Special Issue "Recent Advances in Fusarium Research"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Antonio Moretti
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Guest Editor
Institute of Science of Food Production (ISPA), National Research Council (CNR), Via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari (BA), Italy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This “Fusarium” Special Issue of Toxins aims to collect some of most updated works on Fusarium where experts on mycology, genetics, plant pathology, chemistry and toxicology can contribute to increase knowledge on this fungal genus. Fusarium includes many of the most plant pathogenic species worldwide that produce a wide range of mycotoxins. The mycotoxins, beside exerting a variety of toxic activities toward mammals, can often be toxic for the plants. Moreover, the genus encompasses many other species that can have a dangerous profile of mycotoxins although not pathogens on the plants; they colonize several other kinds of environment; finally, they can be pathogens to human and animals. Several research groups worldwide devote tremendous efforts for selecting tools aiming to reduce Fusarium mycotoxin damages both in the field and as natural contaminants of agro-food products. The use of prediction models for Fusarium mycotoxins in the field; early chemical or genetic analyses for the identification of the different Fusarium species and related mycotoxins in the crops; alternative agronomic pathways; application of fungicides or biological control agents; and the use of bacteria and their enzymes for mycotoxin degradation in food/feed commodities, are all well-studied research topics at global level. However, many research areas remain undiscovered. In addition, major evidence does exist that the current climatic changes are influencing the contamination of Fusarium mycotoxins in new geographical areas and causing the occurrence of new emerging toxins. On the other hand, the complexity and the great biodiversity of the Fusarium species, a genus in continuous taxonomic revisiting, require more sophisticated and advanced analyses to generate and analyze more widely the Fusarium species genomes and metabolic profiles, respectively, since the poly-omic approach is a powerful tool for unraveling the genetic and mycotoxin profile variability of this intriguing fungal genus.

Dr. Antonio Moretti
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • analytical methods
  • biodiversity
  • DNA-based detection methods
  • Fusarium mycotoxins
  • genomics
  • metabolomics
  • pathogenicity

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Isolation, Molecular Identification and Mycotoxin Profile of Fusarium Species Isolated from Maize Kernels in Iran
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050297 - 24 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Fusarium species are among the most important fungal pathogens of maize, where they cause severe reduction of yield and accumulation of a wide range of harmful mycotoxins in the kernels. In order to identify the Fusarium species and their mycotoxin profiles associated to [...] Read more.
Fusarium species are among the most important fungal pathogens of maize, where they cause severe reduction of yield and accumulation of a wide range of harmful mycotoxins in the kernels. In order to identify the Fusarium species and their mycotoxin profiles associated to maize ear rot and kernel contamination in Iran, a wide sampling was carried out from field in ten major maize-producing provinces in Iran, during 2015 and 2016. From 182 samples of maize kernels, 551 strains were isolated and identified as belonging to Fusarium genus. Among the 234 representative strains identified at species level by translation elongation factor (EF-1α) sequences, the main Fusarium species were F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, together representing 90% of the Iranian Fusarium population, and, to a lesser extent, F. incarnatum equiseti species complex (FIESC), F. thapsinum and F. redolens. Fumonisin (FBs) production by F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum representative strains was analysed, showing that all strains produced FB1. None of F. verticillioides strains produced FB2 nor FB3, while both FB2 and FB3 were produced only by F. proliferatum. Total mean of FBs production by F. verticillioides was higher than F. proliferatum. The occurrence of different Fusarium species on Iranian maize is reason of great concern because of the toxigenic risk associated to these species. Moreover, the diversity of the species identified increases the toxigenic risk associated to Fusarium contaminated maize kernels, because of the high possibility that a multi-toxin contamination can occur with harmful consequences on human and animal health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fusarium Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Fusaoctaxin A, an Example of a Two-Step Mechanism for Non-Ribosomal Peptide Assembly and Maturation in Fungi
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050277 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Fungal non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) clusters are spread across the chromosomes, where several modifying enzyme-encoding genes typically flank one NRPS. However, a recent study showed that the octapeptide fusaoctaxin A is tandemly synthesized by two NRPSs in Fusarium graminearum. Here, [...] Read more.
