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Special Issue "Sustainable Road Transportation Planning"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Transportation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Andrés Monzón
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Transport Research Centre, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Civil Eng. School, Department of Transport and Territory, c/Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: sustainable transportation planning; transport demand management; urban public transportation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sustainable road transportation refers to the broad subject of transportation providing services for both passengers and goods while respecting social, environmental and economic standards. Therefore, sustainability in road transport is a multifaceted topic, ranging from infrastructure to vehicles, covering technological, construction and regulatory elements. However, road transportation faces nowadays a number of threats, such as increasing demand, air pollution, GHG emissions, noise, land occupation, accidents, etc. At the same time ICT technologies could provide new opportunities for action, like digitalization, sharing economy, automation, etc. As a consequence, there is a need for integrated and sustainable planning to fully meet the challenges deliver synergies, minimize rebound effects, and achieve a higher level of socioeconomic co-benefits

With this holistic vision, this Special Issue focuses on the planning side of road transport. It calls for papers on planning methodologies, actions, and techniques to mitigate sustainability impacts. They could be related to infrastructure planning, better use of road capacity by different modes, behavioral changes to promote soft modes and reduce the need to travel, demand management measures, as well as the technical and technological instruments to facilitate those actions.

In this context, we are calling scholars and practitioners to contribute to this Special Issue of the journal Sustainability with the aim to achieve an integrated, more efficient and sustainable transportation system.

All modes of road transport (i.e., auto mobility, public transportation, cycling and walking) and all types of users, vehicles, infrastructures and services are considered in this Special Issue. Some of the topics of interest are (not exhaustive):

  • Efficient network planning
  • Accessibility
  • Congestion and speed control
  • Eco-driving and eco-routing
  • ICT and ITS tools and applications
  • Travel behavior
  • TDM, car occupancy/car-pooling, parking control
  • Road emissions and environmental impacts
  • Pricing and toll roads
  • Evaluation and assessment methods

Other related topics regarding road sustainable transportation for GHG reduction are also welcome. Articles that define terms, offer systematic assessments, methodologically generalizable, empirically based, and offer practical guidance to decision makers are particularly encouraged.

Prof. Andrés Monzón
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sustainable road transportation
  • Road traffic and congestion
  • Demand management
  • ICT tools for greener travel decisions
  • Road planning, regulation and pricing

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Toward Sustainable and Low Carbon Road Transportation: Policies, Tools, and Planning Methods
Sustainability 2019, 11(6), 1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11061709 - 21 Mar 2019
Viewed by 853
Abstract
The road sector is the dominant transport mode in terms of demand for both passengers and goods [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Road Transportation Planning)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
An Exploration of Factors Affecting Drivers’ Daily Fuel Consumption Efficiencies Considering Multi-Level Random Effects
Sustainability 2019, 11(2), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11020393 - 14 Jan 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1081
Abstract
This paper investigates the factors affecting drivers’ vehicle fuel consumption efficiency, which was defined as the daily average fuel consumption for a unit of driving mileage. Based on the long-term Controller Area Network (CAN) data collected from private cars during 10 months in [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the factors affecting drivers’ vehicle fuel consumption efficiency, which was defined as the daily average fuel consumption for a unit of driving mileage. Based on the long-term Controller Area Network (CAN) data collected from private cars during 10 months in Toyota City, Japan, we explored the relationships between drivers’ fuel consumption efficiencies, and factors including drivers’ characteristics, car attributes, date-specific environmental attributes, and travel behavior. Furthermore, a multi-level model was applied to explicitly incorporate the effects of individual-specific, date-specific, and observation-specific unobserved factors. According to the estimation results, it was found that, on working days, model fit was significantly enhanced by incorporating all three error terms. Several findings regarding the relationships between observed factors and drivers’ fuel consumption efficiencies were also obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Road Transportation Planning)
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Article
A Dynamic Traffic Assignment Model for the Sustainability of Pavement Performance
Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010170 - 30 Dec 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
Existing Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) models assign traffic flow with the principle of travel time, which are easy to distribute most of the traffic flows on the shortest path. A serious unbalance of traffic flow in the network can speed up pavement deterioration [...] Read more.
