SARS-CoV-2: Immunopeptidomics and Other Immunological Studies

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 9393

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Guest Editor
Biological Science Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Interests: biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology immunology and microbiology medicine chemistry chemical engineering pharmacology, toxicology and pharmaceutics agricultural and biological sciences neurosc

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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, L M College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad 380008, Gujarat, India
Interests: immunology; inflammation; vaccine formulations; vaccine validations; biologics; immunotherapeutics; antigen delivery; infectious diseases
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Since the beginning of the pandemic, new variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged which have the ability to influence the airborne transmission, virulence, and immune evasion of affected individuals. The neutralizing antibodies produced as a result of vaccination or post recovery from COVID-19 do not provide sufficient immune protection against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. A better strategy would be to design SARS-CoV-2 variant-specific vaccines to gain better insights into their safety and efficacy. Recent quantum leaps in mass spectrometry (MS) and data processing have considerably benefited immunoproteomics as a group of methods that facilitate the identification of antigenic peptides or proteins. Immunopeptidomics is a kind of immunoproteomic technology that allows for the antibody-independent identification of antigens. Immunopeptidomics seeks to identify antigens as peptides presented on cell surfaces by major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs), also known as immunopeptides, MHC-associated peptides, and MHC ligands. This method, along with other immunological studies, can be redirected for the development of novel diagnostic tools as well as vaccines.

It is time to welcome contributions for this Special Issue titled “SARS-CoV-2: Immunopeptidomics and Other Immunological Studies.” The goal is to provide comprehensive information on all aspects of research related to the immunological studies of SARS-CoV-2 and immunopeptidomics for vaccine development.

This Special Issue seeks all types of manuscripts (e.g., reviews, research articles, short communications) on immunopeptidomics and other immunological studies regarding SARS-CoV-2. We welcome the submission of both basic and applied research papers that aim to improve the understanding of the immune response against SARS-CoV-2, as well as the short- and long-term effects of host immune responses to SARS-CoV-2.

We cordially invite you to contribute to this Special Issue to advance our knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 and to discover together the means to overcome the pandemic.

This Special Issue is especially dedicated for the 75th Year celebration of L M College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad (India).

Prof. Dr. Elrashdy M. Redwan
Dr. Vivek P. Chavda
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • immunopeptidomics
  • immunological studies
  • tracking the viral antigenic shift associated with the different viral variants
  • viral antigen exploration
  • MHC/HLA-viral antigen processing, presentation and the potency of the associated immune response
  • the role of Fc gamma subtypes in the proper and durable immune response versus wane
  • mass spectrometry
  • viral proteomics, vaccine platforms, and vaccinations
  • whole-virus vaccines and analysis of proteome changes during Vero culturing and propagation
  • adaptive immunity post infection and/or vaccination
  • T- and B-cell immune responses induction and durability
  • viral macromolecules circulation, prevalence, and shedding associated with pathogenesis and/or post-COVID-19 syndromes

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 554 KiB  
Editorial
SARS-CoV-2: Immunopeptidomics and Other Immunological Studies
by Vivek P. Chavda and Elrashdy M. Redwan
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1975; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111975 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has produced a significant continuing epidemic worldwide [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2: Immunopeptidomics and Other Immunological Studies)
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Review

