Special Issue "Resilience and Sustainability of Civil Infrastructures under Extreme Loads"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2019).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Zheng Lu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research Institute of Structural Engineering and Disaster Reduction, College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
Interests: vibration control of particle dampers; seismic capacity of high-rise building; nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete structure; seismic evaluation and retrofit of existed structures
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Ying Zhou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research Institute of Structural Engineering and Disaster Reduction, College of Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
Interests: seismic performance of complex tall buildings; performance-based seismic design; structural performance of composite structures and hybrid structures; methodology and technology for structural dynamic test
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tony Yang
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Interests: active, semi-active and passive energy dissipation systems; seismic design of structures; accurate and cost effective experimental methods
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Angeliki Papalou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Technological Educational Institute (T.E.I.) of Western Greece
Interests: structural vibration control; particle damping technology; passive control
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There are many regions worldwide that are susceptible to extreme loads, such as earthquakes, typhoon, tsunami, landslides, debris flow, etc., which cause loss of life and adverse impacts to civil infrastructure, the environment and to communities. A series of methods and measures have been used to mitigate the effects of these extreme loads. The adopted approaches and methods must be sustainable and resilient, and resilient civil infrastructures are one of the important methods. To reduce damage and downtime in addition to protecting life safety, the new resilient building technologies are developed.

This Special Issue focuses on methods to enhance the sustainability and resilience of civil infrastructures in the event of extreme loads (earthquakes, typhoon, tsunami, landslides, debris flows, etc.). This Special Issue is expected to contribute to the proposal of new and resilient building structures and their experimental and theoretical research, and will play a certain role in promoting the application of new recoverable buildings. Expected topics include, but are not limited to, theoretical and experimental research on new structural forms for extreme loads, such as earthquakes, typhoon, tsunami, landslides and landslides, their experimental and theoretical studies, examples or case studies of implemented low-damage structural systems in buildings, development of design philosophies and performance criteria for resilient design of buildings and new sustainable communities, etc.

Prof. Dr. Zheng Lu
Prof. Dr. Ying Zhou
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tony Yang
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Angeliki Papalou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Resilience and sustainability
  • Civil infrastructures
  • Extreme loads
  • New structure or components
  • Loss assessment and analytical studies
  • Earthquake-resilient buildings or communities
  • Typhoon-resilient buildings or communities
  • Tsunami-resilient buildings or communities
  • Landslide-resilient buildings or communities
  • Mudslide-resilient buildings or communities

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research

Editorial
Special Issue: Resilience and Sustainability of Civil Infrastructures under Extreme Loads
Sustainability 2019, 11(12), 3292; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123292 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
The special issue entitled ‘‘Resilience and Sustainability of Civil Infrastructures under Extreme Loads’’ updates the state of the art and perspectives focused on cutting-edge approaches to enhance structures’ resilience and sustainability under extreme loading events, including theoretical investigation, numerical simulation, and experimental study, [...] Read more.
The special issue entitled ‘‘Resilience and Sustainability of Civil Infrastructures under Extreme Loads’’ updates the state of the art and perspectives focused on cutting-edge approaches to enhance structures’ resilience and sustainability under extreme loading events, including theoretical investigation, numerical simulation, and experimental study, keeping an eye on the seismic performance of civil structures. Notably, some innovative energy dissipative devices and resilient structural forms, which are encompassed in this special issue, would provide valuable references for the engineering application of resilient and sustainable civil infrastructures in the near future. Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Article
Hybrid Simulation of Soil Station System Response to Two-Dimensional Earthquake Excitation
Sustainability 2019, 11(9), 2582; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092582 - 05 May 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 973
Abstract
Soil station system seismic issues have been highly valued in recent years. In order to investigate the dynamic seismic behaviors of the intermediate column in soil station systems, a hybrid test of a soil station system was conducted. The soil station model was [...] Read more.