Existing Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) models assign traffic flow with the principle of travel time, which are easy to distribute most of the traffic flows on the shortest path. A serious unbalance of traffic flow in the network can speed up pavement deterioration of highways with heavy traffic, which influences the sustainability of pavement performance and increases maintenance expenditures. The purpose of this research is to obtain a more optimized traffic assignment for pavement damage reduction by establishing a multi-objective DTA model with the objectives of not only minimum travel time but minimum decline of Present Serviceability Index (PSI) for pavements. Then, teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithm is utilized to solve the proposed model. Results of a case study indicate that a more balanced traffic flow assignment can be realized by the model, which can effectively reduce average PSI loss, save maintenance expenditures, extend pavement service life span, save fuel consumption and reduce pollutant emissions in spite of a little increase of average travel time. Additionally, sensitivity of weight factor for the two objective functions is analyzed. This research provides some insights on methods on sustainable pavement performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Road Transportation Planning)
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Article
Modeling Acceptance of Electric Vehicle Sharing Based on Theory of Planned Behavior
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4686; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124686 - 10 Dec 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
The electric vehicle (EV) is a kind of innovation helping to address the issue of climate change and conventional energy consumption, compared to internal combustion engine vehicles. Electric vehicle sharing is a new way to promote the market penetration of electric vehicles due [...] Read more.
The electric vehicle (EV) is a kind of innovation helping to address the issue of climate change and conventional energy consumption, compared to internal combustion engine vehicles. Electric vehicle sharing is a new way to promote the market penetration of electric vehicles due to its convenience and economy. Aiming to provide a more profound understanding of the influential factors in the acceptance of electric vehicle sharing, a structural equation model is proposed based on the theory of planned behavior as the policy environment has been added as prepositive variable. The data about the travelers’ perspective of electric vehicle sharing are acquired from questionnaires in Beijing. The results indicate that the perceived behavioral control is the primary factor with positive contributions to EV-sharing acceptance. Subjective norm, ranking second, is also proven to exert a significant positive effect on EV-sharing acceptance. The results also reveal the insignificant relationship between the attitude towards behavior and sharing acceptance, which is consistent with relevant research. Moreover, the significant positive effects of policy support on attitude and subjective norm are demonstrated. Finally, strategies to promote electric vehicle sharing are proposed, including providing more accessible resources (charging facility, service station), improving social pressure (free trial, sharing atmosphere), and strengthening policy support (financial support, legal guarantee). This study can give a better understanding of the acceptance of EV sharing and the strategy to promoting EV sharing in urban traffic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Road Transportation Planning)
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Article
Urban Wasteful Transport and Its Estimation Methods
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4562; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124562 - 03 Dec 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 971
Abstract
The paper studies urban road traffic problems from the perspective of resource science. The resource composition of urban road traffic system is analysed, and the road network is proved as a scarce resource in the system resource combination. According to the role of [...] Read more.
The paper studies urban road traffic problems from the perspective of resource science. The resource composition of urban road traffic system is analysed, and the road network is proved as a scarce resource in the system resource combination. According to the role of scarce resources, the decisive role of road capacity in urban traffic is inferred. Then the new academic viewpoint of “wasteful transport” was proposed. Through in-depth research, the paper defines the definition of wasteful transport and expounds its connotation. Through the flow-density relationship analysis of urban road traffic survey data, it is found that there is a clear boundary between normal and wasteful transport in urban traffic flow. On the basis of constructing the flow-density relationship model of road traffic, combined with investigation and analysis, the quantitative estimation method of wasteful transport is established. An empirical study on the traffic conditions of the Guoding section of Shanghai shows that there is wasteful transport and confirms the correctness of the wasteful transport theory and method. The research of urban wasteful transport also reveals that: (1) urban road traffic is not always effective; (2) traffic flow exceeding road capacity is wasteful transport, and traffic demand beyond the capacity of road capacity is an unreasonable demand for customers; (3) the explanation that the traffic congestion should apply the comprehensive theory of traffic engineering and resource economics; and (4) the wasteful transport theory and method may be one of the methods that can be applied to alleviate traffic congestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Road Transportation Planning)
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Article
Well-to-Wheels Approach for the Environmental Impact Assessment of Road Freight Services
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4487; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124487 - 28 Nov 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
The diffuse nature of road transport and the heterogeneity of heavy vehicles have hindered the implementation of emissions accounting systems. Even though there are emission factors in well-known databases, these factors have commonly been designed in industrialized countries, which might have geography, type [...] Read more.
