Next Article in Journal
“That is Not What I Live For”: How Lower-Level Green Employees Cope with Identity Tensions at Work
Next Article in Special Issue
External Costs in Inland Waterway Transport: An Analysis of External Cost Categories and Calculation Methods
Previous Article in Journal
Application of Natural Carbon Isotopes for Emission Source Apportionment of Carbonaceous Particulate Matter in Urban Atmosphere: A Case Study from Krakow, Southern Poland
Previous Article in Special Issue
Challenges, Potential and Opportunities for Internal Combustion Engines in China
Open AccessArticle

Is Built Environment Associated with Travel Mode Choice in Developing Cities? Evidence from Hanoi

Department of Urban Infrastructure Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Planning, National University of Civil Engineering, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
Department of Civil Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
Master’s Program in Infrastructure Engineering, Vietnam Japan University, Hanoi 129000, Vietnam
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(14), 5773;
Received: 11 June 2020 / Revised: 12 July 2020 / Accepted: 13 July 2020 / Published: 17 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Mobility: Social, Technological and Environmental Issues)
This paper examines the association between the built environment (BE) and travel behavior in Hanoi, Vietnam. A multinomial logit model is used to analyze individuals’ choice of travel mode from a dataset collected via a questionnaire-based household travel survey in 2016 and the geospatial data of BE variables; the dataset contains 762 responses from local residents in ten districts of the Hanoi Metropolitan Area about their daily travel episodes. It also examines a spatial aggregation effect by comparing model performances among four buffering distances and ward-zones. The results showed that (1) a higher population density around an individual’s home is associated with more bus use and less motorbike and car use; (2) mixed land use around the home, average tax revenue near the home, and bus frequency at the workplace have positive relationships with bus ridership; (3) senior people, students, or unskilled laborers tend to use the bus; (4) the spatial aggregation bias significantly affects the estimation results; and (5) new immigrants tend to choose to reside in areas designed for automobile users. Finally, there are several policy implications for transit-oriented development (TOD) in Hanoi, including: (1) parking regulations and/or control strategies should be jointly incorporated into the Hanoi’s TOD policy; (2) Hanoi’s TOD policy should be carefully designed in terms of its scope of development site and type; and (3) a polycentric structure strategy only may not be sufficient for increasing public transit ridership. View Full-Text
Keywords: built environment; travel mode choice; transit-oriented development; Hanoi built environment; travel mode choice; transit-oriented development; Hanoi
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Nguyen, T.M.C.; Kato, H.; Phan, L.B. Is Built Environment Associated with Travel Mode Choice in Developing Cities? Evidence from Hanoi. Sustainability 2020, 12, 5773.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop