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Open AccessArticle

Selected Trichothecenes in Barley Malt and Beer from Poland and an Assessment of Dietary Risks Associated with their Consumption

1
Department of Food Analysis, Prof. Waclaw Dabrowski Institute of Agricultural and Food Biotechnology, Rakowiecka 36, 02-532 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Chemistry, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 75, 60-625 Poznan, Poland
3
Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 3-25-26 Tonomachi, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 210-9501, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(12), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11120715
Received: 21 November 2019 / Revised: 3 December 2019 / Accepted: 6 December 2019 / Published: 9 December 2019
Eighty-seven samples of malt from several Polish malting plants and 157 beer samples from the beer available on the Polish market (in 2018) were tested for Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV)), and their modified forms ((deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3G), nivalenol-3-glucoside (NIV-3G), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON)). DON and its metabolite, DON-3G, were found the most, among the samples analyzed; DON and DON-3G were present in 90% and 91% of malt samples, and in 97% and 99% of beer samples, respectively. NIV was found in 24% of malt samples and in 64% of beer samples, and NIV-3G was found in 48% of malt samples and 39% of beer samples. In the malt samples, the mean concentration of DON was 52.9 µg/kg (range: 5.3–347.6 µg/kg) and that of DON-3G was 74.1 µg/kg (range: 4.4–410.3 µg/kg). In the beer samples, the mean concentration of DON was 12.3 µg/L (range: 1.2–156.5 µg/L) and that of DON-3G was 7.1 µg/L (range: 0.6–58.4 µg/L). The concentrations of other tested mycotoxins in the samples of malt and beer were several times lower. The risk of exposure to the tested mycotoxins, following the consumption of beer in Poland, was assessed. The corresponding probable daily intakes (PDIs) remained a small fraction of the tolerable daily intake (TDI). However, in the improbable worst-case scenario, in which every beer bottle consumed would be contaminated with mycotoxins present at the highest level observed among the analyzed beer samples, the PDI would exceed the TDI for DON and its metabolite after the consumption of a single bottle (0.5 L) of beer. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium toxins; modified mycotoxins; beer; malt; risk assessment Fusarium toxins; modified mycotoxins; beer; malt; risk assessment
MDPI and ACS Style

Ksieniewicz-Woźniak, E.; Bryła, M.; Waśkiewicz, A.; Yoshinari, T.; Szymczyk, K. Selected Trichothecenes in Barley Malt and Beer from Poland and an Assessment of Dietary Risks Associated with their Consumption. Toxins 2019, 11, 715.

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