Special Issue "Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Transportation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Mariano Gallo
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, University of Sannio, Benevento, Italy
Interests: transportation planning; transportation network design; simulation of transport systems; mass transit systems; external impacts of transportation systems; sustainable mobility; noise and air pollution; rail transportation; travel demand models; pricing; optimisation; equity in transport planning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainable mobility is a central topic in almost all transport policy documents at different administrative levels. Indeed, for instance, in the case of the European Union, the White Paper of the European Commission (Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area—Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system) delineates the European transport policy until to 2050. In this document, the Commission identifies two main objectives that are strictly related to the promotion of sustainable mobility: i) the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector by at least 60% by 2050 compared to 1990, and ii) to reduce the oil dependence of the European countries. At the same time, the document explicitly states that “Curbing mobility is not an option”, but provides some strategies for reaching the goals that are, primarily, related to sustainable mobility, from the use of low-carbon sustainable fuels and propulsion systems to the promotion of rail transport for both passengers and freight, from the use of smaller, lighter and more specialised road passenger vehicles in urban areas, to the use of ITS in real-time traffic management. Some objectives of this policy are very ambitious, such as the elimination of conventionally-fuelled cars in urban transport by 2050.

In light of these policy directions, this Special Issue wants to contribute to the debate, urging submissions of high-quality papers in the field of sustainable mobility. The objective is to give a comprehensive vision of the research in this field from different points of view, such as social, technological, environmental, and economic, by promoting interdisciplinary approaches. Indeed, the call for papers is addressed to researchers from different disciplines, such as engineering, architecture, town planning, economy, and the social sciences.

Prof. Mariano Gallo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainable mobility
  • smart mobility
  • social costs of transportation
  • road traffic noise
  • transport emissions
  • transport equity
  • social inclusion
  • electric transport
  • road safety
  • rail transport
  • transportation planning
  • sustainable city
  • ITS for sustainable mobility
  • economic impacts
  • autonomous sustainable vehicles
  • solutions for developing countries
  • global warming
  • transport policy

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Design of a Framework for Integrating Environmentally Sustainable Design Principles and Requirements in Train Modernization Projects
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6075; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156075 - 28 Jul 2020
Abstract
Environmental sustainability is an increasingly important subject in the railway sector. Literature has revealed that transportation companies target multiple sustainability-related improvement areas and follow different strategies to improve in these. For railway operators, train modernization provides key opportunities for technical, financial, and environmental [...] Read more.
Environmental sustainability is an increasingly important subject in the railway sector. Literature has revealed that transportation companies target multiple sustainability-related improvement areas and follow different strategies to improve in these. For railway operators, train modernization provides key opportunities for technical, financial, and environmental improvements halfway through the lifecycle. Using design science research, a framework was developed that is aimed at integrating sustainable design principles and sustainability-focused requirements in train modernization. The framework was tested and demonstrated by means of application to the train modernization project of an intercity train at the Nederlandse Spoorwegen in the Netherlands. The results reveal three key design mechanisms for sustainable modernization frameworks. Firstly, sustainability should be considered as early as possible in the design process. Secondly, such frameworks require efforts to simplify the way sustainability principles and impacts are considered, being careful not to oversimplify. Thirdly, the use of sustainability-focused requirements and budgets facilitate the process of prioritizing design decisions in relation to the effects they have on various environmental impacts. The design process of the framework not only provides a better understanding of the challenge of integrating sustainability, it also presents a generalizable approach that can be adapted by other organizations in the transportation sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Open AccessArticle
Is Built Environment Associated with Travel Mode Choice in Developing Cities? Evidence from Hanoi
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5773; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145773 - 17 Jul 2020
Abstract
This paper examines the association between the built environment (BE) and travel behavior in Hanoi, Vietnam. A multinomial logit model is used to analyze individuals’ choice of travel mode from a dataset collected via a questionnaire-based household travel survey in 2016 and the [...] Read more.
