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Eradicating the Scourge of Peste Des Petits Ruminants from the World
Open AccessArticle

Characterisation of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Disease in Pastoralist Flocks in Ngorongoro District of Northern Tanzania and Bluetongue Virus Co-Infection

1
Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Campus, North Mymms, Hatfield AL9 7TA, UK
2
The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking GU24 0NF, UK
3
Ngorongoro District Council, Loliondo, PO Box 1 Arusha, Tanzania
4
Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute, Box 661 Arusha, Tanzania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040389
Received: 4 February 2020 / Revised: 25 March 2020 / Accepted: 30 March 2020 / Published: 31 March 2020
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease was first confirmed in Tanzania in 2008 in sheep and goats in Ngorongoro District, northern Tanzania, and is now endemic in this area. This study aimed to characterise PPR disease in pastoralist small ruminant flocks in Ngorongoro District. During June 2015, 33 PPR-like disease reports were investigated in different parts of the district, using semi-structured interviews, clinical examinations, PPR virus rapid detection test (PPRV-RDT), and laboratory analysis. Ten flocks were confirmed as PPRV infected by PPRV-RDT and/or real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and two flocks were co-infected with bluetongue virus (BTV), confirmed by RT-qPCR. Phylogenetic analysis of six partial N gene sequences showed that the PPR viruses clustered with recent lineage III Tanzanian viruses, and grouped with Ugandan, Kenyan and Democratic Republic of Congo isolates. No PPR-like disease was reported in wildlife. There was considerable variation in clinical syndromes between flocks: some showed a full range of PPR signs, while others were predominantly respiratory, diarrhoea, or oro-nasal syndromes, which were associated with different local disease names (olodua—a term for rinderpest, olkipiei—lung disease, oloirobi—fever, enkorotik—diarrhoea). BTV co-infection was associated with severe oro-nasal lesions. This clinical variability makes the field diagnosis of PPR challenging, highlighting the importance of access to pen-side antigen tests and multiplex assays to support improved surveillance and targeting of control activities for PPR eradication. View Full-Text
Keywords: PPR; surveillance; outbreak investigation; differential diagnosis; sheep; goats; ethno-veterinary knowledge PPR; surveillance; outbreak investigation; differential diagnosis; sheep; goats; ethno-veterinary knowledge
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Jones, B.A.; Mahapatra, M.; Chubwa, C.; Clarke, B.; Batten, C.; Hicks, H.; Henstock, M.; Keyyu, J.; Kock, R.; Parida, S. Characterisation of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Disease in Pastoralist Flocks in Ngorongoro District of Northern Tanzania and Bluetongue Virus Co-Infection. Viruses 2020, 12, 389.

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