Special Issue "Advances in Parasite Vaccines"

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Vaccines against (re)emerging and Tropical Infections Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2022 | Viewed by 4695

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Gunjan Arora
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Section of Infectious Diseases, Yale School of Medicine, Yale university, New Haven 06519, CT, USA
Interests: malaria vaccine; innate immunology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Several Parasites lives on or in the human or other animal hosts and cause many serious diseases. In humans, the three main classes of disease-causing parasites are protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites. Among Protozoan parasites, malaria, caused by the Plasmodium parasite, remains one of the most significant public health problems. The infection is caused by the bite of the Anopheles mosquito, which inoculates the Plasmodium sporozoite into the host skin. In 2018, malaria accounted for an estimated 228 million cases and a total of 405,000 deaths worldwide. The malaria vaccine can save countless lives, help in eliminating poverty from sub-Saharan Africa with improved health systems, and completely eradicate the biggest scourge of humankind forever. In the last few decades, global efforts have helped in the development of the first malaria vaccine, with more candidates in clinical trials and early-development phases. However, the complex life cycle of Plasmodium poses a challenge to malaria vaccine development. Partially effective vaccines may not completely eliminate malaria; however, they might prove useful in combination with existing control strategies. The elimination of parasite diseases such as malaria will probably ultimately depend on the development of combining multiple vaccines with the partial efficacy of targeting different stages of infection. To discuss recent advances in the vaccine against various parasitic disease including malaria, , leishmania, Toxoplasmosis, trypanosomiasis, babesiosis, chagas disease, and others parasitic diseases, I am inviting you to contribute to a Special Issue of Vaccines titled “Advances in Parasite Vaccines”. The issue will also encompass studies underlying immunity to the parasites that cause these diseases. This Special Issue will feature articles related to parasite vaccines, adjuvants, systems immunology, structural vaccinology, computational tools and new approaches, and nanoparticle- and host-directed therapy to boost vaccine efficacy. 

Dr. Gunjan Arora
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Parasites vaccines
  • Parasitic disease
  • Plasmodium falciparum
  • Blood-stage vaccines
  • Pre-erythrocytic vaccines
  • Transmission-blocking malaria vaccines
  • Immune correlates of protection
  • Antibody response to malaria vaccine
  • Plasmodium vivax vaccine
  • Placental malaria vaccine
  • Natural immunity to malaria
  • Plasmodium genetics and malaria vaccine
  • Vaccine informatics
  • Systems vaccinology
  • Nanotechnology
  • Structural vaccinology

