seroepidemiologic studies; Tanzania; production system; husbandry epidemiology; peste des petits ruminants; seroepidemiologic studies; Tanzania; production system; husbandry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Herzog, C.M.; de Glanville, W.A.; Willett, B.J.; Cattadori, I.M.; Kapur, V.; Hudson, P.J.; Buza, J.; Swai, E.S.; Cleaveland, S.; Bjørnstad, O.N. Peste des petits ruminants Virus Transmission Scaling and Husbandry Practices That Contribute to Increased Transmission Risk: An Investigation among Sheep, Goats, and Cattle in Northern Tanzania. Viruses 2020, 12, 930. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12090930

AMA Style

Herzog CM, de Glanville WA, Willett BJ, Cattadori IM, Kapur V, Hudson PJ, Buza J, Swai ES, Cleaveland S, Bjørnstad ON. Peste des petits ruminants Virus Transmission Scaling and Husbandry Practices That Contribute to Increased Transmission Risk: An Investigation among Sheep, Goats, and Cattle in Northern Tanzania. Viruses. 2020; 12(9):930. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12090930

Chicago/Turabian Style

Herzog, Catherine M.; de Glanville, William A.; Willett, Brian J.; Cattadori, Isabella M.; Kapur, Vivek; Hudson, Peter J.; Buza, Joram; Swai, Emmanuel S.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Bjørnstad, Ottar N. 2020. "Peste des petits ruminants Virus Transmission Scaling and Husbandry Practices That Contribute to Increased Transmission Risk: An Investigation among Sheep, Goats, and Cattle in Northern Tanzania" Viruses 12, no. 9: 930. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12090930

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