Special Issue "Real Life Experience of the COVID-19 Vaccine: What Do You Need to Know?"

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2023 | Viewed by 6215

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Vincenzo Baldo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Cardiologic, Vascular and Thoracic Sciences, and Public Health, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy
Interests: vaccine; epidemiology; immunogenicity; safety; public health; infection diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It has been two years since the first reports of the SARS-CoV2 pandemic from Wuhan. In that time we have seen 250 million people worldwide infected and, over 5 million deaths and we have learnt that science and a strong public health system can make the difference to our lives.

The current increase of infections due to the spreading of the “omicrom” variant is putting the world under pressure once again. That is why today, in the middle of the fourth wave, it is time to look back and see what has been done in terms of prevention.

The quick development of several types of COVID-19 vaccines, based on mRNA technology and viral vectors, should be considered the biggest goal the scientific community has reached in recent decades. Once the evidence of efficacy and safety was clearly demonstrated in clinical trials, the most important challenge was finding evidence of effectiveness in a wider population. This is what real life studies intended to demonstrate during the mass vaccination campaign. Now, based on almost one year of mass vaccinations and data collection, evidence suggests the vaccines are effective (at least one dose) in preventing infections, hospitalizations, and deaths and in reducing the average hospital stay. On the other hand, unvaccinated individuals are significantly more likely to become infected, need hospitalization and die of COVID-19.

In conclusion, scientific community shares an important social responsibility by analyzing data and communicating the evidence in order to sustain equity in the vaccination campaign.

To achieve a more extensive understanding of recent scientific knowledge and current trends in the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, this Special Issue is focused on the recent scientific, strategies and results in real life. Based on your extensive knowledge and experience, we invite you to contribute with an original report, original observation or review, to highlight:

  1. strategies of vaccination;
  2. safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines;
  3. effectiveness in real-world;
  4. advances in vaccines development.

Prof. Dr. Vincenzo Baldo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • COVID-19 vaccines
  • vaccine effectiveness
  • immunogenicity
  • safety