The diffuse nature of road transport and the heterogeneity of heavy vehicles have hindered the implementation of emissions accounting systems. Even though there are emission factors in well-known databases, these factors have commonly been designed in industrialized countries, which might have geography, type of roads, and operating conditions different to other countries. This paper proposes a method for the energy consumption and emissions estimation based on vehicle operating conditions in regions with different topology, such as Colombia, Malaysia, and Spain, as case studies. Moreover, the environmental impacts of fuel production in each country are calculated. The diesel consumption on mountainous roads for a full loaded rigid truck in Colombia was 45 L/100 km, compared to averages between 22–26 L/100 km from other sources usually applied. In contrast, the diesel consumption for an articulated truck on a hilly road in Spain from both the proposed method and generic databases coincided in 31 L/100 km. The vehicle speed, load, and road gradient also generated large variations up to 145% in the air pollutants’ estimation. This study contributes to the need for more research about emission factors and tools that facilitate and reduce uncertainty in the environmental accounting in freight companies in different geographies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Road Transportation Planning)
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Article
Youngsters’ Opinions and Attitudes toward the Use of Electric Bicycles in Israel
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4352; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124352 - 22 Nov 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1299
Abstract
Throughout Israel, unlike other countries, a growing use of electric bicycle (EB) by youngsters (below 18) has been observed, accompanied by a drastic increase in the number of related injuries. This phenomenon is widely discussed by various authorities and media in Israel, whilst [...] Read more.
Throughout Israel, unlike other countries, a growing use of electric bicycle (EB) by youngsters (below 18) has been observed, accompanied by a drastic increase in the number of related injuries. This phenomenon is widely discussed by various authorities and media in Israel, whilst its characteristics are actually unknown. Existing literature on the use of EBs is limited. Thus, an opinion survey of young EB riders was conducted, with the aim of recording and analyzing the characteristics and general perception of teen EB users and to explore their behaviors. The results show that using EBs increases the frequency and the distance of teens’ daily commute. The use of EB improves mobility independence, allowing for less reliance on parents and a widening of potential destinations. In addition, the results indicate that a substantial percent of the teens are not familiar with the legal regulations concerning EBs having been involved in various dangerous behaviors. Though the overall preference is to use bicycle paths, the common acceptable alternative is pedestrian sidewalks. These results suggest that a combination of road safety education and training with an improvement of existing infrastructure are the best way to tackle this new and widespread phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Road Transportation Planning)
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Article
Towards Low-Carbon Interurban Road Strategies: Identifying Hot Spots Road Corridors in Spain
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 3963; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10113963 - 31 Oct 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2414
Abstract
Reducing traffic emissions is key in transport planning and infrastructure management in order to achieve a sustainable transport system. This paper contributes to this topic in two ways. The first step describes a comprehensive methodology for identifying hot spots road segments and corridors [...] Read more.
Reducing traffic emissions is key in transport planning and infrastructure management in order to achieve a sustainable transport system. This paper contributes to this topic in two ways. The first step describes a comprehensive methodology for identifying hot spots road segments and corridors with problems of GHG emissions to enable low-carbon actions. The Highway Energy Assessment (HERA) methodology is applied to the national road network of Spain in order to estimate interurban traffic emissions and calculate the emissions index to assess strategies. The results are shown graphically on a GIS, allowing to identify seven corridors with emissions problems comprising 25% of the network and being responsible for 51% of the total GHG emissions in 2012. Inefficient corridors were those with high rates of heavy vehicles, high speeds and steep gradients. The second step consists of the application of a set of strategies to reduce their emissions and their comparison to the reference scenario. The Mediterranean corridor—the most inefficient corridor—was selected to apply a set of abatement strategies. The most effective strategy was speed enforcement for light vehicles. A speed reduction of 10 km/h could produce a 3.5% savings in emissions compared to the reference scenarios, and decrease emissions intensity from 254 gCO2eq/veh-km to 246 gCO2eq/veh-km. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Road Transportation Planning)
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Article
Accessibility Changes: Analysis of the Integrated Public Transport System of Bogotá
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 3958; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10113958 - 31 Oct 2018
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4008
Abstract
Bogotá, a paradigmatic case of urban (re)development driven by transport interventions, began transforming its public transport system anew in mid-2010. It was not until 2012 when a gradual implementation of the new integrated public transport system of Bogotá (SITP in Spanish) began. By [...] Read more.