Fungal non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) clusters are spread across the chromosomes, where several modifying enzyme-encoding genes typically flank one NRPS. However, a recent study showed that the octapeptide fusaoctaxin A is tandemly synthesized by two NRPSs in Fusarium graminearum. Here, we illuminate parts of the biosynthetic route of fusaoctaxin A, which is cleaved into the tripeptide fusatrixin A and the pentapeptide fusapentaxin A during transport by a cluster-specific ABC transporter with peptidase activity. Further, we deleted the histone H3K27 methyltransferase kmt6, which induced the production of fusaoctaxin A. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fusarium Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Five Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors on DON Biosynthesis of Fusarium asiaticum, Causing Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050272 - 15 May 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a class of mycotoxin produced in cereal crops infected with Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC). In China, FGSC mainly includes Fusarium asiaticum and F. graminearum. DON belongs to the trichothecenes and poses a serious threat to the safety and [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a class of mycotoxin produced in cereal crops infected with Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC). In China, FGSC mainly includes Fusarium asiaticum and F. graminearum. DON belongs to the trichothecenes and poses a serious threat to the safety and health of humans and animals. Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs) are a class of fungicides that act on succinate dehydrogenase and inhibit the respiration of pathogenic fungi. In this study, the fungicidal activities of five SDHIs, including fluopyram, flutolanil, boscalid, benzovindiflupyr, and fluxapyroxad, against FGSC were determined based on mycelial growth and spore germination inhibition methods. The five SDHIs exhibited better inhibitory activities in spore germination than mycelial growth. Fluopyram exhibited a higher inhibitory effect in mycelial growth and spore germination in comparison to the other four SDHIs. In addition, the biological characteristics of F. asiaticum as affected by the five SDHIs were determined. We found that these five SDHIs decreased DON, pyruvic acid and acetyl-CoA production, isocitrate dehydrogenase mitochondrial (ICDHm) and SDH activities, and NADH and ATP content of F. asiaticum but increased the citric acid content. In addition, TRI5 gene expression was inhibited, and the formation of toxisomes was disrupted by the five SDHIs, further confirming that SDHIs can decrease DON biosynthesis of F. asiaticum. Thus, we concluded that SDHIs may decrease DON biosynthesis of F. asiaticum by inhibiting glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Overall, the findings from the study will provide important references for managing Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by FGSC and reducing DON contamination in F. asiaticum-infected wheat grains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fusarium Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Toxigenic Fusarium Species Associated with Wheat Grain from Three Regions of Russia: Volga, Ural, and West Siberia
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050252 - 05 May 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Wheat grains collected in three regions of Russia—Volga, Ural, and West Siberia—were analyzed for triangulation of methods in analysis of toxigenic Fusarium species. The presence of fungi and quantitative content of their biomass were detected by using various analytical methods, including a mycological [...] Read more.
Wheat grains collected in three regions of Russia—Volga, Ural, and West Siberia—were analyzed for triangulation of methods in analysis of toxigenic Fusarium species. The presence of fungi and quantitative content of their biomass were detected by using various analytical methods, including a mycological and immunochemical methods, and quantitative PCR. Additionally, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry were applied for determination of mycotoxins. Regional differences were found regarding the contamination of wheat grain by Fusarium fungi and their toxins. The most important observation was the detection of F. graminearum in the Ural and West Siberian regions, where this pathogen had not been found previously. A maximum damaged grains by F. graminearum and F. sporotrichioides was found in the grain samples from West Siberia. The DNA of F. graminearum was detected in 19.2% and DNA of F. sporotrichioides was found in 84.1% of the analyzed grain samples. The amount of Fusarium antigens in the grain samples from the West Siberian region was 7–8 times higher than in the grain samples from the other two regions. Significant contamination of the grain with deoxynivalenol and T-2/HT-2 toxins (maximum contents were 2239 ppb and 199 ppb, respectively) was detected in the West Siberian region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fusarium Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Diverse Components of Resistance to Fusarium verticillioides Infection and Fumonisin Contamination in Four Maize Recombinant Inbred Families
Toxins 2019, 11(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020086 - 01 Feb 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The fungus Fusarium verticillioides can infect maize ears, causing Fusarium ear rot (FER) and contaminating the grain with fumonisins (FUM), which are harmful to humans and animals. Breeding for resistance to FER and FUM and post-harvest sorting of grain are two strategies for [...] Read more.
