Infectious Disease Prevention and Control: A One Health Approach

A special issue of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease (ISSN 2414-6366). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 September 2024 | Viewed by 2892

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Infectious Diseases Unit, Hippokration Hospital, Konstantinoupoleos 49, 54642 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: infection prevention; infection control; emerging infectious diseases; MDR pathogens

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

One Health is a unified approach whose aim is to sustainably balance and optimise the health of people, animals, and ecosystems. The health of humans, domestic and wild animals, plants, and the wider environment (including ecosystems) are interrelated and reciprocally affect each other. Population growth and expansion into natural environmental habitats inevitably lead to closer human interactions, as well as those of humans with wild animals and domestic animals and wildlife.

Climate change, deforestation, and intensive farming, which aggravate the destruction of wild animals’ habitats and increase the movement of people, animals, and their products, are dictated by globalisation and contribute to the start and spread of zoonoses. More than 60% of the new and emerging infectious diseases that threaten human health originate in animal populations and can be further transmitted, either by direct contact or through vectors, to humans, potentially leading to epidemics or pandemic outbreaks. These threats are significantly increasing in frequency and severity over time, with tremendous long-term impacts. The recent COVID-19 pandemic, which led to millions of deaths globally, presents one of the strongest negative examples.

By linking humans, animals, and the environment, One Health can help us to address the full spectrum of disease control—from prevention to detection, preparedness, response, and management—and can contribute to global health security. This Special Issue, Surveillance techniques and field research are invited to provide insight into the early detection of environmental and vector/intermediate host-related factors facilitating the development of emerging infectious disease outbreaks. On the other hand, the development of sensitive and accurate diagnostic tests is encouraged to promptly recognise manifestations of zoonoses that may pose a significant threat to public health. The spectrum of diseases to be covered ranges from epidemics of air-borne and/or food-borne diseases to emerging vector-borne infectious diseases and the spread of environmentally favoured fungi.

Dr. Athina Pyrpasopoulou
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • one health
  • emerging infectious diseases
  • disease outbreaks
  • zoonoses
  • climate change

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 708 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Determinants of Mortality before CD4 Count Recovery in a Cohort of Patients Initiated on Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa Using a Fine and Gray Competing Risks Model
by Chiedza Elvina Mashiri, Jesca Mercy Batidzirai, Retius Chifurira and Knowledge Chinhamu
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2024, 9(7), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed9070154 - 10 Jul 2024
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Abstract
CD4 count recovery is the main goal for an HIV patient who initiated ART. Early ART initiation in HIV patients can help restore immune function more effectively, even when they have reached an advanced stage. Some patients may respond positively to ART and [...] Read more.
CD4 count recovery is the main goal for an HIV patient who initiated ART. Early ART initiation in HIV patients can help restore immune function more effectively, even when they have reached an advanced stage. Some patients may respond positively to ART and attain CD4 count recovery. Meanwhile, other patients failing to recover their CD4 count due to non-adherence, treatment resistance and virological failure might lead to HIV-related complications and death. The purpose of this study was to find the determinants of death in patients who failed to recover their CD4 count after initiating antiretroviral therapy. The data used in this study was obtained from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, where 2528 HIV-infected patients with a baseline CD4 count of <200 cells/mm3 were initiated on ART. We used a Fine–Gray sub-distribution hazard and cumulative incidence function to estimate potential confounding factors of death, where CD4 count recovery was a competing event for failure due to death. Patients who had no tuberculosis were 1.33 times at risk of dying before attaining CD4 count recovery [aSHR 1.33; 95% CI (0.96–1.85)] compared to those who had tuberculosis. Rural patients had a higher risk of not recovering and leading to death [aSHR 1.97; 95% CI (1.57–2.47)] than those from urban areas. The patient’s tuberculosis status, viral load, regimen, baseline CD4 count, and location were significant contributors to death before CD4 count recovery. Intervention programs targeting HIV testing in rural areas for early ART initiation and promoting treatment adherence are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Prevention and Control: A One Health Approach)
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14 pages, 5726 KiB  
Article
Incidence of Scrub Typhus according to Changes in Geographic and Demographic Characteristic in the Chungcheong Region of Korea
by Sungchan Yang, Gemma Park and Yuna Kim
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2024, 9(7), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed9070147 - 30 Jun 2024
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Abstract
To ascertain the incidence trends of scrub typhus in the Chungcheong region, we analyzed the epidemiological survey information of 14,379 cases of scrub typhus reported to the integrated disease health management system of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 2012 [...] Read more.
To ascertain the incidence trends of scrub typhus in the Chungcheong region, we analyzed the epidemiological survey information of 14,379 cases of scrub typhus reported to the integrated disease health management system of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 2012 and 2022, along with demographic data from the Korean Statistics Information Service. Geographical analyses were performed to confirm the correlation between high-risk areas and the proportion of elderly people. The average age, proportion of elderly people, and changes in the agricultural population were statistically associated with incidence. The incidence of scrub typhus, and the agricultural population, in the Chungcheong region has decreased compared with that in 2012–2013. However, recent trends indicate a resurgence linked to increased outdoor activity, with higher risks observed in older age groups. Additionally, advancing age correlates with a heightened probability of reinfection and additional infections with other febrile diseases. The incidence of scrub typhus in the Chungcheong region (2012–2022) is changing according to age and route of infection, highlighting the need for revised prevention and promotion policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Prevention and Control: A One Health Approach)
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19 pages, 2697 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance in Select Tertiary Hospitals in Uganda: An Evaluation of 2020 to 2023 Routine Surveillance Data
by Jonathan Mayito, Daniel Kibombo, Charles Olaro, Susan Nabadda, Consolata Guma, Immaculate Nabukenya, Andrew Busuge, Flavia Dhikusooka, Alex Andema, Peter Mukobi, Nathan Onyachi, Ben Watmon, Stephen Obbo, Alfred Yayi, James Elima, Celestine Barigye, Filbert J. Nyeko, Ibrahim Mugerwa, Musa Sekamatte, Joel Bazira, Richard Walwema, Mohammed Lamorde, Francis Kakooza and Henry Kajumbulaadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2024, 9(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed9040077 - 5 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a public health concern in Uganda. We sought to conduct an extended profiling of AMR burden at selected Ugandan tertiary hospitals. We analyzed routine surveillance data collected between October 2020 and March 2023 from 10 tertiary hospitals. The analysis [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a public health concern in Uganda. We sought to conduct an extended profiling of AMR burden at selected Ugandan tertiary hospitals. We analyzed routine surveillance data collected between October 2020 and March 2023 from 10 tertiary hospitals. The analysis was stratified according to the hospital unit, age, gender, specimen type, and time. Up to 2754 isolates were recovered, primarily from pus: 1443 (52.4%); urine: 1035 (37.6%); and blood: 245 (8.9%). Most pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus, 1020 (37%), Escherichia coli, 808 (29.3%), and Klebsiella spp., 200 (7.3%). Only 28% of Escherichia coli and 42% of the other Enterobacterales were susceptible to ceftriaxone, while only 44% of Staphylococcus aureus were susceptible to methicillin (56% were MRSA). Enterococcus spp. susceptibility to vancomycin was 72%. The 5–24-year-old had 8% lower ampicillin susceptibility than the >65-year-old, while the 25–44-year-old had 8% lower ciprofloxacin susceptibility than the >65-year-old. The 0–4-year-old had 8% higher ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Only erythromycin susceptibility varied by sex, being higher in males. Escherichia coli ciprofloxacin susceptibility in blood (57%) was higher than in urine (39%) or pus (28%), as was ceftriaxone susceptibility in blood (44%) versus urine (34%) or pus (14%). Klebsiella spp. susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and meropenem decreased by 55% and 47%, respectively, during the evaluation period. During the same period, Escherichia coli ciprofloxacin susceptibility decreased by 40%, while Staphylococcus aureus gentamicin susceptibility decreased by 37%. Resistance was high across the Access and Watch antibiotic categories, varying with time, age, sex, specimen type, and hospital unit. Effective antimicrobial stewardship targeted at the critical AMR drivers is urgently needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Prevention and Control: A One Health Approach)
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