Emerging Diseases/Viruses Prevention: Control, Surveillance, and One Health–2nd Edition

A special issue of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease (ISSN 2414-6366). This special issue belongs to the section "One Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 June 2024 | Viewed by 7804

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier, University of Montpellier. Pathogenesis and Control of Chronic and Emerging Infections (PCCEI), 60 Rue de Navacelles, 34394 Montpellier, CEDEX 5, France
Interests: pathogenesis and diagnosis of emerging viruses especially flaviviruses and neurotropic viruses
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Emerging diseases have been a constant threat and major challenge to human health throughout our history. The emergence of new pathogens, such as Ebola, Zika, SARS-CoV-2 or mpox, has demonstrated the potential for these diseases to spread extremely rapidly. Zoonotic diseases account for at least 60% of infectious diseases and no less than two-thirds of new emerging diseases, which underlines the importance of monitoring them as early as possible. They can cause considerable economic losses each year. Several factors, such as intensive agricultural and livestock practices, urbanization and international travel, are known to contribute to the emergence of zoonotic diseases. Preventive measures for emerging diseases involve early detection and rapid response, but also the development of effective vaccines and treatments. Strengthening surveillance systems and improving diagnostic capacities are essential to detect and respond quickly to epidemics. This Special Issue will cover the topic of One Health and its application in the prevention and control of emerging diseases. One Health recognizes that the health of humans, animals, vectors, and their ecosystems is closely interconnected. Effective control of zoonotic diseases requires early detection of the source of the disease and the factors that contribute to its spread. Combining wildlife, farm animal, and domestic animal health monitoring with human health monitoring can greatly reduce the risk of major epidemics or pandemics of zoonotic origin.

In this second edition of our Special Issue, we invite colleagues to submit original scientific reviews and research articles highlighting advances in our understanding of all aspects of zoonotic disease surveillance and control, including (but not limited to): (1) outbreak investigation and surveillance programs of emerging pathogens (including One Health approaches); (2) the development of new diagnostic tools; (3) understanding the mechanisms of pathogen emergence.

Prof. Dr. Yannick Simonin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • zoonoses
  • one health
  • surveillance and control program
  • emerging diseases
  • innovative diagnosis

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 283 KiB  
Article
Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence in Domestics and Exotic Animals in Southern France
by Bachirou Tinto, Justine Revel, Laurie Virolle, Baptiste Chenet, Florence Reboul Salze, Alix Ortega, Marielle Beltrame and Yannick Simonin
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(9), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8090426 - 25 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
Since late 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a significant global threat to public health. Responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, this new coronavirus has prompted extensive scientific research to comprehend its transmission dynamics, especially among humans. However, as [...] Read more.
Since late 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a significant global threat to public health. Responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, this new coronavirus has prompted extensive scientific research to comprehend its transmission dynamics, especially among humans. However, as our understanding deepens, it becomes increasingly clear that SARS-CoV-2’s impact goes beyond human populations. Recent investigations have illuminated the transmission of the virus between humans and various animal species, raising important questions about zoonotic spillover events and their potential implications for both human and animal health. Our study set out to investigate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in domestic animals (dogs and cats) and zoo animals in the south of France in 2021 and 2022, covering pre-Omicron and Omicron waves. We identified evidence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies not only in domestic dogs and cats but also in several mammals in zoos. This study shows the importance of implementing surveillance measures, including serological studies, to identify and monitor cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in animals. Full article
9 pages, 854 KiB  
Communication
Morbidity of Returning Travelers Seen in Community Urgent Care Centers throughout Israel
by Eyal Itzkowitz, Evan A. Alpert, Abdulhadi Z. Farojeh, Deena R. Zimmerman, Eli Schwartz and Tamar Lachish
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(6), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8060319 - 13 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Information regarding post-travel morbidity is usually reported via dedicated post-travel clinics and mainly relates to travelers returning from low–middle-income countries (LMIC), however, the spectrum of morbidity seen within the community setting is scarcely reported. This prospective observational study among visitors to 17 community [...] Read more.
Information regarding post-travel morbidity is usually reported via dedicated post-travel clinics and mainly relates to travelers returning from low–middle-income countries (LMIC), however, the spectrum of morbidity seen within the community setting is scarcely reported. This prospective observational study among visitors to 17 community Urgent Care Centers (UCC) was designed to evaluate the reasons for post-travel community clinic visits and to compare travelers returning from LMIC to high-income countries (HIC). All visitors within one-month post-travel to all destinations were included. A total of 1580 post-travel visits were analyzed during 25 months. Travelers to LMICs were younger (mean 36.8 years old vs. 41.4 in the HIC group) and stayed longer periods abroad (30.1 ± 41.2 vs. 10.0 ± 10.6 in the HIC group) but more of them had pre-travel vaccines (35.5% vs. 6.6%). Travel-related morbidity was significantly more common in the LMIC group 58.3% (253/434) vs. 34.1% (391/1146) in the HIC group, (p < 0.001). Acute diarrhea was the leading cause of morbidity after visiting LMIC (28.8%) and was significantly more common than in the HIC (6.6%, p < 0.001). Other common morbidities in the LMIC cohort were respiratory (23.3%), cutaneous (15.8%), and injuries (9.9%). In the HIC group, the common morbidities were respiratory (37.3%), and diarrhea composed only 6.6% of the complaints. Our study group represents a less biased sample of travelers to LMIC as well as HIC, therefore, data from the UCC setting and at the specialized travel clinics complete each other in understanding the true extent of morbidity in travelers. Full article
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Review

