Feature Papers of Clinical Immunology

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X). This special issue belongs to the section "Clinical Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 21731

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Division of Dermatology and Venereology, Department of Medicine, University of Verona, Piazzale A. Stefani 1, I-37126 Verona, Italy
Interests: psoriasis; psoriatic arthritis; atopic dermatitis; immunopharmacology; skin biology; skin immune system; skin and internal diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As Section Editor-in-Chief of Clinical Immunology, I am glad to announce the Special Issue "Feature Papers of Clinical Immunology ". This Special Issue of the Journal welcomes manuscripts on clinical immunology researches from several perspectives, including epidemiology, pathogenesis, animal models, clinical manifestations, disease association, and treatment. Studies on the relationships between host and pathogen reactions as well as on side effects of vaccines are also encouraged. We welcome the submission of manuscripts from Editorial Board Members and from outstanding scholars invited by the Editorial Board and the Editorial Office.

You are welcome to send short proposals for submissions of Feature Papers to our Editorial Office ([email protected]) for evaluation.

Prof. Dr. Giampiero Girolomoni
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Vaccines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

7 pages, 239 KiB  
Article
There Is No Evidence That Inactivated COVID-19 Vaccines Increase Risks of Uveitis Flare
by Hang Song, Chan Zhao and Meifen Zhang
Vaccines 2022, 10(10), 1680; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10101680 - 8 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
This is a retrospective study to investigate the impact of inactivated Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccination on uveitis flare in patients with uveitis. Sixty patients that were regularly followed up for uveitis for at least two months after the last dose of inactivated COVID-19 [...] Read more.
This is a retrospective study to investigate the impact of inactivated Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccination on uveitis flare in patients with uveitis. Sixty patients that were regularly followed up for uveitis for at least two months after the last dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines were included in the vaccination group. Sixty patients with comparable characteristics of uveitis who had not received the COVID-19 vaccines were included in the control group. Uveitis flare within 30 days and 60 days after the vaccination in the vaccination group, or after a randomly selected date in the control group, were statistically compared. The flare rate was 16.7% (30 days) and 23.3% (60 days) in the vaccination group, while it was 13.3% (30 days) and 25% (15/60) in the control group. There was no statistical difference in the flare rate of uveitis between the two groups (p = 0.471 for 30 days, p = 0.347 for 60 days). Inactivated COVID-19 vaccination appeared not to increase the flare rate in patients with uveitis. Ophthalmologists should give proper and individualized recommendations based on the overall conditions of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Clinical Immunology)
14 pages, 2436 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Role of Antigen Orientation on the Immune Response Elicited by Neisseria meningitidis Factor H Binding Protein on GMMA
by Renzo Alfini, Brunella Brunelli, Erika Bartolini, Martina Carducci, Enrico Luzzi, Francesca Ferlicca, Scilla Buccato, Barbara Galli, Paola Lo Surdo, Maria Scarselli, Giacomo Romagnoli, Elena Cartocci, Domenico Maione, Silvana Savino, Francesca Necchi, Isabel Delany and Francesca Micoli
Vaccines 2022, 10(8), 1182; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081182 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1977
Abstract
GMMA are outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from Gram-negative bacteria genetically modified to enhance OMVs formation that have been shown to be optimal systems to enhance immunogenicity of protein antigens. Here, we selected Neisseria meningitidis factor H binding protein (fHbp) and used the [...] Read more.
GMMA are outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from Gram-negative bacteria genetically modified to enhance OMVs formation that have been shown to be optimal systems to enhance immunogenicity of protein antigens. Here, we selected Neisseria meningitidis factor H binding protein (fHbp) and used the conjugation chemistry as a tool to alter antigen orientation on GMMA. Indeed, fHbp was randomly linked to GMMA or selectively attached via the N-terminus to mimic native presentation of the protein on the bacterial surface. Interestingly, protein and peptide array analyses confirmed that antibodies induced by the selective and the random conjugates showed a pattern very similar to fHbp natively expressed on bacterial surfaces or to the recombinant protein mixed with GMMA, respectively. However, the two conjugates elicited antibodies with similar serum bactericidal activity against meningococcal strains, superior to the protein alone or physically mixed with GMMA. Presentation of fHbp on GMMA strongly enhances the functional immune response elicited by the protein but its orientation on the bacterial surface does not have an impact. This study demonstrates the flexibility of the GMMA platform as a display and delivery system for enhancing antigen immunogenicity and further supports the use of such promising technology for the development of effective vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Clinical Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

