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Open AccessArticle

Phenyllactic Acid Produced by Geotrichum candidum Reduces Fusarium sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae Growth and T-2 Toxin Concentration

Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse CEDEX 31326, France
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(4), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12040209 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 February 2020 / Revised: 20 March 2020 / Accepted: 24 March 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocontrol Agents and Natural Compounds against Mycotoxinogenic Fungi)
Fusarium sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae are present in barley crops. Their toxic metabolites, mainly T-2 toxin, affect the quality and safety of raw material and final products such as beer. Therefore, it is crucial to reduce Fusarium spp. proliferation and T-2 toxin contamination during the brewing process. The addition of Geotrichum candidum has been previously demonstrated to reduce the proliferation of Fusarium spp. and the production of toxic metabolites, but the mechanism of action is still not known. Thus, this study focuses on the elucidation of the interaction mechanism between G. candidum and Fusarium spp. in order to improve this bioprocess. First, over a period of 168 h, the co-culture kinetics showed an almost 90% reduction in T-2 toxin concentration, starting at 24 h. Second, sequential cultures lead to a reduction in Fusarium growth and T-2 toxin concentration. Simultaneously, it was demonstrated that G. candidum produces phenyllactic acid (PLA) at the early stages of growth, which could potentially be responsible for the reduction in Fusarium growth and T-2 toxin concentration. To prove the PLA effect, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae were cultivated in PLA supplemented medium. The expected results were achieved with 0.3 g/L of PLA. These promising results contribute to a better understanding of the bioprocess, allowing its optimization at an up-scaled industrial level.
Keywords: phenyllactic acid; biocontrol agent; T-2 toxin; F. langsethiae; F. sporotrichioides; G. candidum; mycotoxin. phenyllactic acid; biocontrol agent; T-2 toxin; F. langsethiae; F. sporotrichioides; G. candidum; mycotoxin.
MDPI and ACS Style

Kawtharani, H.; Snini, S.P.; Heang, S.; Bouajila, J.; Taillandier, P.; Mathieu, F.; Beaufort, S. Phenyllactic Acid Produced by Geotrichum candidum Reduces Fusarium sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae Growth and T-2 Toxin Concentration. Toxins 2020, 12, 209.

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