Soil station system seismic issues have been highly valued in recent years. In order to investigate the dynamic seismic behaviors of the intermediate column in soil station systems, a hybrid test of a soil station system was conducted. The soil station model was performed with OpenSees. Virtual hybrid simulation was fulfilled with adapter elements. A hybrid model, composed of the steel column specimen and the remainder numerical model, was assembled using the OpenFresco framework. An intermediate column was treated as the physical substructure, while the rest of the soil station system was treated as the numerical substructure in a hybrid simulation. The hybrid test results are compared with the analytical results. The data obtained from such tests show that the system can accurately reflect the mechanical properties of intermediate columns in soil station systems. A hybrid simulation would be a proper way to assess the seismic performance of a soil station system. Full article
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Article
Study on Column-Top Seismic Isolation of Single-Layer Latticed Domes
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030936 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
In this paper, a single-layer lamella reticulated dome with reinforced concrete bearings was studied, and a method of column-top isolation was proposed to improve the seismic performance of the whole structure, thereby avoiding too large support stiffness in engineering practice. A nonlinear time-history [...] Read more.
In this paper, a single-layer lamella reticulated dome with reinforced concrete bearings was studied, and a method of column-top isolation was proposed to improve the seismic performance of the whole structure, thereby avoiding too large support stiffness in engineering practice. A nonlinear time-history analysis showed that lead rubber bearings (LRB) can reduce the support reaction to a certain extent and make it distribute uniformly, reducing the support design requirements under frequent earthquakes. During rare earthquakes, the LRB was basically in the plastic state and the support reaction remained near the yield force, which was reduced greatly compared with that of the original structure. The bearing hysteresis curve was full, while the plasticity development degree of the upper reticulated dome was greatly reduced and the elasticity was basically maintained, thus achieving a good damping effect. Full article
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Article
Long-Term Ground Settlements over Mined-Out Region Induced by Railway Construction and Operation
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030875 - 08 Feb 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
With the rapid development of railway construction and the massive exploitation of mineral resources, many railway projects have had to cross mining areas and their caverns. However, the settlement of the ground surface may cause severe damage to human-built structures and lead to [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of railway construction and the massive exploitation of mineral resources, many railway projects have had to cross mining areas and their caverns. However, the settlement of the ground surface may cause severe damage to human-built structures and lead to the loss of human lives. The research on ground deformation monitoring over caverns is undoubtedly important and has a guiding role in railway design. Settlement observation points were set up around the mine, establishing a ground subsidence monitoring level network that has been in operation for 11 years. The ground settlement and lateral displacement along the designed railway were studied. A finite element model was established to predict the long-term ground settlements over the mined-out region induced by designed railway embankment construction and train operation. The results show that the predicted ground settlement induced by railway embankment construction is smaller than the ground settlement induced by the mined-out cavity. One train pass-by has an insignificant impact on the safety of train operation. However, when the number of train pass-bys increases to 10,000,000 times and 20,000,000 times, the cumulative deformations of the ground at different depths are quite large, which may affect the safety of the railway operation. Thus, it is necessary to deal with settlement issues when designing railway construction. Full article
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Article
Experimental Study and Numerical Simulation on Hybrid Coupled Shear Wall with Replaceable Coupling Beams
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 867; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030867 - 07 Feb 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
The coupled shear wall with replaceable coupling beams is a current research hotspot, while still lacking comprehensive studies that combine both experimental and numerical approaches to describe the global performance of the structural system. In this paper, hybrid coupled shear walls (HSWs) with [...] Read more.