7 pages, 1199 KiB  
Article
Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Pustular Psoriasis: A Single-Center Retrospective Observational Study
by Paolo Gisondi, Francesco Bellinato and Giampiero Girolomoni
Vaccines 2022, 10(8), 1171; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081171 - 23 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3645
Abstract
Clinical and epidemiologic data on pustular psoriasis are scarce. To investigate the phenotypes of pustular psoriasis and the patients’ characteristics observed in a real-life retrospective observational study. The number of incident cases of pustular psoriasis registered in the period 2005–2021 was retrieved from [...] Read more.
Clinical and epidemiologic data on pustular psoriasis are scarce. To investigate the phenotypes of pustular psoriasis and the patients’ characteristics observed in a real-life retrospective observational study. The number of incident cases of pustular psoriasis registered in the period 2005–2021 was retrieved from the electronic medical records of the University Hospital of Verona. One hundred and forty cases of pustular psoriasis were collected. Ninety-one out of 140 patients (65%) were females, with a median (IQR) age of 57 (43–66) years. According to the ERASPEN classification criteria, 116 patients (83%) had palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP), 13 (9%) generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), and 11 (8%) acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau (ACH). Gender distribution and median age were consistent among the three groups. The prevalence of psoriatic arthritis in GPP, ACH, and PPP was 8%, 36%, and 28%, respectively. During the same period, a total of 4718 cases of plaque psoriasis were retrieved, with a 1:34 ratio of pustular over plaque psoriasis. Pustular psoriasis is much rarer than plaque psoriasis, with PPP being the more common subtype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Clinical Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1647 KiB  
Article
Select Whole-Cell Biofilm-Based Immunogens Protect against a Virulent Staphylococcus Isolate in a Stringent Implant Model of Infection
by Stephen J. Dollery, Janette M. Harro, Taralyn J. Wiggins, Brendan P. Wille, Peter C. Kim, John K. Tobin, Ruth V. Bushnell, Naomi J. P. E. R. Tasker, David A. MacLeod and Gregory J. Tobin
Vaccines 2022, 10(6), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060833 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1728
Abstract
Many microbes of concern to human health remain without vaccines. We have developed a whole-microbe inactivation technology that enables us to rapidly inactivate large quantities of a pathogen while retaining epitopes that were destroyed by previous inactivation methods. The method that we call [...] Read more.
Many microbes of concern to human health remain without vaccines. We have developed a whole-microbe inactivation technology that enables us to rapidly inactivate large quantities of a pathogen while retaining epitopes that were destroyed by previous inactivation methods. The method that we call UVC-MDP inactivation can be used to make whole-cell vaccines with increased potency. We and others are exploring the possibility of using improved irradiation-inactivation technologies to develop whole-cell vaccines for numerous antibiotic-resistant microbes. Here, we apply UVC-MDP to produce candidate MRSA vaccines which we test in a stringent tibia implant model of infection challenged with a virulent MSRA strain. We report high levels of clearance in the model and observe a pattern of protection that correlates with the immunogen protein profile used for vaccination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Clinical Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

14 pages, 772 KiB  
Review
Liver Injury in Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19: Possible Role of Therapy
by Maurizio Gabrielli, Laura Franza, Alessandra Esperide, Irene Gasparrini, Antonio Gasbarrini, Francesco Franceschi and on behalf of GEMELLI AGAINST COVID 2019
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020192 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 3387
Abstract
Patients with COVID-19 show a high prevalence of liver injury. The pattern of this liver damage is still not fully understood. Different etiopathogenetic factors may concur; from a direct cytopathic effect, once the virus binds to the ACE-2 receptors, to the immune-mediated collateral [...] Read more.
Patients with COVID-19 show a high prevalence of liver injury. The pattern of this liver damage is still not fully understood. Different etiopathogenetic factors may concur; from a direct cytopathic effect, once the virus binds to the ACE-2 receptors, to the immune-mediated collateral damage, due to cytokine storm. The presence of pre-existing chronic liver disease is a contributing factor for acute organ damage during SARS-CoV2 infection. Last but not least, treatments probably play a role, also, in determining hepatotoxicity: many of the drugs we have used or are still using to treat COVID-19, combined with non-invasive ventilation, are known to sometimes determine acute liver injury. Although liver damage associated with COVID-19 is often transient and can resolve without any special treatment, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms, particularly to better treat its more severe forms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Clinical Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