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Immunoprofiling Identifies Functional B and T Cell Subsets Induced by an Attenuated Whole Parasite Malaria Vaccine as Correlates of Sterile Immunity
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010124 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
Immune correlates of protection remain elusive for most vaccines. An identified immune correlate would accelerate the down-selection of vaccine formulations by reducing the need for human pathogen challenge studies that are currently required to determine vaccine efficacy. Immunization via mosquito-delivered, radiation-attenuated P. falciparum [...] Read more.
Immune correlates of protection remain elusive for most vaccines. An identified immune correlate would accelerate the down-selection of vaccine formulations by reducing the need for human pathogen challenge studies that are currently required to determine vaccine efficacy. Immunization via mosquito-delivered, radiation-attenuated P. falciparum sporozoites (IMRAS) is a well-established model for efficacious malaria vaccines, inducing greater than 90% sterile immunity. The current immunoprofiling study utilized samples from a clinical trial in which vaccine dosing was adjusted to achieve only 50% protection, thus enabling a comparison between protective and non-protective immune signatures. In-depth immunoprofiling was conducted by assessing a wide range of antigen-specific serological and cellular parameters and applying our newly developed computational tools, including machine learning. The computational component of the study pinpointed previously un-identified cellular T cell subsets (namely, TNFα-secreting CD8+CXCR3CCR6 T cells, IFNγ-secreting CD8+CCR6+ T cells and TNFα/FNγ-secreting CD4+CXCR3CCR6 T cells) and B cell subsets (i.e., CD19+CD24hiCD38hiCD69+ transitional B cells) as important factors predictive of protection (92% accuracy). Our study emphasizes the need for in-depth immunoprofiling and subsequent data integration with computational tools to identify immune correlates of protection. The described process of computational data analysis is applicable to other disease and vaccine models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Parasite Vaccines)
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Communication
Toxoplasma gondii GRA15 DNA Vaccine with a Liposomal Nanocarrier Composed of an SS-Cleavable and pH-Activated Lipid-like Material Induces Protective Immunity against Toxoplasmosis in Mice
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010021 - 24 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1061
Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii affects the health of humans and livestock and causes severe illness in the fetus and immunocompromised individuals. Because of the high incidence and severe consequences of T. gondii infection, a safe and suitable vaccine is needed. We found that lipid nanoparticles [...] Read more.
Toxoplasma gondii affects the health of humans and livestock and causes severe illness in the fetus and immunocompromised individuals. Because of the high incidence and severe consequences of T. gondii infection, a safe and suitable vaccine is needed. We found that lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) consisting of a series of functional materials prepared with vitamin E, such as SS-cleavable and pH-activated lipid-like materials (ssPalmE), were a safe and efficient way to develop next-generation DNA vaccines. In this study, we prepared ssPalmE-LNP to encapsulate pCpG-free-T. gondii dense granule protein 15 DNA (ssPalmE-LNPTgGRA15). Following a challenge infection with avirulent PLK strain of T. gondii, the mice immunized with ssPalmE-LNPTgGRA15 had a significantly higher survival rate and lower clinical scores compared with unimmunized and ssPalmE-LNPnon-coding-immunized mice. Immunization of mice with the ssPalmE-LNPTgGRA15 led to a significantly higher production of specific IgG1 and IG2c antibodies compared with unimmunized and ssPalmE-LNPnon-coding-immunized mice, while there was no statistically significant difference in the concentration of serum interferon-gamma at the acute stage of the infection. These findings indicate that ssPalmE-LNP is an effective cargo for the transportation of DNA vaccines for protozoan infections. To explore the mechanism of protective immunity induced by ssPalmE-LNPTgGRA15, further immunological study is needed in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Parasite Vaccines)
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Article
Protective Vaccination Reshapes Hepatic Response to Blood-Stage Malaria of Genes Preferentially Expressed by NK Cells
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040677 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1080
Abstract
The role of natural killer (NK) cells in the liver as first-line post infectionem (p.i.) effectors against blood-stage malaria and their responsiveness to protective vaccination is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the effect of vaccination on NK cell-associated genes induced in [...] Read more.
The role of natural killer (NK) cells in the liver as first-line post infectionem (p.i.) effectors against blood-stage malaria and their responsiveness to protective vaccination is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the effect of vaccination on NK cell-associated genes induced in the liver by blood-stage malaria of Plasmodium chabaudi. Female Balb/c mice were vaccinated at weeks 3 and 1 before being infected with 106P. chabaudi-parasitized erythrocytes. Genes preferentially expressed by NK cells were investigated in livers of vaccination-protected and non-protected mice on days 0, 1, 4, 8, and 11 p.i. using microarrays, qRT-PCR, and chromosome landscape analysis. Blood-stage malaria induces expression of specific genes in the liver at different phases of infection, i.e., Itga1 in expanding liver-resident NK (lrNK) cells, Itga2 in immigrating conventional NK (cNK) cells; Eomes and Tbx21 encoding transcription factors; Ncr1, Tnfsf10, Prf1, Gzma, Gzmb, Gzmc, Gzmm, and Gzmk encoding cytolytic effectors; natural killer gene complex (NKC)-localized genes encoding the NK cell receptors KLRG1, KLRK1, KLRAs1, 2, 5, 7, KLRD1, KLRC1, KLRC3, as well as the three receptors KLRB1A, KLRB1C, KLRB1F and their potential ligands CLEC2D and CLEC2I. Vaccination enhances this malaria-induced expression of genes, but impairs Gzmm expression, accelerates decline of Tnfsf10 and Clec2d expression, whereas it accelerates increased expression of Clec2i, taking a very similar time course as that of genes encoding plasma membrane proteins of erythroblasts, whose malaria-induced extramedullary generation in the liver is known to be accelerated by vaccination. Collectively, vaccination reshapes the response of the liver NK cell compartment to blood-stage malaria. Particularly, the malaria-induced expansion of lrNK cells peaking on day 4 p.i. is highly significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced by enhanced immigration of peripheral cNK cells, and KLRB1F:CLEC2I interactions between NK cells and erythroid cells facilitate extramedullary erythroblastosis in the liver, thus critically contributing to vaccination-induced survival of otherwise lethal blood-stage malaria of P. chabaudi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Parasite Vaccines)
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Article
Xanthohumol and Gossypol Are Promising Inhibitors against Babesia microti by In Vitro Culture via High-Throughput Screening of 133 Natural Products
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040613 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1004
Abstract
Human babesiosis caused by Babesia microti is an emerging threat for severe illness and even death, with an increasing impact worldwide. Currently, the regimen of atovaquone and azithromycin is considered as the standard therapy for treating human babesiosis, which, however, may result in [...] Read more.
Human babesiosis caused by Babesia microti is an emerging threat for severe illness and even death, with an increasing impact worldwide. Currently, the regimen of atovaquone and azithromycin is considered as the standard therapy for treating human babesiosis, which, however, may result in drug resistance and relapse, suggesting the necessity of developing new drugs to control B. microti. In this regard, natural products are promising candidates for drug design against B. microti due to their active therapeutic efficacy, lower toxicity, and fewer adverse reactions to host. Here, the potential inhibitors against B. microti were preliminarily screened from 133 natural products, and 47 of them were selected for further screening. Gossypol (Gp) and xanthohumol (Xn) were finally shown to effectively inhibit the growth of B. microti with IC50 values of 8.47 μm and 21.40 μm, respectively. The cytotoxicity results showed that Gp and Xn were non-toxic to erythrocytes at a concentration below 100 μm. Furthermore, both of them were confirmed to be non-toxic to different types of cells in previous studies. Our findings suggest the potential of Gp and Xn as effective drugs against B. microti infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Parasite Vaccines)
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