This paper examines the association between the built environment (BE) and travel behavior in Hanoi, Vietnam. A multinomial logit model is used to analyze individuals’ choice of travel mode from a dataset collected via a questionnaire-based household travel survey in 2016 and the geospatial data of BE variables; the dataset contains 762 responses from local residents in ten districts of the Hanoi Metropolitan Area about their daily travel episodes. It also examines a spatial aggregation effect by comparing model performances among four buffering distances and ward-zones. The results showed that (1) a higher population density around an individual’s home is associated with more bus use and less motorbike and car use; (2) mixed land use around the home, average tax revenue near the home, and bus frequency at the workplace have positive relationships with bus ridership; (3) senior people, students, or unskilled laborers tend to use the bus; (4) the spatial aggregation bias significantly affects the estimation results; and (5) new immigrants tend to choose to reside in areas designed for automobile users. Finally, there are several policy implications for transit-oriented development (TOD) in Hanoi, including: (1) parking regulations and/or control strategies should be jointly incorporated into the Hanoi’s TOD policy; (2) Hanoi’s TOD policy should be carefully designed in terms of its scope of development site and type; and (3) a polycentric structure strategy only may not be sufficient for increasing public transit ridership. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Open AccessArticle
Challenges, Potential and Opportunities for Internal Combustion Engines in China
Sustainability 2020, 12(12), 4955; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12124955 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
With the increasing pressure on the automotive industry due to energy consumption, environmental pollution and climate change, internal combustion engines, which occupy a dominant position in traditional automotive powertrains, are facing considerable challenges from battery electric powertrains. This paper presents an in-depth analysis [...] Read more.
With the increasing pressure on the automotive industry due to energy consumption, environmental pollution and climate change, internal combustion engines, which occupy a dominant position in traditional automotive powertrains, are facing considerable challenges from battery electric powertrains. This paper presents an in-depth analysis and objective interpretation of the challenges, potential and opportunities for internal combustion engines in this point. Specifically, the global automotive industry is approaching the “Power 2.0 era”, and multiple powertrains will coexist for a long time. The relationships between the various powertrains are complementary rather than simply competitive in China. Only by optimizing the product and technology combination can the best solution be obtained to meet the increasingly stringent regulations and the escalating needs for mobility. At the same time, internal combustion engines will continue to play an important role in the development of the automotive industry, and they have the potential for further improvement in plenty of areas, such as thermal efficiency, emissions and electrification. Internal combustion engines will undergo an important evolution toward high efficiency through fixed-point operation, system simplification and cost reduction. In addition, the electrification of powertrains, the upgrading and diversification of fuel designs, and the development of intelligent and connected technologies will bring unprecedented opportunities for making the internal combustion engine more efficient, green and clean to better serve society in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Open AccessArticle
Regenerating Communities. New Life for a Local Railway: A Technological and Environmental Study
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3693; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093693 - 02 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Revamping abandoned railways is often associated with leisure functions and non-routine trips. When areas evolve from rural settlements to conurbations with mixed land use and high travel demand, the reuse of no-longer-operational rail services can prove to be appropriate to meet such new [...] Read more.
Revamping abandoned railways is often associated with leisure functions and non-routine trips. When areas evolve from rural settlements to conurbations with mixed land use and high travel demand, the reuse of no-longer-operational rail services can prove to be appropriate to meet such new requirements. This is the case of an abandoned railway in central Italy, the Sangritana Line, whose rehabilitation could serve a former rural area, now under continuous development. The paper outlines operational features of the new service, starting from the available Sangritana infrastructure, in order to highlight the drivers and barriers associated with the reopening of operations. The goal is to provide scientific corroboration for similar feasibility studies and stress the relevance of rehabilitating railways in urban regeneration processes according to a vision called the Multiple Rs, which associates the new rail supply with the possibility of requalifying several components of the urban environment. To this end, along with the initial description of the status quo and the local constraints, the paper elaborates the methodology adopted for this feasibility study, the main operational findings, with a focus on the potential environmental benefits, and the implications according to the Multiple Rs approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Open AccessArticle
Park and Pool Lots’ Impact on Promoting Shared Mobility and Carpooling on Highways: The Case of Slovenia
Sustainability 2020, 12(8), 3188; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12083188 - 15 Apr 2020
Abstract
Dispersed settlement areas (e.g., Slovenia) result in lower development of fixed public transport lines and thereby car-dependent lifestyles. To avoid congestion inside the cities and on highways in these areas, shared mobility modes e.g., carpooling, is one of the effective solutions, increasing the [...] Read more.