The fungus Fusarium verticillioides can infect maize ears, causing Fusarium ear rot (FER) and contaminating the grain with fumonisins (FUM), which are harmful to humans and animals. Breeding for resistance to FER and FUM and post-harvest sorting of grain are two strategies for reducing FUM in the food system. Kernel and cob tissues have been previously associated with differential FER and FUM. Four recombinant inbred line families from the maize nested associated mapping population were grown and inoculated with F. verticillioides across four environments, and we evaluated the kernels for external and internal infection severity as well as FUM contamination. We also employed publicly available phenotypes on innate ear morphology to explore genetic relationships between ear architecture and resistance to FER and FUM. The four families revealed wide variation in external symptomatology at the phenotypic level. Kernel bulk density under inoculation was an accurate indicator of FUM levels. Genotypes with lower kernel density—under both inoculated and uninoculated conditions—and larger cobs were more susceptible to infection and FUM contamination. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) intervals could be classified as putatively resistance-specific and putatively shared for ear and resistance traits. Both types of QTL mapped in this study had substantial overlap with previously reported loci for resistance to FER and FUM. Ear morphology may be a component of resistance to F. verticillioides infection and FUM accumulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fusarium Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Functional Analysis of FgNahG Clarifies the Contribution of Salicylic Acid to Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Resistance against Fusarium Head Blight
Toxins 2019, 11(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020059 - 22 Jan 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
Salicylic acid (SA) is a key defense hormone associated with wheat resistance against Fusarium head blight, which is a severe disease mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum. Although F. graminearum can metabolize SA, it remains unclear how this metabolic activity affects the wheat– [...] Read more.
Salicylic acid (SA) is a key defense hormone associated with wheat resistance against Fusarium head blight, which is a severe disease mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum. Although F. graminearum can metabolize SA, it remains unclear how this metabolic activity affects the wheat–F. graminearum interaction. In this study, we identified a salicylate hydroxylase gene (FG05_08116; FgNahG) in F. graminearum. This gene encodes a protein that catalyzes the conversion of SA to catechol. Additionally, FgNahG was widely distributed within hyphae. Disrupting the FgNahG gene (ΔFgNahG) led to enhanced sensitivity to SA, increased accumulation of SA in wheat spikes during the early infection stage and inhibited development of head blight symptoms. However, FgNahG did not affect mycotoxin production. Re-introducing a functional FgNahG gene into the ΔFgNahG mutant recovered the wild-type phenotype. Moreover, the expression of FgNahG in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana decreased the SA concentration and the resistance of leaves to F. graminearum. These results indicate that the endogenous SA in wheat influences the resistance against F. graminearum. Furthermore, the capacity to metabolize SA is an important factor affecting the ability of F. graminearum to infect wheat plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fusarium Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Transfer of Deoxynivalenol (DON) through Placenta, Colostrum and Milk from Sows to Their Offspring during Late Gestation and Lactation
Toxins 2018, 10(12), 517; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120517 - 04 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination of feed may result in reduced growth, feed refusal, immunosuppression, and health problems in swine. Piglets can be exposed to DON via placenta before birth and via milk during lactation. The extent of early-life exposure of piglets to DON is, [...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination of feed may result in reduced growth, feed refusal, immunosuppression, and health problems in swine. Piglets can be exposed to DON via placenta before birth and via milk during lactation. The extent of early-life exposure of piglets to DON is, however, not fully known. This study was therefore aimed at investigating DON uptake in sows fed with naturally contaminated diets, DON transfer across placenta during late gestation, and transfer of DON to piglets via colostrum and milk. Forty-four crossbred sows were evaluated from day 93 ± 1 of gestation until weaning of piglets and fed with feed made from naturally DON-contaminated oats at three concentration levels: (1) control (DON < 0.2 mg/kg), (2) DON level 1 (1.4 mg DON/kg), and (3) DON level 2 (1.7 mg DON/kg). The transfer of DON to the piglets was evaluated in 15 sows, with repeated sampling of blood and milk from the sows and blood samples from five piglets of each litter. The