This paper examines the association between the built environment (BE) and travel behavior in Hanoi, Vietnam. A multinomial logit model is used to analyze individuals’ choice of travel mode from a dataset collected via a questionnaire-based household travel survey in 2016 and the geospatial data of BE variables; the dataset contains 762 responses from local residents in ten districts of the Hanoi Metropolitan Area about their daily travel episodes. It also examines a spatial aggregation effect by comparing model performances among four buffering distances and ward-zones. The results showed that (1) a higher population density around an individual’s home is associated with more bus use and less motorbike and car use; (2) mixed land use around the home, average tax revenue near the home, and bus frequency at the workplace have positive relationships with bus ridership; (3) senior people, students, or unskilled laborers tend to use the bus; (4) the spatial aggregation bias significantly affects the estimation results; and (5) new immigrants tend to choose to reside in areas designed for automobile users. Finally, there are several policy implications for transit-oriented development (TOD) in Hanoi, including: (1) parking regulations and/or control strategies should be jointly incorporated into the Hanoi’s TOD policy; (2) Hanoi’s TOD policy should be carefully designed in terms of its scope of development site and type; and (3) a polycentric structure strategy only may not be sufficient for increasing public transit ridership.
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