Dispersed settlement areas (e.g., Slovenia) result in lower development of fixed public transport lines and thereby car-dependent lifestyles. To avoid congestion inside the cities and on highways in these areas, shared mobility modes e.g., carpooling, is one of the effective solutions, increasing the occupancy of personal vehicles. However, passenger pick-up and drop-off locations still remain an important challenge for carpool users and transport officials. As a collection point for carpooling, we can consider “park and pool (P+P)” lots near highways’ interchanges. This study aims to examine the impacts of P+P lots near interchanges on carpooling behavior of users and on improving sustainable mobility on highways in such dispersed settlement areas. To do so, we employed a field survey, incorporated the P+P lots into the mode choice model, and examined different scenarios using the macroscopic transport model. It is found that factors such as travel cost, public transport service limitations, and improved parking facilities impact highway users’ mode choice. Sixty percent of respondents are willing to leave their car in P+P lots near interchanges. The results also show that P+P lots can increase the number of carpool users. It causes remarkable savings in terms of operating and external costs because of the reduction in total distance and time travelled by personal vehicles as well as parking demand reduction in cities. At the moment, especially in Central Europe, it is easier to invest in a “demand reduction” infrastructure than to increase the capacity of infrastructure. Therefore, P+P lots could be a “win-win” situation for both users and operators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effectiveness of Urban Cycle Lanes: From Dyscrasias to Potential Solutions
Sustainability 2020, 12(6), 2321; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062321 - 16 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
This paper studies the effectiveness of urban cycle lanes, with cycling being one of the most common practices for promoting sustainable mobility in urban areas. Despite a growing interest, the use of cycling in Italian cities has not gained a large consensus yet. [...] Read more.
This paper studies the effectiveness of urban cycle lanes, with cycling being one of the most common practices for promoting sustainable mobility in urban areas. Despite a growing interest, the use of cycling in Italian cities has not gained a large consensus yet. Nevertheless, the presence and the extension of cycle lanes are considered as quantitative indicators for measuring the livability of cities. Actually, the lack in assessing the global quality of cycle networks asks for a major attention in the definition of these indicators. Starting from these considerations, the present study tries to propose a different approach to assess the real effectiveness of an urban cycle network. By defining some typological clusters of anomalies (dyscrasias) that can impede a safe and comfortable use of bicycles, the study achieves the definition of a method to evaluate the real effectiveness of an urban cycle lane. The case study of Naples represents a first trial both to check the method and to assess the state of the existing urban lane in order to verify its effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Decision-Making in the Transport Sector: A Sustainable Evaluation Method for Road Infrastructure
Sustainability 2020, 12(3), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12030764 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 11
Abstract
The transport sector is often the center of political and scientific debate on sustainability due to negative externalities produced by the daily movement of goods and people which impact both on the environment and on quality of life. Great interest has therefore focused [...] Read more.