piglet/sow plasma DON ratio and milk/plasma (M/P) DON ratio in sows were calculated to estimate the degree of transfer. Piglet/sow plasma ratios were 2.14 at birth, 2.30 within 12–36 h after parturition, 0.08 on day 7, 0.16 on day 21, and 0.20 at weaning. M/P ratios were 0.92, 1.11, 0.94, 1.21, and 0.90, respectively. The results indicate that DON is efficiently transferred across placenta and into milk. However, the low piglet/sow plasma ratios at mid-lactation to weaning indicate that the piglets were most strongly exposed to DON in early life, despite the high M/P ratios and efficient secretion of DON in milk throughout the entire lactation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fusarium Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Trichothecene Genotypes of Fusarium graminearum Populations Isolated from Winter Wheat Crops in Serbia
Toxins 2018, 10(11), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10110460 - 08 Nov 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fusarium graminearum as the main causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and its ability to produce trichothecenes was investigated by molecular techniques. A total of 37 strains isolated from the wheat, harvested in Serbia in 2005, 2008 and 2015, and previously designated [...] Read more.
Fusarium graminearum as the main causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and its ability to produce trichothecenes was investigated by molecular techniques. A total of 37 strains isolated from the wheat, harvested in Serbia in 2005, 2008 and 2015, and previously designated by morphological observation as F. graminearum, were used for trichothecene genotypes characterization. The strains were identified using the species-specific primer set FG16R/FG16F while genotypic characterization was done using specific TRI13 and TRI3 sequences of the trichothecene gene clusters. The PCR assays identified all strains as species of F. graminearum sensu stricto with the DON/15-ADON genotype. The quantification of the mycotoxin (DON) was performed using the biochemical assay. The high levels of DON (>20,000 µg kg−1) were recorded in all of the strains from 2005, four strains from 2008 and two strains from 2015. Weather data of the investigated seasons, showed that the optimal temperature, frequent rains and high relative humidity (RH) was very favourable for the development of F. graminearum, affecting the DON biosynthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fusarium Research)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Species Composition and Trichothecene Genotype Profiling of Fusarium Field Isolates Recovered from Wheat in Poland
Toxins 2018, 10(8), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10080325 - 10 Aug 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
Fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereals is the major head disease negatively affecting grain production worldwide. In 2016 and 2017, serious outbreaks of FHB occurred in wheat crops in Poland. In this study, we characterized the diversity of Fusaria responsible for these epidemics [...] Read more.
Fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereals is the major head disease negatively affecting grain production worldwide. In 2016 and 2017, serious outbreaks of FHB occurred in wheat crops in Poland. In this study, we characterized the diversity of Fusaria responsible for these epidemics using TaqMan assays. From a panel of 463 field isolates collected from wheat, four Fusarium species were identified. The predominant species were F. graminearum s.s. (81%) and, to a lesser extent, F. avenaceum (15%). The emergence of the 15ADON genotype was found ranging from 83% to 87% of the total trichothecene genotypes isolated in 2016 and 2017, respectively. Our results indicate two dramatic shifts within fungal field populations in Poland. The first shift is associated with the displacement of F. culmorum by F. graminearum s.s. The second shift resulted from a loss of nivalenol genotypes. We suggest that an emerging prevalence of F. graminearum s.s. may be linked to boosted maize production, which has increased substantially over the last decade in Poland. To detect variation within Tri core clusters, we compared sequence data from randomly selected field isolates with a panel of strains from geographically diverse origins. We found that the newly emerged 15ADON genotypes do not exhibit a specific pattern of polymorphism enabling their clear differentiation from the other European strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fusarium Research)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Highly Sensitive FcMito qPCR Assay for the Quantification of the Toxigenic Fungal Plant Pathogen Fusarium culmorum
Toxins 2018, 10(5), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10050211 - 21 May 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Fusarium culmorum is a ubiquitous, soil-borne fungus (ascomycete) causing foot and root rot and Fusarium head blight on cereals. It is responsible for yield and quality losses as well as grain contamination with mycotoxins, which are a potential health hazard. An extremely sensitive [...] Read more.