Bogotá, a paradigmatic case of urban (re)development driven by transport interventions, began transforming its public transport system anew in mid-2010. It was not until 2012 when a gradual implementation of the new integrated public transport system of Bogotá (SITP in Spanish) began. By 2015, about 74% of the new bus routes were implemented. The considerable changes in supply and operational models for public transport during this period redefined travel conditions, having a direct impact on accessibility. Our research analyzes observable changes in accessibility to jobs and houses at both the home and work ends of trips as a result of differences in travel time for respondents to a household travel survey in Bogotá between 2011 and 2015. The paper presents a cross-sectional analysis of accessibility changes, pinpointing low accessibility levels facilitated by the current public transport system to the most deprived groups of Bogotá. Results are presented as access curves by socioeconomic levels and zones that estimate the time required to access workplaces via public transport. Results show that the location of low-income settlements implies a disadvantage as a consequence of spatial segregation that increases distances to job-opportunities. Five years after the implementation of the SITP, public transport in Bogotá still fails to improve accessibility, reinforcing gaps between rich and poor groups instead of closing them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Road Transportation Planning)
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Article
Evaluation of Eco-Driving Training for Fuel Efficiency and Emissions Reduction According to Road Type
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 3891; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10113891 - 26 Oct 2018
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
Eco-driving is becoming more widespread as individual car-use behaviour is a cost-effective way of improving vehicle fuel economy and reducing CO2 emissions. The literature shows a wide range of efficiencies as a result of eco-driving, depending on route selection, traffic characteristic, road [...] Read more.
Eco-driving is becoming more widespread as individual car-use behaviour is a cost-effective way of improving vehicle fuel economy and reducing CO2 emissions. The literature shows a wide range of efficiencies as a result of eco-driving, depending on route selection, traffic characteristic, road slope, and the specific impact evaluation method. This paper follows this line of research and assesses the impact of an eco-driving training programme on fuel savings and reduction of CO2 emissions in a well-designed field trial, focusing on the specific impacts according to road type. The methodology includes a comprehensive trial on different types of road sections under various traffic conditions; a processed dataset using R codes to integrate, clean, and process all the information collected; and a systematic method to evaluate the overall and specific impacts of eco-driving. The final results show a general fuel saving after eco-driving training of up to an average of 6.3% regardless of fuel and road type. Driving performance, as represented by selected parameters (average and maximum RPM, average and maximum speed, aggressive acceleration/deceleration), changed significantly after the training. The highest fuel savings are achieved on major arterial road sections with a certain number of roundabouts and pedestrian crossings. This work contributes to an understanding of the key factors for eco-driving efficiency according to road type under real traffic conditions. It offers greater insights for policymakers in road transport planning and for drivers when applying eco-driving techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Road Transportation Planning)
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Article
Stochastic Transportation Network Considering ATIS with the Information of Environmental Cost
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 3861; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10113861 - 24 Oct 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 884
Abstract
The environment problem is a sustainable hot topic in the field of transportation research. With higher awareness of the environment problem, travelers tend to choose more environment friendly traffic modes and travel routes. However, for motor vehicle drivers, the environmental cost is an [...] Read more.
The environment problem is a sustainable hot topic in the field of transportation research. With higher awareness of the environment problem, travelers tend to choose more environment friendly traffic modes and travel routes. However, for motor vehicle drivers, the environmental cost is an implicit cost, which is not easily perceived. With the help of the advanced traveler information system (ATIS), a fresh scheme was proposed to reduce the environmental cost of the transportation network, which incorporates the information of environmental cost into ATIS to guide drivers to choose more environment-friendly routes. To test the validity of the scheme, we adopted the theory of stochastic network user equilibrium to assign two classes of drivers on the transportation network and analyzed the impact on environmental cost after applying this scheme. Mathematically, a mixed stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) model was proposed to analyze this scheme. The corresponding algorithm was also proposed. Both the model and algorithm were tested in the numerical examples. Through the examples, the validity and feasibility of our proposed scheme were also identified. Our research provided some new ideas for traffic planners and managers to reduce environmental costs caused by traffic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Road Transportation Planning)
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Article
Analyzing Urban Residents’ Appraisal of Ridepooling Service Attributes with Conjoint Analysis
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3711; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103711 - 16 Oct 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2344
Abstract
Public ridepooling systems could contribute to the reduction of traffic volume and emissions in cities by decreasing the number of rides by private car while increasing the average number of passengers per vehicle. Yet, it is unknown how urban travelers value different attributes [...] Read more.