The transport sector is often the center of political and scientific debate on sustainability due to negative externalities produced by the daily movement of goods and people which impact both on the environment and on quality of life. Great interest has therefore focused on impact estimation of transport infrastructures/services with respect to social, economic, and environmental sustainability. Among the consolidated assessment methods, the cost–benefit analysis (CBA) is one of the quantitative tools representing the final stage (decision) in decision-making processes, which compares design alternatives and verifies the sustainability of a transport project. Recently the Italian Government proposed the national “Guidelines for Assessment of Investment Projects” based on CBA. The aim of this research is twofold: a) from a research point of view, to propose a sustainable evaluating method for impact assessment of the new transportation infrastructure aimed in performing both rational and shared decisions with the territories; b) for a practical point of view, to propose a first application of the CBA Italian guideline useful for the professional practice in the field of public investment evaluation. A quantitative impacts assessment of social, economic and environmental sustainability was performed for a revamping project of a new “greenway” in the south of Italy. Furthermore, also the social equity impacts produced by the new road infrastructure was also quantified, estimating the GINI indexes variation as a measure of effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Sustainable Traffic Management in an Urban Area: An Integrated Framework for Real-Time Traffic Control and Route Guidance Design
Sustainability 2020, 12(2), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12020726 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
This paper focuses on the presentation of an integrated framework based on two advanced strategies, aimed at mitigating the effect of traffic congestion in terms of performance and environmental impact. In particular, the paper investigates the “operational benefits” that can be derived from [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the presentation of an integrated framework based on two advanced strategies, aimed at mitigating the effect of traffic congestion in terms of performance and environmental impact. In particular, the paper investigates the “operational benefits” that can be derived from the combination of traffic control (TC) and route guidance (RG) strategies. The framework is based on two modules and integrates a within-day traffic control method and a day-to-day behavioral route choice model. The former module consists of an enhanced traffic control model that can be applied to design traffic signal decision variables, suitable for real-time optimization. The latter designs the information consistently with predictive user reactions to the information itself. The proposed framework is implemented to a highly congested sub-network in the city center of Naples (Italy) and different scenarios are tested and compared. The “do nothing” scenario (current; DN) and the “modeled compliance” (MC) scenario, in which travelers’ reaction to the information (i.e., compliance) is explicitly represented. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy and the modeling framework, the following analyses are carried out: (i) Network performance analysis; (ii) system convergence and stability analysis, as well as the compliance evolution over time; (iii) and emissions and fuel consumption impact analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling of Biofuel’s Emissivity for Fuel Choice Management
Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6842; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236842 - 02 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The depletion of conventional energy sources, including crude oil, is one of the cause of the search for alternative carriers and fuels in order to prevent an energy crisis. Due to the progressing climate change, each new solution must comply with the principles [...] Read more.
The depletion of conventional energy sources, including crude oil, is one of the cause of the search for alternative carriers and fuels in order to prevent an energy crisis. Due to the progressing climate change, each new solution must comply with the principles of sustainable development. Dynamic development in the transport sector and, as a consequence, the increase in the number of vehicles on the roads negatively affect the atmosphere and the environment, which is why the share of biofuels, which are used to minimize this negative impact, is steadily increasing. This paper analyzes the emissivity (emission capability) of biofuels such as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), ethanol, dimethyl ether and butanol and compares them with conventional fuels. A computer simulation was used, based on the real parameters of vehicles and fuels. The test procedure was carried out in accordance with the appropriate New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) approval test for such cars. In addition, a life cycle assessment (LCA) for the fuels and vehicles in question was carried out using the SimaPro package. Based on the results obtained from the z computer simulation, it was found that diesel fuel showed lower emissivity than petrol and its alternatives. However, FAME fuel provided more carbon dioxide than conventional diesel. As far as petrol is concerned, it was less emissive than dimethyl ether. Ethanol and butanol reduced emissions by 7% and 15%, respectively. After taking into account CO2 emissions generated in the production process, both FAME and butanol were not very favorable in the context of other fuels. The results might be used for appropriate fuel use management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Public–Private Partnership Scheme in Operation and Maintenance Stage of Railway Project
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6517; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11226517 - 19 Nov 2019
Abstract
Public–private partnership (PPP) has been extensively used in many sectors worldwide to provide alternative funding for public infrastructure. However, limited evidence found that this scheme was successfully adopted in railway transport particularly in the later stage of the project life cycle. Private participation [...] Read more.
