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In-Vitro Application of a Qatari Burkholderia cepacia strain (QBC03) in the Biocontrol of Mycotoxigenic Fungi and in the Reduction of Ochratoxin A biosynthesis by Aspergillus carbonarius
Open AccessArticle

Commercial Biocontrol Agents Reveal Contrasting Comportments Against Two Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Cereals: Fusarium Graminearum and Fusarium Verticillioides

1
Qualisud, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, Montpellier SupAgro, Univ d’Avignon, Univ de La Réunion, Montpellier, France
2
CIRAD, UMR Qualisud, F-34398 Montpellier, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(3), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12030152 (registering DOI)
Received: 7 February 2020 / Revised: 22 February 2020 / Accepted: 24 February 2020 / Published: 29 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocontrol Agents and Natural Compounds against Mycotoxinogenic Fungi)
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of commercialized biological control agents (BCAs) against two major mycotoxigenic fungi in cereals, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides, which are trichothecene and fumonisin producers, respectively. With these objectives in mind, three commercial BCAs were selected with contrasting uses and microorganism types (T. asperellum, S. griseoviridis, P. oligandrum) and a culture medium was identified to develop an optimized dual culture bioassay method. Their comportment was examined in dual culture bioassay in vitro with both fusaria to determine growth and mycotoxin production kinetics. Antagonist activity and variable levels or patterns of mycotoxinogenesis inhibition were observed depending on the microorganism type of BCA or on the culture conditions (e.g., different nutritional sources), suggesting that contrasting biocontrol mechanisms are involved. S. griseoviridis leads to a growth inhibition zone where the pathogen mycelium structure is altered, suggesting the diffusion of antimicrobial compounds. In contrast, T. asperellum and P. oligandrum are able to grow faster than the pathogen. T. asperellum showed the capacity to degrade pathogenic mycelia, involving chitinolytic activities. In dual culture bioassay with F. graminearum, this BCA reduced the growth and mycotoxin concentration by 48% and 72%, respectively, and by 78% and 72% in dual culture bioassay against F. verticillioides. P. oligandrum progressed over the pathogen colony, suggesting a close type of interaction such as mycoparasitism, as confirmed by microscopic observation. In dual culture bioassay with F. graminearum, P. oligandrum reduced the growth and mycotoxin concentration by 79% and 93%, respectively. In the dual culture bioassay with F. verticillioides, P. oligandrum reduced the growth and mycotoxin concentration by 49% and 56%, respectively. In vitro dual culture bioassay with different culture media as well as the nutritional phenotyping of different microorganisms made it possible to explore the path of nutritional competition in order to explain part of the observed inhibition by BCAs. View Full-Text
Keywords: antagonistic agents; in vitro dual culture bioassay; mycotoxins; nutritional competition antagonistic agents; in vitro dual culture bioassay; mycotoxins; nutritional competition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pellan, L.; Durand, N.; Martinez, V.; Fontana, A.; Schorr-Galindo, S.; Strub, C. Commercial Biocontrol Agents Reveal Contrasting Comportments Against Two Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Cereals: Fusarium Graminearum and Fusarium Verticillioides. Toxins 2020, 12, 152.

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