The coupled shear wall with replaceable coupling beams is a current research hotspot, while still lacking comprehensive studies that combine both experimental and numerical approaches to describe the global performance of the structural system. In this paper, hybrid coupled shear walls (HSWs) with replaceable coupling beams (RCBs) are studied. The middle part of the coupling beam is replaced with a replaceable “fuse”. Four ½-scale coupled shear wall specimens including a conventional reinforced concrete shear wall (CSW) and three HSWs (F1SW/F2SW/F3SW) with different kinds of replaceable “fuses” (Fuse 1/Fuse 2/Fuse 3) are tested through cyclic loading. Fuse 1 is an I-shape steel with a rhombic opening at the web; Fuse 2 is a double-web I-shape steel with lead filled in the gap between the two webs; Fuse 3 consists of two parallel steel tubes filled by lead. The comparison of seismic properties of the four shear walls in terms of failure mechanism, hysteretic response, strength degradation, stiffness degradation, energy consumption, and strain response is presented. The nonlinear finite element analysis of four shear walls is conducted by ABAQUS software. The deformation process, yielding sequence of components, skeleton curves, and damage distribution of the walls are simulated and agree well with the experimental results. The primary benefit of HSWs is that the damage of the coupling beam is concentrated at the replaceable “fuse”, while other parts remain intact. Besides, because the “fuse” can dissipate much energy, the damage of the wall-piers is also alleviated. In addition, among the three HSWs, F1SW possesses the best ductility and load retention capacity while F2SW possesses the best energy dissipation capacity. Based on this comprehensive study, some suggestions for the conceptual design of HSWs are further proposed. Full article
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Article
Flow Analysis and Damage Assessment for Concrete Box Girder Based on Flow Characteristics
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030710 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1123
Abstract
For a system such as the concrete structure, flow can be the dynamic field to describe the motion, interactions, or both in dynamic or static (Eulerian description) states. Further, various kinds of flow propagate through it from the very start to the end [...] Read more.
For a system such as the concrete structure, flow can be the dynamic field to describe the motion, interactions, or both in dynamic or static (Eulerian description) states. Further, various kinds of flow propagate through it from the very start to the end of its lifecycle (Lagrangian description) accompanied by rains, winds, earthquakes, and so forth. Meanwhile, damage may occur inside the structure synchronously, developing from micro- to macro-scale damage, and eventually destroy the structure. This study was conducted to clarify the content of flow which has been implicitly used in the damage detection, and to propose a flow analysis framework based on the combination data space and the theory of dissipative structure theory specifically for nondestructive examination in structural damage detection, which can theoretically standardize the mechanism by which flow characteristics vary, the motion of the structure, or the swarm behavior of substructures in engineering. In this paper, a destructive experiment (static loading experiment) and a following nondestructive experiment (impact hammer experiment) were conducted. According to the experimental data analysis, the changing of flow characteristics shows high sensitivity and efficient precision to distinguish the damage exacerbations in a structure. According to different levels of interaction (intensity) with the structure, the information flow can be divided into two categories: Destructive flow and nondestructive flow. The method used in this research is named as a method of “flow analysis based on flow characteristics”, i.e., “FC-based flow analysis”. Full article
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Article
Time-Frequency Energy Distribution of Ground Motion and Its Effect on the Dynamic Response of Nonlinear Structures
Sustainability 2019, 11(3), 702; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11030702 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1068
Abstract
The ground motion characteristics are essential for understanding the structural seismic response. In this paper, the time-frequency analytical method is used to analyze the time-frequency energy distribution of ground motion, and its effect on the dynamic response of nonlinear structure is studied and [...] Read more.
The ground motion characteristics are essential for understanding the structural seismic response. In this paper, the time-frequency analytical method is used to analyze the time-frequency energy distribution of ground motion, and its effect on the dynamic response of nonlinear structure is studied and discussed. The time-frequency energy distribution of ground motion is obtained by the matching pursuit decomposition algorithm, which not only effectively reflects the energy distribution of different frequency components in time, but also reflects the main frequency components existing near the peak ground acceleration occurrence time. A series of artificial ground motions with the same peak ground acceleration, Fourier amplitude spectrum, and duration are generated and chosen as the earthquake input of the structural response. By analyzing the response of the elasto-perfectly-plastic structure excited by artificial seismic waves, it can be found that the time-frequency energy distribution has a great influence on the structural ductility. Especially if there are even multiple frequency components in the same ground motion phrase, the plastic deformation of the elasto-perfectly-plastic structure will continuously accumulate in a certain direction, resulting in a large nonlinear displacement. This paper reveals that the time-frequency energy distribution of a strong ground motion has a vital influence on the structural response. Full article
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Article
Shear Performance of Optimized-Section Precast Slab with Tapered Cross Section
Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010163 - 29 Dec 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1956
Abstract
The optimized-section precast slab (OPS) is a half precast concrete (PC) slab that highlights structural aesthetics while reducing the quantity of materials by means of an efficient cross-sectional configuration considering the distribution of a bending moment. However, since a tapered cross section where [...] Read more.