Public–private partnership (PPP) has been extensively used in many sectors worldwide to provide alternative funding for public infrastructure. However, limited evidence found that this scheme was successfully adopted in railway transport particularly in the later stage of the project life cycle. Private participation during operation and maintenance stages are worthy of comprehensive research to cope with recovery of public investment and institutionalization problems. This research aims to analyze the potential of unbundling scenarios based on railway components by taking into account the Light Rail Transit (LRT) project in developing countries as the case study. A life cycle cost evaluation and sensitivity analysis were used to formulate a practical and regulatory framework for the macro-level of decision-making modeling. The findings indicate a possible scenario by considering the passenger demand, ticket price, and government support to generate the best option based on net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR). The proposed alternative recommends an attractive investment return for private interest, encourages lower support for government subsidy, and offers a reasonable tariff for the users. The study also suggests future implications from the adoption of research findings which may affect policy formulation and railway industry as a whole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Open AccessArticle
Visual Eye Gaze While Cycling: Analyzing Eye Tracking at Signalized Intersections in Urban Conditions
Sustainability 2019, 11(21), 6089; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11216089 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The manner in which cyclists visually perceive elements of the urban environment plays an important role in bicycle crashes, which have been increasing in recent years. Yet, how visual information is processed by the user while riding a bike is still poorly analyzed [...] Read more.
The manner in which cyclists visually perceive elements of the urban environment plays an important role in bicycle crashes, which have been increasing in recent years. Yet, how visual information is processed by the user while riding a bike is still poorly analyzed by researchers. This study investigates cyclists’ eye gaze behavior at signalized intersections taking into account a set of gaze characteristics. Recording cyclist’s visual fixations by mobile-eye glasses in a real outdoor environment, a total of 13 field tests have been analyzed along a three-kilometer route in the urban center of Bologna, Italy. Findings reveal key differences in gaze behavior by experience level of the cyclist and type of intersection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Open AccessArticle
Mapping the Emotional Experience of Travel to Understand Cycle-Transit User Behavior
Sustainability 2019, 11(17), 4743; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174743 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
People experience emotions during travel. Driving, riding a bicycle, taking transit, and walking all involve multiple mental processes, potentially leading to various ranges of emotions such as fear, anger, sorrow, joy, and anticipation. Understanding the link between emotions and transportation environments is critical [...] Read more.
People experience emotions during travel. Driving, riding a bicycle, taking transit, and walking all involve multiple mental processes, potentially leading to various ranges of emotions such as fear, anger, sorrow, joy, and anticipation. Understanding the link between emotions and transportation environments is critical to planning efforts aiming to bring about a more environmentally sustainable society. In this paper, we identified, geo-coded, analyzed, and visualized emotions experienced by cycle–transit users, or CTUs, who combine bicycling and public transit in a single trip. We addressed two research questions: (1) What types of emotions do CTUs experience, why, and where? (2) How can mapping and understanding these emotions help urban planners comprehend CTU travel behavior and build a more sustainable transportation system? Based on 74 surveys completed by CTUs in Philadelphia, USA, we performed a content analysis of textual data and sketch maps, coded for emotional content, attached emotions with geo-referenced locations using GIS, and finally created four types of emotional maps. Overall, CTUs expressed 50 negative and 31 positive sentiments. Anger was the most frequently identified emotion, followed by disgust, fear, sadness, and joy. Twenty-five transportation planners reviewed the maps; the majority found that the maps could effectively convey an emotional account of a journey, opinions on routes and locations, or emotions attached to them. This paper advances theory and practice in two ways. First, the method privileges a heretofore little examined form of knowledge—the emotional experience of CTUs—and transportation planners confirm the value of this knowledge for practice. Second, it extends the study of emotional geographies to the transportation environment, pointing out venues for additional planning interventions. We conclude that mapping emotions reveals a more comprehensive understanding of travel experience that aids in better transportation planning and happier neighborhoods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimization Method for Reducing the Air Pollutant Emission and Aviation Noise of Arrival in Terminal Area
Sustainability 2019, 11(17), 4715; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174715 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In order to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft operation in the terminal area, this paper researched the route optimization method. Firstly, this paper constructed the air pollutant emission and noise assessment model, and the flight performance model. Secondly, aiming at reducing air [...] Read more.