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16 pages, 1018 KiB  
Review
Immunological Studies to Understand Hybrid/Recombinant Variants of SARS-CoV-2
by Vivek P. Chavda, Toshika Mishra and Suneetha Vuppu
Vaccines 2023, 11(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11010045 - 25 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1885
Abstract
The zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 virus was present before the onset of the pandemic. It undergoes evolution, adaptation, and selection to develop variants that gain high transmission rates and virulence, resulting in the pandemic. Structurally, the spike protein of the virus is required for binding [...] Read more.
The zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 virus was present before the onset of the pandemic. It undergoes evolution, adaptation, and selection to develop variants that gain high transmission rates and virulence, resulting in the pandemic. Structurally, the spike protein of the virus is required for binding to ACE2 receptors of the host cells. The gene coding for the spike is known to have a high propensity of mutations, as a result generating numerous variants. The variants can be generated by random point mutations or recombination during replication. However, SARS-CoV-2 can also produce hybrid variants on co-infection of the host by two distinct lineages of the virus. The genomic sequences of the two variants undergo recombination to produce the hybrid variants. Additionally, these sub-variants also contain numerous mutations from both the parent variants, as well as some novel mutations unique to the hybrids. The hybrid variants (XD, XE, and XF) can be identified through numerous techniques, such as peak PCR, NAAT, and hybrid capture SARS-CoV-2 NGS (next generation sequencing) assay, etc., but the most accurate approach is genome sequencing. There are numerous immunological diagnostic assays, such as ELISA, chemiluminescence immunoassay, flow-cytometry-based approaches, electrochemiluminescence immunoassays, neutralization assays, etc., that are also designed and developed to provide an understanding of the hybrid variants, their pathogenesis, and other reactions. The objective of our study is to comprehensively analyze the variants of SARS-CoV-2, especially the hybrid variants. We have also discussed the techniques available for the identification of hybrids, as well as the immunological assays and studies for analyzing the hybrid variants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2: Immunopeptidomics and Other Immunological Studies)
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17 pages, 1652 KiB  
Review
Pilot Findings on SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine-Induced Pituitary Diseases: A Mini Review from Diagnosis to Pathophysiology
by Ach Taieb and El Euch Mounira
Vaccines 2022, 10(12), 2004; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10122004 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2795
Abstract
Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic at the end of 2019, a massive vaccination campaign has been undertaken rapidly and worldwide. Like other vaccines, the COVID-19 vaccine is not devoid of side effects. Typically, the adverse side effects of vaccination include transient [...] Read more.
Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic at the end of 2019, a massive vaccination campaign has been undertaken rapidly and worldwide. Like other vaccines, the COVID-19 vaccine is not devoid of side effects. Typically, the adverse side effects of vaccination include transient headache, fever, and myalgia. Endocrine organs are also affected by adverse effects. The major SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-associated endocrinopathies reported since the beginning of the vaccination campaign are thyroid and pancreas disorders. SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced pituitary diseases have become more frequently described in the literature. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE for commentaries, case reports, and case series articles reporting pituitary disorders following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. The search was reiterated until September 2022, in which eight case reports were found. In all the cases, there were no personal or familial history of pituitary disease described. All the patients described had no previous SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to the vaccination episode. Regarding the type of vaccines administered, 50% of the patients received (BNT162b2; Pfizer–BioNTech) and 50% received (ChAdOx1 nCov-19; AstraZeneca). In five cases, the pituitary disorder developed after the first dose of the corresponding vaccine. Regarding the types of pituitary disorder, five were hypophysitis (variable clinical aspects ranging from pituitary lesion to pituitary stalk thickness) and three were pituitary apoplexy. The time period between vaccination and pituitary disorder ranged from one to seven days. Depending on each case’s follow-up time, a complete remission was obtained in all the apoplexy cases but in only three patients with hypophysitis (persistence of the central diabetes insipidus). Both quantity and quality of the published data about pituitary inconveniences after COVID-19 vaccination are limited. Pituitary disorders, unlike thyroid disorders, occur very quickly after COVID-19 vaccination (less than seven days for pituitary disorders versus two months for thyroid disease). This is partially explained by the ease of reaching the pituitary, which is a small gland. Therefore, this gland is rapidly overspread, which explains the speed of onset of pituitary symptoms (especially ADH deficiency which is a rapid onset deficit with evocative symptoms). Accordingly, these pilot findings offer clinicians a future direction to be vigilant for possible pituitary adverse effects of vaccination. This will allow them to accurately orient patients for medical assistance when they present with remarkable symptoms, such as asthenia, polyuro-polydipsia, or severe headache, following a COVID-19 vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2: Immunopeptidomics and Other Immunological Studies)
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Other

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13 pages, 1413 KiB  
Systematic Review
COVID-19 Vaccination in Pediatrics: Was It Valuable and Successful?
by Mohamed Ahmed Raslan, Sara Ahmed Raslan, Eslam Mansour Shehata, Amr Saad Mahmoud, Nagwa A. Sabri, Khalid J. Alzahrani, Fuad M. Alzahrani, Saleh Alshammeri, Vasco Azevedo, Kenneth Lundstrom and Debmalya Barh
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020214 - 18 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2224
Abstract
Background: The mass vaccination of children against coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) has been frequently debated. The risk–benefit assessment of COVID-19 vaccination versus infection in children has also been debated. Aim: This systematic review looked for answers to the question “was the vaccination of [...] Read more.
Background: The mass vaccination of children against coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) has been frequently debated. The risk–benefit assessment of COVID-19 vaccination versus infection in children has also been debated. Aim: This systematic review looked for answers to the question “was the vaccination of our children valuable and successful?”. Methods: The search strategy of different articles in the literature was based on medical subject headings. Screening and selection were based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results and Discussion: The search results revealed that the majority of the reported adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination in pediatrics were mild to moderate, with few being severe. Injection site discomfort, fever, headache, cough, lethargy, and muscular aches and pains were the most prevalent side effects. Few clinical studies recorded significant side effects, although the majority of these adverse events had nothing to do with vaccination. In terms of efficacy, COVID-19 disease protection was achieved in 90–95% of cases for mRNA vaccines, in 50–80% of cases for inactivated vaccines, and in 58–92% of cases for adenoviral-based vaccines in children and adolescents. Conclusions: Based on available data, COVID-19 immunizations appear to be safe for children and adolescents. Furthermore, multiple studies have proven that different types of vaccines can provide excellent protection against COVID-19 in pediatric populations. The efficacy of vaccines against new SARS-CoV-2 variants and the reduction in vaccine-related long-term adverse events are crucial for risk–benefit and cost-effectiveness assessments; therefore, additional safety studies are required to confirm the long-term safety and effectiveness of vaccinations in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2: Immunopeptidomics and Other Immunological Studies)
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