Fusarium culmorum is a ubiquitous, soil-borne fungus (ascomycete) causing foot and root rot and Fusarium head blight on cereals. It is responsible for yield and quality losses as well as grain contamination with mycotoxins, which are a potential health hazard. An extremely sensitive mitochondrial-based qPCR assay (FcMito qPCR) for quantification of F. culmorum was developed in this study. To provide specificity, the FcMito assay was successfully validated against 85 F. culmorum strains and 53 isolates of 30 other fungal species. The assay efficiency and sensitivity were evaluated against different F. culmorum strains with various amounts of pure fungal DNA and in the presence of background wheat DNA. The results demonstrated the high efficiency of the assay (97.2–106.0%, R2-values > 0.99). It was also shown that, in the presence of background DNA, 0.01 pg of fungal template could be reliably quantified. The FcMito assay was used to quantify F. culmorum DNA using 108 grain samples with different trichothecene levels. A significant positive correlation was found between fungal DNA quantity and the total trichothecene content. The obtained results showed that the sensitivity of the FcMito assay was much higher than the nuclear-based qPCR assay for F. culmorum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fusarium Research)
Open AccessArticle
Biosynthesis and Characterization of Zearalenone-14-Sulfate, Zearalenone-14-Glucoside and Zearalenone-16-Glucoside Using Common Fungal Strains
Toxins 2018, 10(3), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10030104 - 01 Mar 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEN) and its phase II sulfate and glucoside metabolites have been detected in food and feed commodities. After consumption, the conjugates can be hydrolyzed by the human intestinal microbiota leading to liberation of ZEN that implies an underestimation of the true ZEN [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEN) and its phase II sulfate and glucoside metabolites have been detected in food and feed commodities. After consumption, the conjugates can be hydrolyzed by the human intestinal microbiota leading to liberation of ZEN that implies an underestimation of the true ZEN exposure. To include ZEN conjugates in routine analysis, reliable standards are needed, which are currently not available. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a facilitated biosynthesis of ZEN-14-sulfate, ZEN-14-glucoside and ZEN-16-glucoside. A metabolite screening was conducted by adding ZEN to liquid fungi cultures of known ZEN conjugating Aspergillus and Rhizopus strains. Cultivation conditions and ZEN incubation time were varied. All media samples were analyzed for metabolite formation by HPLC-MS/MS. In addition, a consecutive biosynthesis was developed by using Fusarium graminearum for ZEN biosynthesis with subsequent conjugation of the toxin by utilizing Aspergillus and Rhizopus species. ZEN-14-sulfate (yield: 49%) is exclusively formed by Aspergillus oryzae. ZEN-14-glucoside (yield: 67%) and ZEN-16-glucoside (yield: 39%) are formed by Rhizopus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus, respectively. Purities of ≥73% ZEN-14-sulfate, ≥82% ZEN-14-glucoside and ≥50% ZEN-16-glucoside were obtained by 1H-NMR. In total, under optimized cultivation conditions, fungi can be easily utilized for a targeted and regioselective synthesis of ZEN conjugates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fusarium Research)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Selection of Fusarium Trichothecene Toxin Genes for Molecular Detection Depends on TRI Gene Cluster Organization and Gene Function
Toxins 2019, 11(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010036 - 14 Jan 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Food security is a global concern. Fusarium are among the most economically important fungal pathogens because they are ubiquitous, disease management remains a challenge, they produce mycotoxins that affect food and feed safety, and trichothecene mycotoxin production can increase the pathogenicity of some [...] Read more.
