Symmetry in Hadrons and Nuclei

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2015) | Viewed by 27959

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, ID 46556, USA

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Guest Editor
Department of Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hadrons and nuclei are many-body systems of strongly interacting constituents. Understanding their complicated dynamics is a challenging problem and symmetries play a central role in addressing it.

The spectrum and properties of hadrons are governed by Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory of strong interactions. The non-perturbative structure of QCD prevents accessing direct information on hadron properties (apart from lattice simulations). It is therefore essential to model QCD in this context. Reliable models must reflect the symmetries of QCD. In addition to the color gauge invariance, there are a number of (approximative) symmetries that play key roles in model building, most importantly, the chiral symmetry and its spontaneous breaking. Next to that is flavor SU(3) and its explicit breaking. Many models start from a non-relativistic setting, but relativistic invariance might be essential. For hadrons containing heavy quarks (charm, bottom), heavy quark effective theory plays a key role. Finally, AdS/CFT conjecture may favor certain aspects for model building.

On the lower energy scale of nuclei, which is considered as being composed of nucleons that interact by strong effective interaction, symmetries are a key element in characterizing the properties of the many-body system. The breaking of isospin conservation by  electromagnetic interaction, algebraic models for the phenomenology of collective excitations, which are based on approximate dynamical symmetries (compact groups), new many-body basis schemes for large-scale shell-model diagonalization (SU(3), SP(3), etc.), spontaneous breaking of rotational and space inversion symmetries and the ensuing consequences for nuclear spectra, exact-solvable group-theoretical models for testing approximations, and phase transitions in finite systems (renormalization group), have been in the focus of recent theoretical work.

For this Special Issue, we would like to invite original research and review articles that (i) focus on and highlight the incorporation of QCD symmetries in the investigation of hadron properties, that (ii) center around the before mentioned aspects of nuclear structure and reactions or that (iii) concentrate on bridging the hadronic and nuclear energy scales (e.g., chiral phase transition in hot dense nuclear matter or effective nucleon-nucleon interaction based chiral perturbation theory).

We are also interested in work concerning hadrons and nuclei as “laboratories” for testing fundamental symmetries, like CP, Majorana character of neutrinos, and SUSY.

Prof. Dr. Stefan Frauendorf
Prof. Dr. Herbert Weigel
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • QCD
  • Chiral symmetry
  • Flavor SU(3) and its breaking
  • SU(6) quark model
  • relativistic effects
  • Heavy quark effective theory
  • AdS/CFT conjecture
  • Isospin, algebraic models
  • shell model basis schemes
  • dynamic symmetries
  • spontaneous symmetry breaking
  • phase transitions

