Special Issue "Biocontrol Agents and Natural Compounds against Mycotoxinogenic Fungi"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Florence MATHIEU
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse, France
Dr. Selma P. SNINI
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse, France

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites and have deleterious effects on humans, animals, and plants. More than one hundred mycotoxins are known which contaminate food and feed raw materials. Fungal infection and mycotoxin contamination can occur at a pre- or post-harvest stage of production. Given the proven toxicity of mycotoxins and their widespread distribution, it is necessary to develop methods that prevent their occurrence in food and feed. To limit mycotoxin contamination, several techniques could then be adopted either in fields or during storage of harvested goods. These techniques can either directly target fungal development or work to limit mycotoxin levels. Until very recently, phytopharmaceutical products were favored to limit mycotoxin contamination. Nonetheless, the sanitary and environmental impacts of these products and their effects on food quality encourage the development of alternative strategies based on biocontrol agents or natural compounds.
The focus of this Special Issue of Toxins is to gather the most recent advances related to reducing mycotoxin contamination in food and feed using biocontrol agents and natural compounds. In this context, two main types of approaches could be proposed: Preventive methods that could be applied in the field or during storage and acting directly on fungal development and/or on mycotoxin production and curative methods that aim to detoxify contaminated matrices by eliminating the produced mycotoxin. Particular attention will be devoted to deciphering the mode of action of the proposed biocontrol strategies.

Prof. Florence MATHIEU
Dr. Selma P. SNINI
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mycotoxins
  • Mycotoxigenic fungi
  • Biocontrol agents
  • Natural compounds
  • Detoxification
  • Microorganisms
  • Preventive approaches
  • Curative approaches