Public ridepooling systems could contribute to the reduction of traffic volume and emissions in cities by decreasing the number of rides by private car while increasing the average number of passengers per vehicle. Yet, it is unknown how urban travelers value different attributes of the ridepooling’s operational concept. Which characteristics of ridepooling concepts are most important to the users? In order to obtain a deeper understanding of travelers’ preferences concerning a ridepooling system, choice-based Conjoint Analysis was performed. Based on a literature review and a focus group, six relevant attributes of the operational concept of ridepooling systems were determined: fare, walking distance, time of booking, shift of departure time, travel time, and information provision. Data from 237 German city dwellers were analyzed with the help of Cox regression. Except for time of booking, all service attributes significantly affected the respondents’ choice. Besides the high relevance of fare, the results underline the particular importance of the attribute walking distance to the pick-up point for elderly. The results give guidance for the creation of user-centered public transport systems that meet the requirements of the prospective passengers and thus might contribute to the development of shared passenger transport systems for sustainable urban mobility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Road Transportation Planning)
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Article
Optimal Pricing and Service for the Peak-Period Bus Commuting Inefficiency of Boarding Queuing Congestion
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3497; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103497 - 29 Sep 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1214
Abstract
This paper proposes an equilibrium bus boarding model to investigate optimal pricing and service for peak-period bus commuting inefficiency of boarding queuing congestion. Commuters are assumed to choose their optimal time-of-use decision from home or the workplace to the bus. We found that: [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an equilibrium bus boarding model to investigate optimal pricing and service for peak-period bus commuting inefficiency of boarding queuing congestion. Commuters are assumed to choose their optimal time-of-use decision from home or the workplace to the bus. We found that: (1) when the earliest commuter boards the bus as soon as the bus arrives at the bus station, the dynamic boarding queuing congestion toll that eliminates the boarding queuing congestion creates social optimal equilibrium and the optimal bus departure interval during the peak period; (2) the optimal bus departure interval during the peak period is the time that the preceding bus riders spend on boarding, which means the relationship between service frequency and ridership does not conform to the square root principle: the optimal bus frequency is proportional to the square root of the number of commuters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Road Transportation Planning)
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Article
Smart Card Data Mining to Analyze Mobility Patterns in Suburban Areas
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3489; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103489 - 29 Sep 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
This paper aims to define an algorithm capable of building the origin-destination matrix from check-in data collected in the extra-urban area of Torino, Italy, where thousands of people commute every day, using smart cards to validate their travel documents while boarding. To this [...] Read more.
This paper aims to define an algorithm capable of building the origin-destination matrix from check-in data collected in the extra-urban area of Torino, Italy, where thousands of people commute every day, using smart cards to validate their travel documents while boarding. To this end, the methodological approach relied on a survey over three months to record smart-card validations. Peak and off-peak periods have been defined according to validation frequency. Then, the origin-destination matrix has been estimated using the time interval between two validations to outline the different legs of the journey. Finally, transport demand has been matched with existing bus services, showing which areas were not adequately covered by public transport. The results of this research could assist public transport operators and local authorities in the design of a more suitable transport supply and mobility services in accordance with user needs. Indeed, tailoring public transport to user needs attracts both more customers and latent demand, reducing reliance on cars and making transport more sustainable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Road Transportation Planning)
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Review

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Review
Technology: A Necessary but Not Sufficient Condition for Future Personal Mobility
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4141; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114141 - 11 Nov 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2484
Abstract
Technological advances revolutionize industrial processes, science, communications, and our way of life. However, developed societies have reached a stage in which the fascination with technological innovations often results in their indiscriminate consumption. In this paper, road traffic is used as a line of [...] Read more.
Technological advances revolutionize industrial processes, science, communications, and our way of life. However, developed societies have reached a stage in which the fascination with technological innovations often results in their indiscriminate consumption. In this paper, road traffic is used as a line of argument to demonstrate that the random introduction of technology does not imply benefits to society. Particularly, it is analyzed why some of the potential benefits of technological progress are lost in fields such as traffic monitoring, data handling, and traffic management, or in sustainable mobility initiatives, such as the introduction of electric vehicles or the implementation vehicle sharing projects. The risks faced in the future advent of autonomous vehicles are also discussed, and ideas for improvement suggested. A critical reflection on other transportation modes that are expected to be realized in the near future is included as well. The performed analysis evidences that the potential improvement in personal mobility will not become a reality if it exclusively relies on the latest technological devices, in line with consumers’ fantasies or economic interests. This is a statement that could be generalized to many other fields. The implementation/consumption of a particular technology should not be an objective in itself, but a tool to bring benefits to society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Road Transportation Planning)
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