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Widening Disparities in Teen HPV Vaccinations during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study from Veneto Region (Italy)
Vaccines 2022, 10(12), 2120; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10122120 - 11 Dec 2022
Viewed by 445
Abstract
Introduction: In Local Health Unit 7, human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination campaigns for 12-year-olds have long been implemented by the vaccination services of the Department of Prevention. Due to the pressure of the COVID-19 pandemic on these services, an emergency vaccination campaign was [...] Read more.
Introduction: In Local Health Unit 7, human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination campaigns for 12-year-olds have long been implemented by the vaccination services of the Department of Prevention. Due to the pressure of the COVID-19 pandemic on these services, an emergency vaccination campaign was directly managed by primary care pediatricians (PCPs). An initial evaluation of this experience was conducted. Materials and methods: Data on 12-year-olds assisted by PCPs belonging to the 2006 (pre-pandemic) and 2008 (pandemic) birth cohorts were extracted, along with HPV vaccination data. Health district, gender, citizenship, socioeconomic status, and PCPs were evaluated as possible influencing factors in a two-level logistic regression (second level: single PCP). Results: The HPV vaccination gap between males and females increased significantly for the 2008 birth cohort compared to the 2006 birth cohort (11 vs. 4 percentage points). As for PCPs, the vaccination uptake range was 4–71% for the 2008 birth cohort vs. 32–85% for the 2006 cohort. The proportion of variance explained at the second level was overall equal to 9.7% for the 2008 cohort vs. 3.6% for the 2006 cohort. Conclusions: The vaccination campaign carried out during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic increased the HPV vaccination gaps among Health Districts, genders, and individual PCPs, probably due to a lack of homogeneity in professional practices and attitudes toward HPV vaccination. Catch-up interventions are required in the immediate term, while an equity-lens approach should be taken for reprogramming the vaccination campaign. Greater involvement of schools and families could ensure a more equitable approach and a better uptake. Full article
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Article
Estimation of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination Effectiveness in Tokyo for Omicron Variants BA.2 and BA.5: Effect of Social Behavior
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1820; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111820 - 28 Oct 2022
Viewed by 649
Abstract
The variability of the COVID-19 vaccination effectiveness (VE) should be assessed with a resolution of a few days, assuming that the VE is influenced by public behavior and social activity. Here, the VE for the Omicron variants (BA.2 and BA.5) is numerically derived [...] Read more.
The variability of the COVID-19 vaccination effectiveness (VE) should be assessed with a resolution of a few days, assuming that the VE is influenced by public behavior and social activity. Here, the VE for the Omicron variants (BA.2 and BA.5) is numerically derived for Japan’s population for the second and third vaccination doses. We then evaluated the daily VE variation due to social behavior from the daily data reports in Tokyo. The VE for the Omicron variants (BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5) are derived from the data of Japan and Tokyo with a computational approach. In addition, the effect of the different parameters regarding human behavior on VE was assessed using daily data in Tokyo. The individual VE for the Omicron BA.2 in Japan was 61% (95% CI: 57–65%) for the second dose of the vaccination from our computation, whereas that for the third dose was 86% (95% CI: 84–88%). The individual BA.5 VE for the second and third doses are 37% (95% CI: 33–40%) and 63% (95% CI: 61–65%). The reduction in the daily VE from the estimated value was closely correlated to the number of tweets related to social gatherings on Twitter. The number of tweets considered here would be one of the new candidates for VE evaluation and surveillance affecting the viral transmission. Full article
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Article
Third BNT162b2 Vaccine Booster Dose against SARS-CoV-2-Induced Antibody Response among Healthcare Workers
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1741; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101741 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 648
Abstract
This study assessed humoral response to the third BNT162b2 dose among healthcare workers (HCW). This prospective cohort study of HCW tested for anti-spike antibodies (LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay) at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after receiving the second BNT162b2 vaccine [...] Read more.
This study assessed humoral response to the third BNT162b2 dose among healthcare workers (HCW). This prospective cohort study of HCW tested for anti-spike antibodies (LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay) at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after receiving the second BNT162b2 vaccine dose (tests 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively). A third (booster) vaccination dose was introduced before test 4. Linear regression model was used to determine the humoral response following vaccine doses. For each serology test, changes in log-transformed antibody concentrations over time, adjusted for age, sex, underlying diseases, steroid treatment, and smoking were described using the general linear mix model. Serology tests were performed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the second vaccine dose in 1113, 1058, 986, and 939 participants, respectively. The third dose was received by 964 participants before the 9-month tests, 797 of whom participated in the 9- and 12-month serology tests. A significant inverse correlation was noted between time from third dose and antibody concentrations (Spearman correlation −0.395; p < 0.001). Age (p < 0.0001; CI 95% −0.005–−0.004), heart disease (p < 0.0001; CI 95% −0.177–−0.052), immunodeficiency (p < 0.0001; CI 95% 0.251–−0.106), and smoking (p < 0.0001; CI 95% −0.122–−0.040) were significantly associated with decreased antibody concentrations. Female sex (p = 0.03; CI 95% 0.013–0.066) was associated with increased antibody concentrations. The third booster dose had a better effect on immunogenicity, with higher antibody concentrations among tested HCW. Heart disease, smoking, and other known risk factors were associated with decreased antibody concentrations. Full article
