New Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

A special issue of Tomography (ISSN 2379-139X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2023) | Viewed by 15140

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Department of Radiology, G.B. Rossi University Hospital, University of Verona, 37129 Verona, Italy
Interests: MRI abdominal imaging; oncologic imaging; radiofrequency ablation; CT; ultrasound; pancreatic cancer; biopsy
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Radiology Unit, Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, University Hospital of Verona, Piazzale Aristide Stefani, 1, 37126 Verona, Italy
Interests: MRI abdominal imaging; head and neck imaging; MRI advances and applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The topic of this Special Issue will be New Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This Special Issue will be edited by Dr. Nicoló Cardobi and Prof. Mirko D’Onofrio and will cover some of the recent advances in MRI technology such as new pulse sequence designs and applications, MRI protocol optimizations, and the impact of artificial intelligence on both image acquisition and reconstruction. Moreover, AI MRI applications, such as AI assisted organ and lesion segmentation and AI assisted diagnosis based on MRI images, will be discussed.

Prof. Dr. Mirko D'Onofrio
Dr. Nicolò Cardobi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Tomography is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • MRI new pulse sequences
  • MRI pulse sequence optimization
  • MRI protocol optimization
  • MRI AI assisted acquisition/reconstruction
  • MRI AI assisted applications

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 2915 KiB  
Article
Repeatability and Reproducibility Uncertainty in Magnetic Resonance-Based Electric Properties Tomography of a Homogeneous Phantom
by Alessandro Arduino, Francesca Pennecchi, Ulrich Katscher, Maurice Cox and Luca Zilberti
Tomography 2023, 9(1), 420-435; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography9010034 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1632
Abstract
Uncertainty assessment is a fundamental step in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging because it makes comparable, in a strict metrological sense, the results of different scans, for example during a longitudinal study. Magnetic resonance-based electric properties tomography (EPT) is a quantitative imaging technique that [...] Read more.
Uncertainty assessment is a fundamental step in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging because it makes comparable, in a strict metrological sense, the results of different scans, for example during a longitudinal study. Magnetic resonance-based electric properties tomography (EPT) is a quantitative imaging technique that retrieves, non-invasively, a map of the electric properties inside a human body. Although EPT has been used in some early clinical studies, a rigorous experimental assessment of the associated uncertainty has not yet been performed. This paper aims at evaluating the repeatability and reproducibility uncertainties in phase-based Helmholtz-EPT applied on homogeneous phantom data acquired with a clinical 3 T scanner. The law of propagation of uncertainty is used to evaluate the uncertainty in the estimated conductivity values starting from the uncertainty in the acquired scans, which is quantified through a robust James–Stein shrinkage estimator to deal with the dimensionality of the problem. Repeatable errors are detected in the estimated conductivity maps and are quantified for various values of the tunable parameters of the EPT implementation. The spatial dispersion of the estimated electric conductivity maps is found to be a good approximation of the reproducibility uncertainty, evaluated by changing the position of the phantom after each scan. The results underpin the use of the average conductivity (calculated by weighting the local conductivity values by their uncertainty and taking into account the spatial correlation) as an estimate of the conductivity of the homogeneous phantom. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI))
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15 pages, 5248 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Compressed SENSE (CS) MRI Metal Artifact Reduction Using Pig L-Spine Phantom and Transplant Patients: Focused on the CS-SEMAC (SPIR), mDixon(O-MAR) and STIR Techniques
by Eun-Hoe Goo and Sung-Soo Kim
Tomography 2022, 8(5), 2298-2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8050192 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2422
Abstract