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

948 KiB  
Article
Neutrino Signals in Electron-Capture Storage-Ring Experiments
by Avraham Gal
Symmetry 2016, 8(6), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym8060049 - 15 Jun 2016
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6862
Abstract
Neutrino signals in electron-capture decays of hydrogen-like parent ions P in storage-ring experiments at GSI are reconsidered, with special emphasis placed on the storage-ring quasi-circular motion of the daughter ions D in two-body decays P D + ν e . It is [...] Read more.
Neutrino signals in electron-capture decays of hydrogen-like parent ions P in storage-ring experiments at GSI are reconsidered, with special emphasis placed on the storage-ring quasi-circular motion of the daughter ions D in two-body decays P D + ν e . It is argued that, to the extent that daughter ions are detected, these detection rates might exhibit modulations with periods of order seconds, similar to those reported in the GSI storage-ring experiments for two-body decay rates. New dedicated experiments in storage rings, or using traps, could explore these modulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Hadrons and Nuclei)
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797 KiB  
Article
Low Scale Saturation of Effective NN Interactions and Their Symmetries
by Enrique Ruiz Arriola
Symmetry 2016, 8(6), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym8060042 - 1 Jun 2016
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4028
Abstract
The Skyrme force parameters can be uniquely determined by coarse graining the Nucleon-Nucleon (NN) interactions at a characteristic momentum scale. We show how exact V lowk potentials to second order in momenta are saturated with physical NN scattering threshold parameters at Center of [...] Read more.
The Skyrme force parameters can be uniquely determined by coarse graining the Nucleon-Nucleon (NN) interactions at a characteristic momentum scale. We show how exact V lowk potentials to second order in momenta are saturated with physical NN scattering threshold parameters at Center of Mass (CM) cut-off scales of about Λ = 250 MeV for the S-waves and Λ = 100 MeV for the P-waves. The pattern of Wigner and Serber symmetries unveiled previously and suggested by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) large N c contracted symmetry emerges at these scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Hadrons and Nuclei)
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5333 KiB  
Article
Chiral Symmetry and the Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction
by Ruprecht Machleidt
Symmetry 2016, 8(4), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym8040026 - 20 Apr 2016
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5369
Abstract
We review how nuclear forces emerge from low-energy quantum chromodynamics (QCD) via chiral effective field theory (EFT). During the past two decades, this approach has evolved into a powerful tool to derive nuclear two- and many-body forces in a systematic and model-independent way. [...] Read more.
We review how nuclear forces emerge from low-energy quantum chromodynamics (QCD) via chiral effective field theory (EFT). During the past two decades, this approach has evolved into a powerful tool to derive nuclear two- and many-body forces in a systematic and model-independent way. We then focus on the nucleon-nucleon (N N) interaction and show in detail how, governed by chiral symmetry, the long- and intermediate-range of the N N potential builds up order by order. We proceed up to sixth order in small momenta, where convergence is achieved. The final result allows for a full assessment of the validity of the chiral EFT approach to the N N interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Hadrons and Nuclei)
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228 KiB  
Article
Pseudospin Symmetry as a Bridge between Hadrons and Nuclei
by Joseph N. Ginocchio
Symmetry 2016, 8(3), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym8030016 - 18 Mar 2016
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3297
Abstract
Atomic nuclei exhibit approximate pseudospin symmetry. We review the arguments that this symmetry is a relativistic symmetry. The condition for this symmetry is that the sum of the vector and scalar potentials in the Dirac Hamiltonian is a constant. We give the generators [...] Read more.
Atomic nuclei exhibit approximate pseudospin symmetry. We review the arguments that this symmetry is a relativistic symmetry. The condition for this symmetry is that the sum of the vector and scalar potentials in the Dirac Hamiltonian is a constant. We give the generators of pseudospin symmetry. We review some of the predictions that follow from the insight that pseudospin symmetry has relativistic origins . We show that approximate pseudospin symmetry in nuclei predicts approximate spin symmetry in anti-nucleon scattering from nuclei. Since QCD sum rules predict that the sum of the scalar and vector potentials is small, we discuss the quark origins of pseudospin symmetry in nuclei and spin symmetry in hadrons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Hadrons and Nuclei)
290 KiB  
Article
Status of X(1835) and pp¯ Interaction from Chiral Symmetry
by Yong-Feng Liu and Xian-Wei Kang
Symmetry 2016, 8(3), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym8030014 - 17 Mar 2016
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3983
Abstract
After the observation of the strong near-threshold enhancement of proton-antiproton mass spectrum in J / ψ γ p p ¯ decay, lots of theoretical investigations have been available such as new resonance, the final-state p p ¯ interaction (FSI), [...] Read more.
After the observation of the strong near-threshold enhancement of proton-antiproton mass spectrum in J / ψ γ p p ¯ decay, lots of theoretical investigations have been available such as new resonance, the final-state p p ¯ interaction (FSI), p p ¯ bound state (or baryonium), glueball, or other exotic (tetra-quark) states. Here, we provide a short review on the current status, especially on the pertinent discussions concerning its relation to p p ¯ interaction, for which the emphasis is put on the recently constructed chiral potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Hadrons and Nuclei)
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369 KiB  
Article
Uncertainty Analysis of 208Pb Neutron Skin Predictions with Chiral Interactions
by Francesca Sammarruca
Symmetry 2015, 7(3), 1646-1654; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym7031646 - 14 Sep 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3887
Abstract
We report predictions for the neutron skin in 208Pb using chiral two- and three-body interactions at increasing orders of chiral effective field theory and varying resolution scales. Closely related quantities, such as the slope of the symmetry energy, are also discussed. The [...] Read more.
We report predictions for the neutron skin in 208Pb using chiral two- and three-body interactions at increasing orders of chiral effective field theory and varying resolution scales. Closely related quantities, such as the slope of the symmetry energy, are also discussed. The sensitivity of the skin to just pure neutron matter pressure when going from order 2 to order 4 of chiral effective theory is singled out in a set of calculations that employ an empirical equation of state for symmetric nuclear matter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Hadrons and Nuclei)
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