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
In-vitro Application of a Qatari Burkholderia cepacia strain (QBC03) in the Biocontrol of Mycotoxigenic Fungi and in the Reduction of Ochratoxin A biosynthesis by Aspergillus carbonarius
Toxins 2019, 11(12), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11120700 - 02 Dec 2019
Abstract
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by certain filamentous fungi, causing human and animal health issues upon the ingestion of contaminated food and feed. Among the safest approaches to the control of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxin detoxification is the application of microbial biocontrol agents. [...] Read more.
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by certain filamentous fungi, causing human and animal health issues upon the ingestion of contaminated food and feed. Among the safest approaches to the control of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxin detoxification is the application of microbial biocontrol agents. Burkholderia cepacia is known for producing metabolites active against a broad number of pathogenic fungi. In this study, the antifungal potential of a Qatari strain of Burkholderia cepacia (QBC03) was explored. QBC03 exhibited antifungal activity against a wide range of mycotoxigenic, as well as phytopathogenic, fungal genera and species. The QBC03 culture supernatant significantly inhibited the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius, Fusarium culmorum and Penicillium verrucosum in PDA medium, as well as A. carbonarius and P. verrucosum biomass in PDB medium. The QBC03 culture supernatant was found to dramatically reduce the synthesis of ochratoxin A (OTA) by A. carbonarius, in addition to inducing mycelia malformation. The antifungal activity of QBC03′s culture extract was retained following thermal treatment at 100 °C for 30 min. The findings of the present study advocate that QBC03 is a suitable biocontrol agent against toxigenic fungi, due to the inhibitory activity of its thermostable metabolites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocontrol Agents and Natural Compounds against Mycotoxinogenic Fungi)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Essential Oil Citral on the Growth, Mycotoxin Biosynthesis and Transcriptomic Profile of Alternaria alternata
Toxins 2019, 11(10), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11100553 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Alternaria alternata is a critical phytopathogen that causes foodborne spoilage and produces a polyketide mycotoxin, alternariol (AOH), and its derivative, alternariol monomethyl ether (AME). In this study, the inhibitory effects of the essential oil citral on the fungal growth and mycotoxin production of [...] Read more.
Alternaria alternata is a critical phytopathogen that causes foodborne spoilage and produces a polyketide mycotoxin, alternariol (AOH), and its derivative, alternariol monomethyl ether (AME). In this study, the inhibitory effects of the essential oil citral on the fungal growth and mycotoxin production of A. alternata were evaluated. Our findings indicated that 0.25 μL/mL (222.5 μg/mL) of citral completely suppressed mycelial growth as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Moreover, the 1/2MIC of citral could inhibit more than 97% of the mycotoxin amount. Transcriptomic profiling was performed by comparative RNA-Seq analysis of A. alternata with or without citral treatment. Out of a total of 1334 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 621 up-regulated and 713 down-regulated genes were identified under citral stress conditions. Numerous DEGs for cell survival, involved in ribosome and nucleolus biogenesis, RNA processing and metabolic processes, and protein processing, were highly expressed in response to citral. However, a number of DEGs responsible for the metabolism of several carbohydrates and amino acids, sulfate and glutathione metabolism, the metabolism of xenobiotics and transporter activity were significantly more likely to be down-regulated. Citral induced the disturbance of cell integrity through the disorder of gene expression, which was further confirmed by the fact that exposure to citral caused irreversibly deleterious disruption of fungal spores and the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. Citral perturbed the balance of oxidative stress, which was likewise verified by a reduction of total antioxidative capacity. In addition, citral was able to modulate the down-regulation of mycotoxin biosynthetic genes, including pksI and omtI. The results provide new insights for exploring inhibitory mechanisms and indicate citral as a potential antifungal and antimytoxigenic alternative for cereal storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocontrol Agents and Natural Compounds against Mycotoxinogenic Fungi)
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Open AccessArticle
Fengycin Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 Inhibits Fusarium graminearum Growth and Mycotoxins Biosynthesis
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050295 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Fusarium graminearum is a notorious pathogen that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal crops. It produces secondary metabolites, such as deoxynivalenol, diminishing grain quality and leading to lesser crop yield. Many strategies have been developed to combat this pathogenic fungus; however, considering [...] Read more.
Fusarium graminearum is a notorious pathogen that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal crops. It produces secondary metabolites, such as deoxynivalenol, diminishing grain quality and leading to lesser crop yield. Many strategies have been developed to combat this pathogenic fungus; however, considering the lack of resistant cultivars and likelihood of environmental hazards upon using chemical pesticides, efforts have shifted toward the biocontrol of plant diseases, which is a sustainable and eco-friendly approach. Fengycin, derived from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, was purified from the crude extract by HPLC and further analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS. Its application resulted in structural deformations in fungal hyphae, as observed via scanning electron microscopy. In planta experiment revealed the ability of fengycin to suppress F. graminearum growth and highlighted its capacity to combat disease incidence. Fengycin significantly suppressed F. graminearum, and also reduced the deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), and zearalenone (ZEN) production in infected grains. To conclude, we report that fengycin produced by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 has potential as a biocontrol agent against F. graminearum and can also inhibit the mycotoxins produced by this fungus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocontrol Agents and Natural Compounds against Mycotoxinogenic Fungi)
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Open AccessArticle
Aspergillus flavus as a Model System to Test the Biological Activity of Botanicals: An Example on Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad. Organic Extracts
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050286 - 22 May 2019
Abstract
Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrader is an annual plant belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family, widely distributed in the desert areas of the Mediterranean basin. Many pharmacological properties (anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, analgesic, anti-epileptic) are ascribed to different organs of this plant; extracts and derivatives of C. [...] Read more.
Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrader is an annual plant belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family, widely distributed in the desert areas of the Mediterranean basin. Many pharmacological properties (anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, analgesic, anti-epileptic) are ascribed to different organs of this plant; extracts and derivatives of C. colocynthis are used in folk Berber medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases—such as rheumatism arthritis, hypertension bronchitis, mastitis, and even cancer. Clinical studies aimed at confirming the chemical and biological bases of pharmacological activity assigned to many plant/herb extracts used in folk medicine often rely on results obtained from laboratory preliminary tests. We investigated the biological activity of some C. colocynthis stem, leaf, and root extracts on the mycotoxigenic and phytopathogenic fungus Aspergillus flavus, testing a possible correlation between the inhibitory effect on aflatoxin biosynthesis, the phytochemical composition of extracts, and their in vitro antioxidant capacities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocontrol Agents and Natural Compounds against Mycotoxinogenic Fungi)
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