This study evaluates the clinical usefulness of the images obtained after applying mDixon (O-MAR), CS-SEMAC (SPIR), and STIR techniques to Pig L-Spine Phantom and transplant patients according to the difference in the reduction in metal artifacts and provides the optimal MAR image technique. [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the clinical usefulness of the images obtained after applying mDixon (O-MAR), CS-SEMAC (SPIR), and STIR techniques to Pig L-Spine Phantom and transplant patients according to the difference in the reduction in metal artifacts and provides the optimal MAR image technique. This study was conducted with Phantom and 30 transplant patients who had an implant on the L-Spine (22 men, 8 women, mean age: 64.2 ± 12.98). All data analyzed were evaluated, using Philips Ingenia 3.0T CX. As pulse sequences, applied to the analysis, mDixon (O-MAR), CS-SEMAC (SPIR), and STIR were used. As the coil used to obtain data, the dStream Head Spine Coil was used. When tested directly applying to the transplant patients in the conditions the same as for the Phantom, as for the MAR effect of T1 and T2 images, the SNR value showed the highest effect on the increase in the signal in T1, T2 CS-SEMAC (SPIR), followed by mDixon (O-MAR) and STIR, which was the same result as the Phantom (p < 0.05). In addition, in the results of the histogram measurement in both of the subjects, Phantom and transplant patients, the count of T1, the T2 Sagittal image was the highest in T1, T2 STIR, followed by T1, T2 mDixon (O-MAR) and T1, and T2 CS-SEMAC (SPIR). As a result of the qualitative analysis, the quality was the best in T2 CS-SEMAC(SPIR) (c), followed by mDixon (O-MAR) (b) and T2 STIR (a). In conclusion, when the MAR effect on the Pig L-spine Phantom and Transplant patients was compared, it was noted that the CS-SEMAC (SPIR) technique was the most excellent in the following order: STIR < mDixon (O-MAR) < CS-SEMAC (SPIR). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI))
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11 pages, 3384 KiB  
Article
Reduction in Acquisition Time and Improvement in Image Quality in T2-Weighted MR Imaging of Musculoskeletal Tumors of the Extremities Using a Novel Deep Learning-Based Reconstruction Technique in a Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) Sequence
by Daniel Wessling, Judith Herrmann, Saif Afat, Dominik Nickel, Ahmed E. Othman, Haidara Almansour and Sebastian Gassenmaier
Tomography 2022, 8(4), 1759-1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8040148 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2128
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility and the impact on image quality and acquisition time of a deep learning-accelerated fat-saturated T2-weighted turbo spin echo sequence in musculoskeletal imaging of the extremities. Methods: Twenty-three patients who underwent MRI [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility and the impact on image quality and acquisition time of a deep learning-accelerated fat-saturated T2-weighted turbo spin echo sequence in musculoskeletal imaging of the extremities. Methods: Twenty-three patients who underwent MRI of the extremities were prospectively included. Standard T2w turbo inversion recovery magnitude (TIRMStd) imaging was compared to a deep learning-accelerated T2w TSE (TSEDL) sequence. Image analysis of 23 patients with a mean age of 60 years (range 30–86) was performed regarding image quality, noise, sharpness, contrast, artifacts, lesion detectability and diagnostic confidence. Pathological findings were documented measuring the maximum diameter. Results: The analysis showed a significant improvement for the T2 TSEDL with regard to image quality, noise, contrast, sharpness, lesion detectability, and diagnostic confidence, as compared to T2 TIRMStd (each p < 0.001). There were no differences in the number of detected lesions. The time of acquisition (TA) could be reduced by 52–59%. Interrater agreement was almost perfect (κ = 0.886). Conclusion: Accelerated T2 TSEDL was technically feasible and superior to conventionally applied T2 TIRMStd. Concurrently, TA could be reduced by 52–59%. Therefore, deep learning-accelerated MR imaging is a promising and applicable method in musculoskeletal imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI))
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13 pages, 2765 KiB  
Article
High-Resolution Vessel Wall MRI of Endovascularly Treated Intracranial Aneurysms
by Łukasz Zwarzany, Mateusz Owsiak, Ernest Tyburski and Wojciech Poncyljusz
Tomography 2022, 8(1), 303-315; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8010025 - 1 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2850
Abstract
