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Emerging Fusarium Mycotoxins Fusaproliferin, Beauvericin, Enniatins, and Moniliformin in Serbian Maize

1
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
2
Institute of Bioanalytics and Agro-Metabolomics, Department IFA-Tulln, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), A-3430 Tulln, Austria
3
Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queens University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060357
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 1 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract

Emerging mycotoxins such as moniliformin (MON), enniatins (ENs), beauvericin (BEA), and fusaproliferin (FUS) may contaminate maize and negatively influence the yield and quality of grain. The aim of this study was to determine the content of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins in Serbian maize from the 2016, 2017, and 2018 harvests. A total of 190 samples from commercial maize production operations in Serbia were analyzed for the presence of MON, ENs, BEA, and FUS using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The obtained results were interpreted together with weather data from each year. MON, BEA, and FUS were major contaminants, while other emerging mycotoxins were not detected or were found in fewer samples (<20%). Overall contamination was highest in 2016 when MON and BEA were found in 50–80% of samples. In 2017 and 2018, high levels of MON, FUS, and BEA were detected in regions with high precipitation and warm weather during the silking phase of maize (July and the beginning of August), when the plants are most susceptible to Fusarium infections. Since environmental conditions in Serbia are favorable for the occurrence of mycotoxigenic fungi, monitoring Fusarium toxins is essential for the production of safe food and feed. View Full-Text
Keywords: emerging mycotoxins; Fusarium; LC-MS/MS; maize; Serbia emerging mycotoxins; Fusarium; LC-MS/MS; maize; Serbia
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Jajić, I.; Dudaš, T.; Krstović, S.; Krska, R.; Sulyok, M.; Bagi, F.; Savić, Z.; Guljaš, D.; Stankov, A. Emerging Fusarium Mycotoxins Fusaproliferin, Beauvericin, Enniatins, and Moniliformin in Serbian Maize. Toxins 2019, 11, 357.

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