In order to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft operation in the terminal area, this paper researched the route optimization method. Firstly, this paper constructed the air pollutant emission and noise assessment model, and the flight performance model. Secondly, aiming at reducing air emissions and noise level, the multi-objective terminal area route optimization model is established based on the principles of flight safety and flight procedure construction. Then this paper puts forward the path optimization method of emission and noise reduction of terminal area route network, through the research on the priority setting method of terminal area approach and departure route planning. The route segmentation method and NSGA-II algorithm are employed to solve the problem. Finally, a numerical case study is carried out for the Shanghai terminal area, and yields the following results: (1) Compared with the original route network, the optimized route network in the terminal area can significantly reduce emission and noise by reducing pollutant emission by 51.4% and noise influence by 21.5%; (2) The method can also reduce fuel consumption by 60.5% and the total route length by 21.1%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Feedback Analysis of Influencing Factors and Challenges of Dockless Bike-Sharing Sustainability in China
Sustainability 2019, 11(17), 4674; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11174674 - 28 Aug 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Dockless bike-sharing programs (DBSPs) are typical representatives of the new era of the internet economy. These schemes alleviate urban traffic congestion, reduce carbon emissions, and change people’s preferred travel modes, but they also suffer from a series of problems related to unsustainability. The [...] Read more.
Dockless bike-sharing programs (DBSPs) are typical representatives of the new era of the internet economy. These schemes alleviate urban traffic congestion, reduce carbon emissions, and change people’s preferred travel modes, but they also suffer from a series of problems related to unsustainability. The sustainability performance of a DBSP is closely related to its influencing factors, which can be used to understand the main challenges of the program and consider what useful measures should be taken to overcome these issues. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the related factors that are critical to the sustainability of DBSPs from a systems-level perspective. In this paper, we explored publicly available data sources (i.e., literature, institutional reports, and announcements) to determine the intrinsic influencing factors and understand their interactions and feedback relationships. A taxonomy of the key challenges with respect to the fundamental pillars of DBSP sustainability (i.e., environment, society, and economy) was provided. System dynamics methodology was employed to map the critical factors and links in order to analyze the key challenges in facilitating the sustainability of DBSPs. Based on this approach, we put forward proposals to mitigate the severe challenges for governments and DBSP operators. The findings provide a theoretical basis and guiding role to develop improvement strategies for DBSP sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Open AccessArticle
Towards Sustainable Mobility through a Change in Values. Evidence in 12 European Countries
Sustainability 2019, 11(16), 4274; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11164274 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
The research carried out, as well as the measures taken to promote the use of sustainable transport in our cities, do not fully achieve their purpose. The Wertraitionalirat concept introduced by Max Weber in 1922 stated: “The use of public transport arises more [...] Read more.