The optimized-section precast slab (OPS) is a half precast concrete (PC) slab that highlights structural aesthetics while reducing the quantity of materials by means of an efficient cross-sectional configuration considering the distribution of a bending moment. However, since a tapered cross section where the locations of the top and bottom flanges change is formed at the end of the member, stress concentration occurs near the tapered cross section because of the shear force and thus the surrounding region of the tapered cross section may become unintentionally vulnerable. Therefore, in this study, experimental and numerical research was carried out to examine the shear behaviour characteristics and performance of the OPS with a tapered cross section. Shear tests were conducted on a total of eight OPS specimens, with the inclination angle of the tapered cross section, the presence of topping concrete and the amount of shear reinforcement as the main test variables and a reasonable shear-design method for the OPS members was proposed by means of a detailed analysis based on design code and finite-element analysis. Full article
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Article
A New Equation to Evaluate Liquefaction Triggering Using the Response Surface Method and Parametric Sensitivity Analysis
Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010112 - 26 Dec 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1448
Abstract
Liquefaction is one of the most damaging functions of earthquakes in saturated sandy soil. Therefore, clearly advancing the assessment of this phenomenon is one of the key points for the geotechnical profession for sustainable development. This study presents a new equation to evaluate [...] Read more.
Liquefaction is one of the most damaging functions of earthquakes in saturated sandy soil. Therefore, clearly advancing the assessment of this phenomenon is one of the key points for the geotechnical profession for sustainable development. This study presents a new equation to evaluate the potential of liquefaction (PL) in sandy soil. It accounts for two new earthquake parameters: standardized cumulative absolute velocity and closest distance from the site to the rupture surface (CAV5 and rrup) to the database. In the first step, an artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed. Additionally, a new response surface method (RSM) tool that shows the correlation between the input parameters and the target is applied to derive an equation. Then, the RSM equation and ANN model results are compared with those of the other available models to show their validity and capability. Finally, according the uncertainty in the considered parameters, sensitivity analysis is performed through Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) to show the effect of the parameters and their uncertainties on PL. The main advantage of this research is its consideration of the direct influence of the most important parameters, particularly earthquake characteristics, on liquefaction, thus making it possible to conduct parametric sensitivity analysis and show the direct impact of the parameters and their uncertainties on the PL. The results indicate that among the earthquake parameters, CAV5 has the highest effect on PL. Also, the RSM and ANN models predict PL with considerable accuracy. Full article
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Article
A Multi-Objective Ground Motion Selection Approach Matching the Acceleration and Displacement Response Spectra
Sustainability 2018, 10(12), 4659; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10124659 - 07 Dec 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2766
Abstract
For seismic resilience-based design (RBD), a selection of recorded time histories for dynamic structural analysis is usually required. In order to make individual structures and communities regain their target functions as promptly as possible, uncertainty of the structural response estimates is in great [...] Read more.
