E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Fate of Free, “Masked” and Conjugated/Modified forms of Mycotoxins"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Michele Suman

Barilla G. R. F.lli SpA, Advanced Laboratory Research, Via Mantova 166 - 43100 Parma, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: 00393386938349

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. In the last few years, worldwide authorities have frequently expressed opinions, setting limits, regulations and guidelines in order to reduce their levels in raw materials and food commodities. Modified forms of mycotoxins are often called “masked”. Masked mycotoxins, in ”senso strictu”, are conjugates of mycotoxins resulting from metabolic pathways activated by the interplay between pathogenic fungi and infected plants. Free mycotoxins can therefore frequently occur along with their conjugated forms.

Chemical and toxicological fate of mycotoxins is significantly related also to food processing, which implies high temperature, additives/improvers, long processing time, fermentation, etc. For example, this can then determine the release of parent compounds from/to conjugated forms as well as the ‘masking’ phenomenon associated with the mechanical energy and heat generated, which can prompt reactions with organic macromolecules. Thus, it is fundamental to develop proper analytical methods able to quantify all the different forms in both raw materials and finished food products; beside this it is crucial to assess human/animal exposure to modified forms of the various toxin forms in addition to the parent compounds, because many modified forms are hydrolyzed into the parent compounds or released from the matrix during digestion.

The present Toxins Special Issue will deal with all the different multi-faceted issues of this complex scenario.

Dr. Michele Suman
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mycotoxins
  • masked mycotoxins
  • modified mycotoxins
  • conjugated mycotoxins
  • chemical fate
  • toxicological fate
  • food processing
  • raw materials
  • food commodities
  • analytical methods

Published Papers (2 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-2
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Fate of Ergot Alkaloids during Laboratory Scale Durum Processing and Pasta Production
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 31 March 2019
PDF Full-text (1096 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The fate of ergot alkaloids during the milling of durum and subsequent production and cooking of pasta was examined. Durum samples containing varying amounts of ergot sclerotia (0.01–0.1% by mass) were milled, and all milling product was analyzed for 10 ergot alkaloids using [...] Read more.
The fate of ergot alkaloids during the milling of durum and subsequent production and cooking of pasta was examined. Durum samples containing varying amounts of ergot sclerotia (0.01–0.1% by mass) were milled, and all milling product was analyzed for 10 ergot alkaloids using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Spaghetti was prepared from the semolina obtained during milling. Ergocristine, ergocristinine, and ergotamine were the predominant ergot alkaloids observed in the milling fractions and spaghetti. Approximately 84% of the total ergot alkaloid mass of the whole grain durum resided in the milling product fractions associated with the outer kernel layers (bran, shorts, feeds). No consistent loss of ergot alkaloids was observed during the production or cooking of spaghetti. However, changes in the ratio of R- to S-enantiomers occurred during the milling and cooking of spaghetti. Products containing bran, shorts, and feeds, as well as cooked spaghetti, contained a higher proportion of the less biologically active S-enantiomers. The results of this study emphasize the need to monitor R- and S-enantiomers, and to consider food and feed products, as opposed to whole grain, when assessing any exposure of consumers to ergot alkaloids. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Mycotoxins during the Processes of Nixtamalization and Tortilla Production
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 6 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
PDF Full-text (1034 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tortillas are a traditional staple food in Mesoamerican cuisine, which have also become popular on a global level, e.g., for wraps or as snacks (tortilla chips). Traditional tortilla production includes alkaline cooking (nixtamalization) of maize kernels. This article summarizes the current knowledge on [...] Read more.
Tortillas are a traditional staple food in Mesoamerican cuisine, which have also become popular on a global level, e.g., for wraps or as snacks (tortilla chips). Traditional tortilla production includes alkaline cooking (nixtamalization) of maize kernels. This article summarizes the current knowledge on mycotoxin changes during the nixtamalization of maize and tortilla production. Upon nixtamalization, mycotoxins can be affected in different ways. On the one hand, the toxins can be physically removed during steeping and washing. On the other hand, mycotoxins might be degraded, modified, or released/bound in the matrix by high pH and/or high temperature. This also applies to the subsequent baking of tortillas. Many studies have shown reduced mycotoxin levels in alkali-cooked maize and in tortillas. Most of the available data relate to aflatoxins and fumonisins. The reduction (and detoxification) of aflatoxins during nixtamalization might, however, be partially reversed in acidic conditions. The loss of fumonisin concentrations is to some extent accompanied by hydrolyzation and by lower toxicity. However, some studies have indicated the potential formation of toxicologically relevant modified forms and matrix-associated fumonisins. More data are required to assess the influence of alkaline cooking regarding such modified forms, as well as mycotoxins other than aflatoxins/fumonisins. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top