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the pattern of post-procedural intracranial aneurysm contrast enhancement on high-resolution vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (HR-VW MRI). We investigated the possible association between this imaging finding and factors such as [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the pattern of post-procedural intracranial aneurysm contrast enhancement on high-resolution vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (HR-VW MRI). We investigated the possible association between this imaging finding and factors such as time elapsed since embolization or aneurysm occlusion grade on baseline and follow-up imaging. (2) Methods: Consecutive patients presenting for follow-up after endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms were included. HR-VW MRI was acquired and interpreted independently by two radiologists. (3) Results: This study included 40 aneurysms in 39 patients. Contrast enhancement was detected in 30 (75%) aneurysms. It was peripheral in 12 (30.0%), central in 9 (22.5%), and both peripheral and central in 9 (22.5%) aneurysms. The statistical analysis did not reveal any relationship between follow-up period and the presence of contrast enhancement (p = 0.277). There were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of contrast enhancement between aneurysms with total occlusion and those with remnant flow on follow-up MR angiography (p = 0.850) nor between aneurysms with different interval changes in the aneurysm occlusion grade (p = 0.536). Multivariate analysis did not demonstrate aneurysm size, ruptured aneurysm status, nor initial complete aneurysm occlusion to be a predictor of contrast enhancement (p = 0.080). (4) Conclusions: Post-procedural aneurysm contrast enhancement is a common imaging finding on HR-VW MRI. The clinical utility of this imaging finding, especially in the prediction of aneurysm recurrence, seems limited. The results of our study do not support routine use of HR-VW MRI in the follow-up of patients after endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI))
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10 pages, 2130 KiB  
Article
High-Resolution 3D versus Standard-Resolution 2D T2-Weighted Turbo Spin Echo MRI for the Assessment of Lumbar Nerve Root Compromise
by Elisabeth Sartoretti, Thomas Sartoretti, Árpád Schwenk, Alex Alfieri, David Czell, Michael Wyss, Lukas Wildi, Christoph A. Binkert and Sabine Sartoretti-Schefer
Tomography 2022, 8(1), 257-266; https://doi.org/10.3390/tomography8010020 - 24 Jan 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3984
Abstract
Radiculopathy can be caused by nerve root irritation and nerve root compression at the level of the lateral recess or at the level of the intervertebral foramen. T2-weighted (T2w) MRI is considered essential to evaluate the nerve root and its course, starting at [...] Read more.
Radiculopathy can be caused by nerve root irritation and nerve root compression at the level of the lateral recess or at the level of the intervertebral foramen. T2-weighted (T2w) MRI is considered essential to evaluate the nerve root and its course, starting at the lateral recess through the intervertebral foramen to the extraforaminal space. With the introduction of novel MRI acceleration techniques such as compressed SENSE, standard-resolution 2D T2w turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences with a slice-thickness of 3–4 mm can be replaced with high-resolution isotropic 3D T2w TSE sequences with sub-millimeter resolution without prolonging scan time. With high-resolution 3D MRI, the course of the nerve root can be visualized more precisely due to a detailed depiction of the anatomical situation and less partial volume effects, potentially allowing for a better detection of nerve root compromise. In this intra-individual comparison study, 55 patients with symptomatic unilateral singular nerve root radiculopathy underwent MRI with both 2D standard- and 3D high-resolution T2w TSE MRI sequences. Two readers graded the degree of lumbar lateral recess stenosis and lumbar foraminal stenosis twice on both image sets using previously validated grading systems in an effort to quantify the inter-readout and inter-sequence agreement of scores. Inter-readout agreement was high for both grading systems and for 2D and 3D imaging (Kappa = 0.823–0.945). Inter-sequence agreement was moderate for both lumbar lateral recess stenosis (Kappa = 0.55–0.577) and lumbar foraminal stenosis (Kappa = 0.543–0.572). The percentage of high degree stenosis with nerve root deformity increased from 16.4%/9.8% to 41.8–43.6%/34.1% from 2D to 3D images for lateral recess stenosis/foraminal stenosis, respectively. Therefore, we show that while inter-readout agreement of grading systems is high for both standard- and high-resolution imaging, the latter outperforms standard-resolution imaging for the visualization of lumbar nerve root compromise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI))
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