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Open AccessArticle

Occurrence of the Ochratoxin A Degradation Product 2′R-Ochratoxin A in Coffee and Other Food: An Update

1
Institute of Food Chemistry, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Corrensstraße 45, 48149 Münster, Germany
2
Laboratorio Diagnostico Molecular S.A, Guatemala City, Guatemala
3
Centro de Investigaciones en Nutrición y Salud, Guatemala City, Guatemala
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060329
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 8 June 2019
Food raw materials can contain the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA). Thermal processing of these materials may result in decreased OTA levels but also in the formation of the thermal isomerization product 2′R-ochratoxin A (2′R-OTA). So far, only 2′R-OTA levels reported from 15 coffee samples in 2008 are known, which is little when compared to the importance of coffee as a food and trading good. Herein, we present results from a set of model experiments studying the effect of temperatures between 120 °C and 270 °C on the isomerization of OTA to 2′R-OTA. It is shown that isomerization of OTA starts at temperatures as low as 120 °C. At 210 °C and above, the formation of 25% 2′R-OTA is observed in less than one minute. Furthermore, 51 coffee samples from France, Germany, and Guatemala were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS for the presence of OTA and 2′R-OTA. OTA was quantified in 96% of the samples, while 2′R-OTA was quantifiable in 35% of the samples. The highest OTA and 2′R-OTA levels of 28.4 µg/kg and 3.9 µg/kg, respectively, were detected in coffee from Guatemala. The OTA:2′R-OTA ratio in the samples ranged between 2.5:1 and 10:1 and was on average 5.5:1. Besides coffee, 2′R-OTA was also for the first time detected in a bread sample and malt coffee powder. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ochratoxin A; 2′R-ochratoxin A; 14(R)-ochratoxin A; coffee; degradation; processing; roasting; modified mycotoxins; masked mycotoxins Ochratoxin A; 2′R-ochratoxin A; 14(R)-ochratoxin A; coffee; degradation; processing; roasting; modified mycotoxins; masked mycotoxins
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Sueck, F.; Hemp, V.; Specht, J.; Torres, O.; Cramer, B.; Humpf, H.-U. Occurrence of the Ochratoxin A Degradation Product 2′R-Ochratoxin A in Coffee and Other Food: An Update. Toxins 2019, 11, 329.

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