For seismic resilience-based design (RBD), a selection of recorded time histories for dynamic structural analysis is usually required. In order to make individual structures and communities regain their target functions as promptly as possible, uncertainty of the structural response estimates is in great need of reduction. The ground motion (GM) selection based on a single target response spectrum, such as acceleration or displacement response spectrum, would bias structural response estimates leading significant uncertainty, even though response spectrum variance is taken into account. In addition, resilience of an individual structure is not governed by its own performance, but depends severely on the performance of other systems in the same community. Thus, evaluation of resilience of a community using records matching target spectrum at whole periods would be reasonable because the fundamental periods of systems in the community may be varied. This paper presents a GM selection approach based on a probabilistic framework to find an optimal set of records to match multiple target spectra, including acceleration and displacement response spectra. Two major steps are included in that framework. Generation of multiple sub-spectra from target displacement response spectrum for selecting sets of GMs was proposed as the first step. Likewise, the process as genetic algorithm (GA), evolvement of individuals previously generated, is the second step, rather than using crossover and mutation techniques. A novel technique improving the match between acceleration response spectra of samples and targets is proposed as the second evolvement step. It is proved computationally efficient for the proposed algorithm by comparing with two developed GM selection algorithms. Finally, the proposed algorithm is applied to select GM records according to seismic codes for analysis of four archetype reinforced concrete (RC) frames aiming to evaluate the influence of GM selection considering two design response spectra on structural responses. The implications of design response spectra especially the displacement response spectrum and GM selection algorithm are summarized. Full article
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Article
Experimental Study on Mitigations of Seismic Settlement and Tilting of Structures by Adopting Improved Soil Slab and Soil Mixing Walls
Sustainability 2018, 10(11), 4069; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10114069 - 06 Nov 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1042
Abstract
Settlement of surface structures due to subsoil liquefaction is a big issue in geotechnical engineering. It has been happening during earthquakes in liquefaction-prone areas for many years. Mitigations have been proposed for this problem. The improved soil slabs and vertical mixing soil walls [...] Read more.
Settlement of surface structures due to subsoil liquefaction is a big issue in geotechnical engineering. It has been happening during earthquakes in liquefaction-prone areas for many years. Mitigations have been proposed for this problem. The improved soil slabs and vertical mixing soil walls combined with lowering ground water levels (GWLs) were proposed in this study. Experiments were carried out by adopting a 1-g shaking table test. Two different soil densities with uniform and eccentric loads were included. Combined with lowering GWLs, three different soil slabs with a length of 40, 60 and 80 cm and two different mixing walls with soil and plastic were studied and compared. Results show that the horizontal soil slabs have good performance to reduce the settlement of structures. On the other hand, the vertical soil mixing walls did not reduce the settlement effectively, but its performance could be improved by lowering of GWLs. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Progressive Collapse Resistance of Steel Moment Frames Designed with Different Connection Details Using Energy-Based Approximate Analysis
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3797; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103797 - 20 Oct 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1998
Abstract
This study evaluates the progressive collapse resistance performance of steel moment frames, individually designed with different connection details. Welded unreinforced flange-bolted web (WUF-B) and reduced beam section (RBS) connections are selected and applied to ordinary moment frames designed as per the Korean Building [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the progressive collapse resistance performance of steel moment frames, individually designed with different connection details. Welded unreinforced flange-bolted web (WUF-B) and reduced beam section (RBS) connections are selected and applied to ordinary moment frames designed as per the Korean Building Code (KBC) 2016. The 3-D steel frame systems are modeled using reduced models of 1-D and 2-D elements for beams, columns, connections, and composite slabs. Comparisons between the analyzed results of the reduced models and the experimental results are presented to verify the applicability of the models. Nonlinear static analyses of two prototype buildings with different connection details are conducted using the reduced models, and an energy-based approximate analysis is used to account for the dynamic effects associated with sudden column loss. The assessment on the structures was based on structural robustness and sensitivity methods using the alternative path method suggested in General Services Administration (GSA) 2003, in which column removal scenarios were performed and the bearing capacity of the initial structure with an undamaged column was calculated under gravity loads. According to the analytical results, the two prototype buildings satisfied the chord rotation criterion of GSA 2003. These results were expected since the composite slabs designed to withstand more than 3.3 times the required capacity had a significant effect on the stiffness of the entire structure. The RBS connections were found to be 14% less sensitive to progressive collapse compared to the WUF-B ones. Full article
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Article
Post-Earthquake Restoration Simulation Model for Water Supply Networks
Sustainability 2018, 10(10), 3618; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103618 - 10 Oct 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1119
Abstract
A computer-based simulation model was developed to quantify the seismic damage that may occur in water supply networks and to suggest restoration strategies after such events. The model was designed to produce probabilistic seismic events and determine the structural damage of facilities. Then, [...] Read more.