Food security is a global concern. Fusarium are among the most economically important fungal pathogens because they are ubiquitous, disease management remains a challenge, they produce mycotoxins that affect food and feed safety, and trichothecene mycotoxin production can increase the pathogenicity of some Fusarium species depending on the host species. Although trichothecenes may differ in structure by their patterns of hydroxylation or acetylation, these small changes have a significant impact on toxicity and the biological activity of these compounds. Therefore, detecting and identifying which chemotype is present in a given population are important to predicting the specific toxins that may be produced and, therefore, to evaluating the risk of exposure. Due to the challenges of inducing trichothecene production by Fusarium isolates in vitro for subsequent chemical analysis, PCR assays using gene-specific primers, either singly or in combination, designed against specific genes of the trichothecene gene cluster of multiple species of Fusarium have been developed. The establishment of TRI genotypes that potentially correspond to a specific chemotype requires examination of an information and knowledge pipeline whose critical aspects in sequential order are: (i) understanding the TRI gene cluster organization which differs according to Fusarium species under study; (ii) knowledge of the re-arrangements to the core TRI gene cluster over evolutionary time, which also differs according to Fusarium species; (iii) the functions of the TRI genes in the biosynthesis of trichothecene analogs; and (iv) based on (i)–(iii), selection of appropriate target TRI gene(s) for primer design in PCR amplification for the Fusarium species under study. This review, therefore, explains this pipeline and its connection to utilizing TRI genotypes as a possible proxy to chemotype designation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fusarium Research)
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Open AccessFeature PaperEditor’s ChoiceReview
Fusarium Molds and Mycotoxins: Potential Species-Specific Effects
Toxins 2018, 10(6), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10060244 - 15 Jun 2018
Cited by 40
Abstract
This review summarizes the information on biochemical and biological activity of the main Fusarium mycotoxins, focusing on toxicological aspects in terms of species-specific effects. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have centered on the peculiarity of the responses to mycotoxins, demonstrating that [...] Read more.
This review summarizes the information on biochemical and biological activity of the main Fusarium mycotoxins, focusing on toxicological aspects in terms of species-specific effects. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have centered on the peculiarity of the responses to mycotoxins, demonstrating that toxicokinetics, bioavailability and the mechanisms of action of these substances vary depending on the species involved, but additional studies are needed to better understand the specific responses. The aim of this review is to summarize the toxicological responses of the main species affected by Fusarium mycotoxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fusarium Research)
Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview
Zearalenone Promotes Cell Proliferation or Causes Cell Death?
Toxins 2018, 10(5), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10050184 - 02 May 2018
Cited by 23
Abstract
Zearalenone (ZEA), one of the mycotoxins, exerts different mechanisms of toxicity in different cell types at different doses. It can not only stimulate cell proliferation but also inhibit cell viability, induce cell apoptosis, and cause cell death. Thus, the objective of this review [...] Read more.
Zearalenone (ZEA), one of the mycotoxins, exerts different mechanisms of toxicity in different cell types at different doses. It can not only stimulate cell proliferation but also inhibit cell viability, induce cell apoptosis, and cause cell death. Thus, the objective of this review is to summarize the available mechanisms and current evidence of what is known about the cell proliferation or cell death induced by ZEA. An increasing number of studies have suggested that ZEA promoted cell proliferation attributing to its estrogen-like effects and carcinogenic properties. What’s more, many studies have indicated that ZEA caused cell death via affecting the distribution of the cell cycle, stimulating oxidative stress and inducing apoptosis. In addition, several studies have revealed that autophagy and some antioxidants can reverse the damage or cell death induced by ZEA. This review thoroughly summarized the metabolic process of ZEA and the molecular mechanisms of ZEA stimulating cell proliferation and cell death. It concluded that a low dose of ZEA can exert estrogen-like effects and carcinogenic properties, which can stimulate the proliferation of cells. While, in addition, a high dose of ZEA can cause cell death through inducing cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress, DNA damage, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fusarium Research)
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