Special Issue "Next-Generation Pertussis Vaccines"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).
Interests: CD4 T cells; vaccines; adjuvants; immunity to Bordetella pertussis
Interests: Bordetella pertussis pathogenesis; pertussis vaccine development; therapeutic antibodies
The incidence of pertussis is increasing in many countries, especially those using acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines, and this has resulted in renewed research focus on a disease that was once thought to be on the way out. Pertussis is a life-threatening disease in infants characterized caused by Bordetella pertussis, a Gram-negative obligate human pathogen that colonizes the upper respiratory tract. B. pertussis was first cultured by Jules Bordet and Octave Gengou in 1906. Whole cell pertussis (wP) vaccines were developed in the 1930s and 1940s and by the 1970s had decreased incidence of the disease down to the point that clinicians and scientists believed it could be eradicated. However, wP vaccines were reactogenic, and media coverage on adverse reactions associated with their use led to public concern about vaccine safety. In Japan, the wP vaccine was removed from use, and overall incidence of pertussis rose dramatically. Yuji Sato and Hiroko Sato developed an “adsorbed purified pertussis vaccine" which contained formaldehyde detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), and in 1981, the first aP vaccine was being used in Japan.
aP vaccines were developed in the US and Europe in the 1980s–1990s, and the DTaP infant vaccine series was implemented in the late 1990s or early 2000s. However, in recent years, the incidence of pertussis in the US and Europe has been increasing. In 2012, the US experienced the highest number of cases in 50 years, 50-fold over the lowest incidence back in 1976 during the wP vaccine era. There are several possible reasons for the return of pertussis, including: (1) waning of protective immunity following immunization with aP vaccines, (2) evolution of strain due to vaccine-driven immune selection pressure, (3) a failure of aP vaccines to induce effective T cell response, and (4) the inability of aP vaccines to block nasal colonization and transmission of B. pertussis. Epidemiology and genomics studies have revealed considerable evolution of the pathogen. The baboon model of pertussis has demonstrated that aP vaccines do not protect against transmission and asymptomatic infection. Studies in the mouse model have shown that the aP vaccine fails to generate protective T cells, especially those in the respiratory tissue that maintain long-term memory. In the US, the oldest acellular-only vaccinated population is currently 23 years of age, so we are at the point where a new generation of children will be born to acellular-only immunized parents. There is general agreement that we need to develop a “next generation” pertussis vaccine; however, there is no clear roadmap for their development, but it is clear that it must solve some of the issues with the current one. Since the solutions are not obvious, we would like to invite cutting-edge manuscripts for a Special Issue of Vaccines on ‘Next-Generation Pertussis Vaccines’. We invite authors to contribute original articles or reviews that address this public health concern.
We encourage submissions of manuscripts that investigate novel formulations that include the use of new antigens and adjuvants, or changes in routes of administration. Manuscripts that investigate the role of adjuvants and T cell responses to study the longevity of protection and waning vaccine immunity are also encouraged. In addition, we also welcome the submission of manuscripts investigating the use of preclinical models, platforms strategies, and clinical surrogate endpoints to better understand protection.
Prof. Kingston Mills
Dr. F. Heath Damron
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
- Bordetella pertussis
- Whooping cough
- New pertussis antigens
- New pertussis adjuvants
- Change in routes of administration
- Skewing of T cell responses
- Overcoming waning aP vaccine-induced immunity
- Novel Tdap formulations
- Novel preclinical models of vaccine evaluation
- Novel clinical trial strategies
- Surrogate endpoints
- Understanding vaccine-induced memory