A computer-based simulation model was developed to quantify the seismic damage that may occur in water supply networks and to suggest restoration strategies after such events. The model was designed to produce probabilistic seismic events and determine the structural damage of facilities. Then, the model numerically quantifies the system restoration rate over time by connecting it with a hydraulic analysis solver. The model intends to propose superb restoration plans by performing sensitivity analyses using several restoration scenarios. The developed model was applied to an actual metropolitan waterworks system currently operating in South Korea and successfully suggested the most efficient restoration approaches (given seismic damage) to minimize the complete recovery time and suspension of water service. It is expected that the proposed model can be utilized as a decision-making tool to determine prompt system recovery plans and restoration priorities in the case of an actual seismic hazard that may occur in water supply networks. Full article
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Article
Simplified Analytical Model and Shaking Table Test Validation for Seismic Analysis of Mid-Rise Cold-Formed Steel Composite Shear Wall Building
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3188; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093188 - 06 Sep 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1813
Abstract
To develop the cold-formed steel (CFS) building from low-rise to mid-rise, this paper proposes a new type of CFS composite shear wall building system. The continuous placed CFS concrete-filled tube (CFRST) column is used as the end stud, and the CFS-ALC wall casing [...] Read more.
To develop the cold-formed steel (CFS) building from low-rise to mid-rise, this paper proposes a new type of CFS composite shear wall building system. The continuous placed CFS concrete-filled tube (CFRST) column is used as the end stud, and the CFS-ALC wall casing concrete composite floor is used as the floor system. In order to predict the seismic behavior of this new structural system, a simplified analytical model is proposed in this paper, which includes the following. (1) A build-up section with “new material” is used to model the CFS tube and infilled concrete of CFRST columns; the section parameters are determined by the equivalent stiffness principle, and the “new material” is modeled by an elastic-perfect plastic model. (2) Two crossed nonlinear springs with hysteretic parameters are used to model a composite CFS shear wall; the Pinching04 material is used to input the hysteretic parameters for these springs, and two crossed rigid trusses are used to model the CFS beams. (3) A linear spring is used to model the uplift behavior of a hold-down connection, and the contribution of these connections for CFRST columns are considered and individually modeled. (4) The rigid diaphragm is used to model the composite floor system, and it is demonstrated by example analyses. Finally, a shaking table test is conducted on a five-story 1:2-scaled CFS composite shear wall building to valid the simplified model. The results are as follows. The errors on peak drift of the first story, the energy dissipation of the first story, the peak drift of the roof story, and the energy dissipation of the whole structure’s displacement time–history curves between the test and simplified models are about 10%, and the largest one of these errors is 20.8%. Both the time–history drift curves and cumulative energy curves obtained from the simplified model accurately track the deformation and energy dissipation processes of the test model. Such comparisons demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of the simplified model, and the proposed simplified model would provide the basis for the theoretical analysis and seismic design of CFS composite shear wall systems. Full article
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Article
Probabilistic Generalization of a Comprehensive Model for the Deterioration Prediction of RC Structure under Extreme Corrosion Environments
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3051; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093051 - 28 Aug 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 979
Abstract
In some extreme corrosion environments, the erosion of chloride ions and carbon dioxide can occur simultaneously, causing deterioration of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. This study presents a probabilistic model for the sustainability prediction of the service life of RC structures, taking into account [...] Read more.
In some extreme corrosion environments, the erosion of chloride ions and carbon dioxide can occur simultaneously, causing deterioration of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. This study presents a probabilistic model for the sustainability prediction of the service life of RC structures, taking into account that combined deterioration. Because of the high computational cost, we also present a series of simplifications to improve the model. Meanwhile, a semi-empirical method is also developed for this combined effect. By probabilistic generalization, this simplified method can swiftly handle the original reliability analysis which needs to be based on large amounts of data. A comparison of results obtained by the models with and without the above simplifications supports the significance of these improvements. Full article
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Article
Brazier Effect of Thin Angle-Section Beams under Bending
Sustainability 2018, 10(9), 3047; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093047 - 27 Aug 2018
Viewed by 990
Abstract
Thin-walled section beams have Brazier effect to exhibit a nonlinear response to bending moments, which is a geometric nonlinearity problem and different from eigenvalue problem. This paper is aimed at investigating the Brazier effect in thin-walled angle-section beams subjected to pure bending about [...] Read more.