The research carried out, as well as the measures taken to promote the use of sustainable transport in our cities, do not fully achieve their purpose. The Wertraitionalirat concept introduced by Max Weber in 1922 stated: “The use of public transport arises more from a system of values with which the person identifies than from the quality of the transport offered”. This assertion made at the beginning of the 20th century is still valid, where the means, infrastructure and advances achieved do not obtain a proportional response from citizens. The aim of this work is, through this approach, to find variables that complement research on urban mobility habits. For this purpose, data from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) and the European Social Survey (ESS) are used to analyse postmodern values and citizens’ environmental awareness, linking these to sustainable mobility habits in 12 European countries. The results suggest that a higher index of postmodern values implies greater environmental awareness, which would lead to a greater use of sustainable transport, although there are variables related to environmental knowledge and risk which indicate that greater environmental education and awareness is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Open AccessArticle
An Optimisation Model to Consider the NIMBY Syndrome within the Landfill Siting Problem
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3904; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143904 - 18 Jul 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper proposes a discrete optimisation model and a heuristic algorithm to solve the landfill siting problem over large areas. Besides waste transport costs and plant construction and maintenance costs, usually considered in such problems, the objective function includes economic compensation for residents [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a discrete optimisation model and a heuristic algorithm to solve the landfill siting problem over large areas. Besides waste transport costs and plant construction and maintenance costs, usually considered in such problems, the objective function includes economic compensation for residents in the areas affected by the landfill, to combat the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) syndrome or, at least, reduce its adverse effects. The proposed methodology is applied to a real-scale case study, the region of Campania, Italy, where waste management is a thorny problem. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm may be used to obtain a solution to the problem, albeit sub-optimal, with acceptable computing times, and the proposed model tends to locate landfills in sparsely populated sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of the Participation of Non-Resident Drivers on Roundabout Capacity
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3896; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143896 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Procedures for the calculation of capacity of all types of unsignalized intersections, therefore roundabouts as well, represents a combination of the empirical model (exponential regression) and the likelihood of accepting time gaps in the priority flow by drivers who perform a minor manoeuvre. [...] Read more.
Procedures for the calculation of capacity of all types of unsignalized intersections, therefore roundabouts as well, represents a combination of the empirical model (exponential regression) and the likelihood of accepting time gaps in the priority flow by drivers who perform a minor manoeuvre. The values of the critical headway, as the minimum necessary time gap for performing the wanted minor manoeuvre, and the follow-up headway, have been given as the recommendations in the existing methodologies for capacity calculation, depending on the type of the manoeuvre. In traffic flow theory it has been known that drivers’ behaviour influences the capacity of roads and intersections, and the assessment of that influence is done through the adoption or correction of the values of certain parameters. At unsignalized intersections the influence of drivers’ behaviour is reflected through the values of critical headway and follow-up headway. The acceptance of the value of time gaps, i.e., the value of the critical headway and follow-up headway, depends on drivers’ knowledge of local conditions. This paper presents the parameter values of critical headway and follow-up headway for resident and non-resident drivers based on the analysis and statistical processing of research results. The research was conducted at four roundabouts in four towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the total number of vehicles covered by the research is 31,053. In that way, it has been confirmed that the capacity of roundabouts depends on the behaviour of the alleged groups of drivers, i.e., with the increase of the level of participation of non-resident drivers in traffic flow, the roundabout capacity decreases. The model for determining the influence of non-resident drivers on the roundabout capacity was created by using multiple linear regression. If the proposed model in the procedures of traffic planning is applied, the influence of roundabouts on the level of service, sustainability, and the emission of Green House Gases (GHG) can be realistically assessed and perceived in accordance with the expected participation of resident and non-resident drivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Pleasure of Walking: An Innovative Methodology to Assess Appropriate Walkable Performance in Urban Areas to Support Transport Planning
Sustainability 2019, 11(12), 3467; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123467 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
The Walking Suitability Index of the Territory–T-WSI is an innovative methodology to assess walkability. Unlike other methods and tools in this field designed to evaluate walkability on given origin-destination paths, T-WSI is conceived for area-wide assessments, typically at the neighborhood level. This can [...] Read more.