10 pages, 1842 KiB  
Case Report
Blood Transfusion Components Inducing Severe Allergic Reactions: The First Case of Kounis Syndrome Induced by Platelet Transfusion
by Christos Gogos, Konstantinos Stamos, Nikolaos Tsanaxidis, Ioannis Styliadis, Ioanna Koniari, Sophia N. Kouni, Cesare de Gregorio and Nicholas G. Kounis
Vaccines 2023, 11(2), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines11020220 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3343
Abstract
Kounis syndrome is a multisystem and multidisciplinary disease affecting the circulatory system that can be manifested as spasm and thrombosis. It can occur as allergic, hypersensitivity, anaphylactic, or anaphylactoid reactions associated with the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells and from other [...] Read more.
Kounis syndrome is a multisystem and multidisciplinary disease affecting the circulatory system that can be manifested as spasm and thrombosis. It can occur as allergic, hypersensitivity, anaphylactic, or anaphylactoid reactions associated with the release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells and from other interrelated and interacting inflammatory cells, including macrophages and lymphocytes. A platelet subset with high- and low-affinity IgE surface receptors is also involved in this process. Whereas the heart, and particularly the coronary arteries, constitute the primary targets of inflammatory mediators, the mesenteric, cerebral, and peripheral arteries are also vulnerable. Kounis syndrome is caused by a variety of factors, including drugs, foods, environmental exposure, clinical conditions, stent implantation, and vaccines. We report a unique case of a 60-year-old male with a past medical history of allergy to human albumin, alcoholic cirrhosis, and esophageal varices, who was admitted due to multiple episodes of hematemesis. Due to low hemoglobin levels, he was transfused with 3 units of red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma without any adverse reactions. On the third day of hospitalization, severe thrombocytopenia was observed and transfusion of platelets was initiated. Immediately following platelet infusion, the patient developed chest discomfort, skin signs of severe allergic reaction, and hemodynamic instability. The electrocardiogram revealed ST segment elevation in the inferior leads. Given the strong suspicion of Kounis syndrome/allergic coronary spasm, the patient was treated with anti-allergic treatment only, without any anti-platelet therapy. The clinical status of the patient gradually improved and the electrocardiographic changes reverted to normal. Based on these findings, Kounis hypersensitivity-associated acute coronary syndrome, specifically, type I Kounis syndrome, was diagnosed. Although platelet transfusion can be a life-saving therapy, each blood transfusion carries a substantial risk of adverse reactions. The aims of this report are to expand the existing knowledge of patient responses to blood transfusion and provide information on the incidence of various severe transfusion reactions to all blood components and especially to platelets. To the best of our knowledge, Kounis syndrome induced by platelet transfusionhas never been previously reported. Hypersensitivity to platelet external membrane glycoproteins in an atopic patient seems to be the possible etiology. Despite that Kounis syndrome remains an under-diagnosed clinical entity in everyday practice, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Clinical Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 674 KiB  
Viewpoint
A Reflection of Metabolic Syndrome through the Window of COVID-19
by Liam Pock Ho, Chuen Wen Tan, Heng Joo Ng, Wai Mun Jason Chay, Jing Yuan Tan and Su Yen Goh
Vaccines 2022, 10(11), 1966; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111966 - 19 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2252
Abstract
COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome, though seemingly different disorders, appear to share certain common pathogenic components, especially in the development of COVID-19-associated diabetes mellitus. The similarities include impairment in immunoendothelial, gastrointestinal, pancreatic, adipose and mitochondrial functions, with several critical micronutrients undergirding the intricate interactions [...] Read more.
COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome, though seemingly different disorders, appear to share certain common pathogenic components, especially in the development of COVID-19-associated diabetes mellitus. The similarities include impairment in immunoendothelial, gastrointestinal, pancreatic, adipose and mitochondrial functions, with several critical micronutrients undergirding the intricate interactions among these dysfunctions. This discussion aims to highlight the parallels between COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome and to propose the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 being a prototype of an acquired etiological agent which can eventually lead to the development of classical metabolic syndrome. Based on the proposed model, the discussion will include the implication for early management of COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Clinical Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

9 pages, 241 KiB  
Viewpoint
Unpacking the Implications of SARS-CoV-2 Breakthrough Infections on COVID-19 Vaccination Programs
by Tafadzwa Dzinamarira, Nigel Tungwarara, Itai Chitungo, Munashe Chimene, Patrick Gad Iradukunda, Moreblessing Mashora, Grant Murewanhema, Gallican Nshogoza Rwibasira and Godfrey Musuka
Vaccines 2022, 10(2), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10020252 - 7 Feb 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3287
Abstract
Despite an array of preventive global public health interventions, SARS-CoV-2 has continued to spread significantly, infecting millions of people across the globe weekly. Newer variants of interest and concern have continued to emerge, placing the need for policymakers to rethink prevention strategies to [...] Read more.
Despite an array of preventive global public health interventions, SARS-CoV-2 has continued to spread significantly, infecting millions of people across the globe weekly. Newer variants of interest and concern have continued to emerge, placing the need for policymakers to rethink prevention strategies to end the pandemic. The approval of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for public health use in December 2020 was seen as a significant development towards pandemic control and possibly ending the pandemic. However, breakthrough infections have continued to be observed among the ‘fully vaccinated’, and the duration and sustainability of vaccine-induced immunity has remained a topical public health discourse. In the absence of accurate public health communication, the breakthrough infections and waning immunity concepts have potential to further compound vaccine hesitancy. With this viewpoint, we discuss breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections, waning immunity, the need for COVID-19 booster shots, vaccine inequities, and the need to address vaccine hesitancy adequately to propel global vaccination programs forward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Clinical Immunology)
Back to TopTop