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Article
Vaccination Status and Number of Vaccine Doses Are Independently Associated with the PaO2/FiO2 Ratio on Admission in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients
Vaccines 2022, 10(9), 1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10091424 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 653
Abstract
Introduction: Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccines reduce the risk of severe disease and mortality. However, the association between vaccination status and number of doses and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, a clinical measure of hypoxemia associated with an increased risk of intensive care [...] Read more.
Introduction: Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccines reduce the risk of severe disease and mortality. However, the association between vaccination status and number of doses and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, a clinical measure of hypoxemia associated with an increased risk of intensive care treatment and mortality, has not been investigated. Methods: We retrospectively assessed a consecutive series of 116 patients admitted to hospital with a primary diagnosis of COVID-19 between January and April 2022. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected within 24 h from admission. Results: There was a significant positive relationship between the number of vaccine doses and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio (r = 0.223, p = 0.012). This association remained significant after adjusting for confounders. Vaccinated patients had significantly higher PaO2/FiO2 ratios than the unvaccinated (median: 250; IQR: 195–309 vs. 200; IQR: 156–257, p = 0.013). Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of the number of vaccine doses received in reducing the degree of hypoxia on admission in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Full article
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Article
COVID-19 Vaccine Effectiveness against Omicron Variant among Underage Subjects: The Veneto Region’s Experience
Vaccines 2022, 10(8), 1362; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081362 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1238
Abstract
Even if most of the complications due to COVID-19 are observed in the elderly, in Italy the impact of COVID-19 among young people has not been negligible. Furthermore, their contribution to SARS-CoV-2 circulation is still unclear. These reasons have driven policy makers to [...] Read more.
Even if most of the complications due to COVID-19 are observed in the elderly, in Italy the impact of COVID-19 among young people has not been negligible. Furthermore, their contribution to SARS-CoV-2 circulation is still unclear. These reasons have driven policy makers to involve subjects aged 5 to 17 years in the COVID-19 vaccination campaign. However, the trade-off of vaccinating this age-group should be further investigated, especially in view of the rise of new immunologically evasive variants of concern (VOCs). We used regional databases to retrospectively estimate vaccine effectiveness over time of each approved vaccination schedule among children (5–11) and adolescents (12–17). Our findings suggest that COVID-19 vaccines were highly effective and their protection levels lasted longer during a period of Delta variant predominance, whereas they offered just mild to moderate levels of protection—apparently affected by a rapid waning effect—in a period of Omicron variant predominance. Considering these results, it is plausible to evaluate a reformulation of possible future COVID-19 vaccination campaigns among underage subjects. However, effectiveness against serious complications due to COVID-19, as well as indirect benefits of underage vaccinations, should first be addressed. Furthermore, vaccine effectiveness should be kept monitored, as new VOCs may arise, but also new adapted vaccines may start being administered. Full article
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Article
The Effectiveness of a Diverse COVID-19 Vaccine Portfolio and Its Impact on the Persistence of Positivity and Length of Hospital Stays: The Veneto Region’s Experience
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010107 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
The vaccination campaign for the Veneto region (northeastern Italy) started on 27 December 2020. As of early December 2021, 75.1% of the whole Veneto population has been fully vaccinated. Vaccine efficacy has been demonstrated in many clinical trials, but reports on real-world contexts [...] Read more.
The vaccination campaign for the Veneto region (northeastern Italy) started on 27 December 2020. As of early December 2021, 75.1% of the whole Veneto population has been fully vaccinated. Vaccine efficacy has been demonstrated in many clinical trials, but reports on real-world contexts are still necessary. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 2,233,399 residents in the Veneto region to assess the reduction in the COVID-19 burden, taking different outcomes into consideration. First, we adopted a non-brand-specific approach borrowed from survival analysis to estimate the effectiveness of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in preventing infections, hospitalizations, and deaths. We used t-tests and multivariate regressions to examine vaccine impact on breakthrough infections, in terms of the persistence of positivity and the length of hospital stays. Evidence emerging from this study suggests that unvaccinated individuals are significantly more likely to become infected, need hospitalization, and are at a higher risk of death from COVID-19 than those given at least one dose of vaccine. Cox models indicate that the effectiveness of full vaccination is 88% against infection, 94% against hospitalization, and 95% against death. Multivariate regressions suggest that vaccination is significantly correlated with a shorter period of positivity and shorter hospital stays, with each step toward completion of the vaccination cycle coinciding with a reduction of 3.3 days in the persistence of positivity and 2.3 days in the length of hospital stay. Full article
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