The Walking Suitability Index of the Territory–T-WSI is an innovative methodology to assess walkability. Unlike other methods and tools in this field designed to evaluate walkability on given origin-destination paths, T-WSI is conceived for area-wide assessments, typically at the neighborhood level. This can be achieved by visual surveys to collect data, which are easy to perform at street level, their further process via an algorithm, and their aggregation to assess the walking performance levels of the test area. The paper describes such methodology, which includes the development of 12 indicators associated with four main evaluation categories (Practicability, Safety, Urbanity and Appeal), and its application to a case study in a medium-size town in central Italy. Results are described and elaborated to highlight T-WSI’s contribution to help decision makers in the urban governance process, typically in the fields of land use, mobility management and maintenance, coherently with the research objective to enlarge the potential of walkability methodologies thus far available up to area-level assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Open AccessArticle
A Sustainable Crowdsourced Delivery System to Foster Free-Floating Bike-Sharing
Sustainability 2019, 11(10), 2772; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11102772 - 15 May 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Since bicycles and bike-sharing systems are becoming increasingly important in modern transportation contexts, we suggest in this paper an alternative method to incorporate cycling among the freight transport alternatives within urban areas. We propose pursuing a sustainable initiative of crowdsourced delivery where some [...] Read more.
Since bicycles and bike-sharing systems are becoming increasingly important in modern transportation contexts, we suggest in this paper an alternative method to incorporate cycling among the freight transport alternatives within urban areas. We propose pursuing a sustainable initiative of crowdsourced delivery where some of the urban good deliveries may be voluntarily undertaken by users of the free-floating bike-sharing systems while following their prefixed route in exchange for some kind of reward. We believe that a network design model that allows properly allocating the resources of the bike-shared mobility service could improve the potential of crowdshipping, making it a viable support and supplement for the local postal services, and more easily accepted and adopted in urban contexts. An application to a case study has been embodied to show the effectiveness and advantages of our proposal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Sustainable Mobility: A Review of Possible Actions and Policies
Sustainability 2020, 12(18), 7499; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187499 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, a review of the main actions and policies that can be implemented to promote sustainable mobility is proposed. The work aims to provide a broad, albeit necessarily not exhaustive, analysis of the main studies and research that from different points [...] Read more.
In this paper, a review of the main actions and policies that can be implemented to promote sustainable mobility is proposed. The work aims to provide a broad, albeit necessarily not exhaustive, analysis of the main studies and research that from different points of view have focused on sustainable mobility. The structure of the paper enables the reader to easily identify the topics covered and the studies related to them, so as to guide him/her to the related in-depth studies. In the first part of the paper, there is a preliminary analysis of the concept of sustainable mobility, the main transport policies implemented by the European Union and the USA, and the main statistical data useful to analyze the problem. Next, the main policies that can promote sustainable mobility are examined, classifying them into three topics: Environmental, socio-economic, and technological. Many of the policies and actions examined could be classified into more than one of the three categories used; for each of them, there is a description and the main literature work on which the topic can be analyzed in more detail. The paper concludes with a discussion on the results obtained and the prospects for research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
Open AccessReview
External Costs in Inland Waterway Transport: An Analysis of External Cost Categories and Calculation Methods
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5874; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145874 - 21 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Sustainable transport, such as using inland waterway transport (IWT), represents a major pillar of the European Green Deal to reduce global warming. To evaluate the different inland transport modes (road, rail, IWT), it is crucial to know the external costs of these modes. [...] Read more.
Sustainable transport, such as using inland waterway transport (IWT), represents a major pillar of the European Green Deal to reduce global warming. To evaluate the different inland transport modes (road, rail, IWT), it is crucial to know the external costs of these modes. The goal of this paper is a critical review of external cost categories (e.g., accidents, noise, emissions) and external cost calculation methods of IWT to provide ideas for future research. We identified 13 relevant papers in a literature review dealing with external costs of IWT. In a meta-analysis, the papers were assigned to the seven external cost categories: accident, noise, congestion, habitat damage, air pollution, climate change and well-to-tank emissions. The most investigated external cost categories are climate change, air pollution and accidents. Two studies were identified as the major external cost calculation methods for IWT in the abstract. Our paper shows that the data basis of IWT is significantly lower than for road/rail. The measurement of energy consumption and related emissions of IWT needs to be qualitatively and quantitatively improved and brought up to the level of road traffic, to ensure an accurate comparison with other modes of transport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
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