Thin-walled section beams have Brazier effect to exhibit a nonlinear response to bending moments, which is a geometric nonlinearity problem and different from eigenvalue problem. This paper is aimed at investigating the Brazier effect in thin-walled angle-section beams subjected to pure bending about its weak axis. The derivation using energy method is presented to predict the maximum bending moment and section deformation. Both numerical analyses and experimental results were used to show the validity of the proposed formula. Numerical results show that the boundary condition can influence the results due to the end effect, and that the influence tends to be negligible when the length of angle beam goes up to 30 times as the length of beam side. When the collapse in experiments is governed by Brazier flattening, the moment vs. curvature curve deviates significantly from the linear beam theory, but coincides well with the proposed formula in consideration of the restraint due to limited span of experimental setup. It can be concluded that the proposed formula shows good agreement with numerical results and experimental results. Full article
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Article
Nonlinear Error Propagation Analysis of a New Family of Model-Based Integration Algorithm for Pseudodynamic Tests
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2846; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082846 - 10 Aug 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 911
Abstract
Error propagation properties of integration algorithms are crucial in conducting pseudodynamic tests. The motivation of this study is to investigate the error propagation properties of a new family of model-based integration algorithm for pseudodynamic tests. To develop the new algorithms, two additional coefficients [...] Read more.
Error propagation properties of integration algorithms are crucial in conducting pseudodynamic tests. The motivation of this study is to investigate the error propagation properties of a new family of model-based integration algorithm for pseudodynamic tests. To develop the new algorithms, two additional coefficients are introduced in the Chen-Ricles (CR) algorithm. In addition, a parameter—i.e., degree of nonlinearity—is applied to describe the change of stiffness for nonlinear structures. The error propagation equation for the new algorithms implemented in a pseudodynamic test is derived and two error amplification factors are deduced correspondingly. The error amplification factors for three structures with different degrees of nonlinearity are calculated to illustrate the error propagation effect. The numerical simulation of a pseudodynamic test for a two-story shear-type building structure is conducted to further demonstrate the error propagation characteristics of the new algorithms. It can be concluded from the theoretical analysis and numerical study that both nonlinearity and the two additional coefficients of the new algorithms have great influence on its error propagation properties. Full article
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Article
Substructure Hybrid Simulation Boundary Technique Based on Beam/Column Inflection Points
Sustainability 2018, 10(8), 2655; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082655 - 28 Jul 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
Compatibility among substructures is an issue for hybrid simulation. Traditionally, the structure model is regarded as the idealized shear model. The equilibrium and compatibility of the axial and rotational direction at the substructure boundary are neglected. To improve the traditional boundary technique, this [...] Read more.
Compatibility among substructures is an issue for hybrid simulation. Traditionally, the structure model is regarded as the idealized shear model. The equilibrium and compatibility of the axial and rotational direction at the substructure boundary are neglected. To improve the traditional boundary technique, this paper presents a novel substructure hybrid simulation boundary technique based on beam/column inflection points, which can effectively avoid the complex operation for realizing the bending moment at the boundary by using the features of the inflection point where the bending moment need not be simulated in the physical substructure. An axial displacement prediction technique and the equivalent force control method are used to realize the proposed method. The numerical simulation test scheme for the different boundary techniques was designed to consider three factors: (i) the different structural layers; (ii) the line stiffness ratio of the beam to column; and (iii) the peak acceleration. The simulation results for a variety of numerical tests show that the proposed technique shows better performance than the traditional technique, demonstrating its potential in improving HS test accuracy. Finally, the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed boundary technique is verified experimentally through the substructure hybrid simulation tests of a six-story steel frame model. Full article
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Article
Numerical Simulation and In-Situ Measurement of Ground-Borne Vibration Due to Subway System
Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2439; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072439 - 12 Jul 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1089
Abstract
A coupled finite element–infinite element boundary method performed by the harmonic analysis based on the commercial software ABAQUS was verified by comparing it with the thin layer method to address the issue of subway induced vibration, a major environmental concern in urban areas. [...] Read more.
