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Sustainability 2019, 11(2), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11020393

An Exploration of Factors Affecting Drivers’ Daily Fuel Consumption Efficiencies Considering Multi-Level Random Effects

1
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Urban ITS, School of Transportation, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
2
Jiangsu Province Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Urban Traffic SiPaiLou #2, Xuanwu District, Nanjing 210096, China
3
China Academy of Transportation Sciences, No.240, Huixinli, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China
4
EcoTopia Science Institute & Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 4648603, Japan
5
Graduate School of Environmental Studies & Green Mobility Collaborative Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 4648603, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 November 2018 / Revised: 3 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Road Transportation Planning)
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Abstract

This paper investigates the factors affecting drivers’ vehicle fuel consumption efficiency, which was defined as the daily average fuel consumption for a unit of driving mileage. Based on the long-term Controller Area Network (CAN) data collected from private cars during 10 months in Toyota City, Japan, we explored the relationships between drivers’ fuel consumption efficiencies, and factors including drivers’ characteristics, car attributes, date-specific environmental attributes, and travel behavior. Furthermore, a multi-level model was applied to explicitly incorporate the effects of individual-specific, date-specific, and observation-specific unobserved factors. According to the estimation results, it was found that, on working days, model fit was significantly enhanced by incorporating all three error terms. Several findings regarding the relationships between observed factors and drivers’ fuel consumption efficiencies were also obtained. View Full-Text
Keywords: fuel consumption; multi-level model; panel data fuel consumption; multi-level model; panel data
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Li, D.; Li, C.; Miwa, T.; Morikawa, T. An Exploration of Factors Affecting Drivers’ Daily Fuel Consumption Efficiencies Considering Multi-Level Random Effects. Sustainability 2019, 11, 393.

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