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15 pages, 3942 KiB  
Review
Potential Way to Develop Dengue Virus Detection in Aedes Larvae as an Alternative for Dengue Active Surveillance: A Literature Review
by Yenny Rachmawati, Savira Ekawardhani, Nisa Fauziah, Lia Faridah and Kozo Watanabe
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2024, 9(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed9030060 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1719
Abstract
The burden of dengue has emerged as a serious public health issue due to its impact on morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Existing surveillance systems are inadequate to provide the necessary data for the prompt and efficient control of dengue. Passive surveillance of [...] Read more.
The burden of dengue has emerged as a serious public health issue due to its impact on morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Existing surveillance systems are inadequate to provide the necessary data for the prompt and efficient control of dengue. Passive surveillance of dengue cases may lead to underreporting and delayed mitigation responses. Improved dengue control program requires sensitive and proactive methods for early detection of dengue. We collected and reviewed existing research articles worldwide on detecting dengue virus in Aedes species larvae. Searches were conducted in PUBMED and Google Scholar, including all the studies published in English and Bahasa Indonesia. Twenty-nine studies were included in this review in terms of assay used, positivity rate, and dengue serotype detected. The presence of dengue virus in immature mosquitoes was mostly detected using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) in pooled larvae. In one study, dengue virus was detected in larvae from laboratory-infected mosquitoes using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The positivity rate of dengue virus detection ranged from 0 to 50% in field-caught larvae. Although various methods can detect the dengue virus, further research encourages the use of low-cost and less laborious methods for active surveillance of dengue in larvae. Full article
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13 pages, 254 KiB  
Review
A Rare Human Helminth Infection in Russia
by Anatoly V. Kondrashin, Lola F. Morozova, Ekaterina V. Stepanova, Natalia A. Turbabina, Maria S. Maksimova, Alina S. Anikina, Ariyo Shahin-jafari, Aleksandr E. Morozov, Dmitry V. Mikhaylov, Yulia D. Kupriyanova and Evgeny N. Morozov
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2023, 8(8), 403; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed8080403 - 8 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Currently, more than 500,000 cases of various helminthes in humans are reported annually in the Russian Federation. This figure may not reflect the true incidence of helminthes, as only nine separate nosological forms are compulsory notifiable. The rest of the species of detected [...] Read more.
Currently, more than 500,000 cases of various helminthes in humans are reported annually in the Russian Federation. This figure may not reflect the true incidence of helminthes, as only nine separate nosological forms are compulsory notifiable. The rest of the species of detected helminthes are included in a separate category of “other helminthes” or “rare helminthes”. The bulk of the latter is represented by the helminthes with a rate of incidence that does not exceed one case per 100,000 people. This review is based on data derived from publications in the Russian language, both from the Russian Federation and international, as well as data available from various health treatment facilities in Russia. These data largely cover the period of the 1990s–2010s. A total of 15 species of “rare helminthes” are described in this review: anisakiosis, capillariosis, clonorchosis, dioctophymosis, dipylidiosis, echinochasmosis, fasciolosis, gastrodiscoidosis (amphistomiosis), metagonimosis, metorchiosis, nanophyetosis, pseudamphistomosis, sparganosis (spirometrosis), strongyloidosis and trichostrongylosis. Details of their geographical distribution, clinical and epidemiological peculiarities, and the difficulties they pose in diagnosis are provided. The public health importance of “rare helminthes” in Russia at present and in the forthcoming years is stressed. Full article

Other

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10 pages, 1618 KiB  
Brief Report
Spike S2 Subunit: Possible Target for Detecting Novel SARS-CoV-2 Variants with Multiple Mutations
by Teerada Ponpinit, Yutthana Joyjinda, Weenassarin Ampoot, Siriporn Yomrat, Phatthamon Virojanapirom, Chanida Ruchisrisarod, Abhinbhen W. Saraya, Pasin Hemachudha and Thiravat Hemachudha
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2024, 9(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed9020050 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1324
Abstract
Novel SARS-CoV-2 variants have multiple mutations that may impact molecular diagnostics. The markedly conserved S2 subunit may be utilized to detect new variants. A comparison of 694 specimens (2019–2022) in Thailand using a commercial RT-PCR kit and the kit in combination with S2 [...] Read more.
Novel SARS-CoV-2 variants have multiple mutations that may impact molecular diagnostics. The markedly conserved S2 subunit may be utilized to detect new variants. A comparison of 694 specimens (2019–2022) in Thailand using a commercial RT-PCR kit and the kit in combination with S2 primers and a probe was performed. Delayed amplification in ORF1ab was detected in one BA.4 omicron, whereas no amplification problem was encountered in the S2 target. There were no statistically significant differences in mean Ct value between the target genes (E, N, ORF1ab, and S2) and no significant differences in mean Ct value between the reagents. Furthermore, 230,821 nucleotide sequences submitted by 20 representative counties in each region (Jan–Oct 2022) have been checked for mutations in S2 primers and probe using PrimerChecker; there is a very low chance of encountering performance problems. The S2 primers and probe are still bound to the top five currently circulating variants in all countries and Thailand without mismatch recognition (Jun–Nov 2023). This study shows the possible benefits of detecting S2 in combination with simultaneously detecting three genes in a kit without affecting the Ct value of each target. The S2 subunit may be a promising target for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants with multiple mutations. Full article
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