A coupled finite element–infinite element boundary method performed by the harmonic analysis based on the commercial software ABAQUS was verified by comparing it with the thin layer method to address the issue of subway induced vibration, a major environmental concern in urban areas. In addition, an interface program was developed to automatically read the simulation result files in the harmonic analysis, and then put the data into MATLAB, achieving the frequency domain analysis. Moreover, a site measurement was performed on a practical engineering track bed-tunnel lining-surrounding formation located on Line 2, Shanghai Metro and rich vibration data were acquired. Then, the corresponding simulation model was established and the numerical results were compared with the measured data based on the developed program, which was verified applicable for the practical engineering of subway induced vibration on the soft site. The proposed prediction formula of the vibration level, by comparison with the measurement, is applicable for the prediction in subway induced vibration. The results show that there exists a vibration amplifying zone a certain distance to the tunnel under high frequency loads due to the wave propagation and reflection. Finally, a parametric study was conducted in an elastic half-space simulation to investigate the influence of model widths and depths with infinite element boundary on the numerical results. The higher performance of the combined finite element–infinite element boundary method, which can decrease the model sizes in widths and heights 50% effectively, was demonstrated. Consequently, the coupled finite element–infinite element boundary method and developed frequency analysis with interface program provide rational numerical methods for the models of subway induced vibration. Full article
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Article
Studies on Energy Dissipation Mechanism of an Innovative Viscous Damper Filled with Oil and Silt
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1777; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061777 - 29 May 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
To improve seismic performance of a traditional viscous damper, an innovative viscous damper is proposed, in which the conventional damping medium is replaced by a mixture of oil and silt. This new medium is expected to increase damping force and solve the problem [...] Read more.
To improve seismic performance of a traditional viscous damper, an innovative viscous damper is proposed, in which the conventional damping medium is replaced by a mixture of oil and silt. This new medium is expected to increase damping force and solve the problem that arises out of the fact that the energy dissipation capacity of a conventional fluid viscous damper is low for small displacements. Firstly, the design concept and device configurations are introduced, then a cyclic loading test is applied to investigate the damper’s energy dissipation mechanism in different conditions. Experimental results show that the damper exhibits displacement-dependent characteristics for small displacements, indicating that the silt has changed its damping mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of multiple test parameters on the damping force is analyzed, showcasing that an increase in silt content can visibly increase the damping force. According to experimental data, fitting models of the damping force are obtained and verified, thus promoting further engineering applications. Full article
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Article
Characteristics of Corporate Contributions to the Recovery of Regional Society from the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster
Sustainability 2018, 10(6), 1717; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061717 - 24 May 2018
Viewed by 1768
Abstract
Municipalities in areas along the northeast coast of Japan were severely affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake. It was difficult for these municipalities to provide support to all devastated areas. It is important for communities in devastated areas to be resilient in [...] Read more.
Municipalities in areas along the northeast coast of Japan were severely affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake. It was difficult for these municipalities to provide support to all devastated areas. It is important for communities in devastated areas to be resilient in order to autonomously and efficiently recover from natural disasters. This study focused on corporations, since they have various resources that can support disaster recovery. A postal questionnaire was sent to 1,020 corporations that included various industry types and small corporations located in Iwanuma and Natori, which were damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake. The response rate was 39.22%. We analyzed the data using a logistic regression model. The study findings are as follows: (1) a total of 32.75% of corporations provided support for recovery after the disaster; (2) the ratio of corporations that provided actual support was lower than that of those that only had awareness of contributions; (3) the strongest characteristic was having not only awareness but also the opportunity to conduct support activities before the occurrence of disasters to enhance the efficient recovery of regional society; and (4) the characteristics of support differed according to industry type, location, and number of employees under certain conditions. Full article
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