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Sustainability in Educational Gamification

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Education and Approaches".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 34036

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
REMIT (Research on Economics, Management and Information Technologies), IJP (Portucalense Institute for Legal Research), University Portucalense, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
Interests: information system; mobile computing; ICT in higher education; mobile learning; digital transformation
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Guest Editor
Department of Systems, FIET University of Cauca, Campus Tulcan, Popayán 760042, Colombia
Interests: Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL); Human–Computer Interaction (HCI); Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW); ICT in education
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Guest Editor
Department of Computer Engineering and System, University of La Laguna, 38200 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
Interests: gamification; e-learning; UX
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Guest Editor
Departameto de Engenharias, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 4500-001 Vila Rea, Portugal
Interests: information systems; ebusiness; web accessibility

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Guest Editor
Department of Architecture La Salle, Ramon Llull University, Carrer de Sant Joan de la Salle, 42, 08022 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: educational innovation; usability; technology-enhanced learning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gamification extracts the characteristics of a game to incorporate them into non-game environments, with the main objective of increasing the motivation to perform activities that are carried out in these non-game environments. Gamification was first defined in 2002, by Pelling, who defined it as the application of a game-like interface to perform electronic transactions in a faster and more exciting way. However, the best-known definition of gamification is that of Deterding et al. in 2011, as the "use of game design elements in non-game contexts".

Gamification can be viewed as an educational innovation strategy. In recent years, it has been adopted by thousands of innovative teachers, who wish to increase their students’ motivation for learning. In this sense, the game elements are perceived to be highly motivating and can alter behaviors through incentives, social and individual reinforcement, or rewards, among other components that make them highly attractive for application in teaching–learning processes. Gamification can be designed and developed in different virtual and/or face-to-face environments. It can be applied while learning is taking place in the classroom, as well as outside the classroom, with gamified reinforcement activities.  Combining it with other innovative methodologies, such as the flipped classroom, is also an excellent strategy.

In addition, gamification can improve the quality of education, contributing to achieving one of the sustainable development goals (SDG) for 2030. With the SDG in mind, it is possible to identify excellent examples of gamification applied in university education. Some authors have shown that when the subject is gamified, both the participation and involvement of the students increase exponentially, and, consequently, their academic performance improves.

There are also other techniques, derived from games, that can increase motivation in education, such as serious games. Serious games used in education are created with specific educational objectives, and their ultimate goal is not only to entertain (as in a video game), but also to educate.

From the literature review, it is essential to emphasize that the influence of game-based learning methods on learning outcomes (cognition and knowledge acquisition), student engagement (motivation and affection), and learning together as a social construction (sociocultural) has been studied.

An important aspect to consider is the relationship between game-based learning and sustainability in education; for example, some universities use educational games to provide students with an environment in which real-life phenomena are simulated. In these projects, essential skills, such as project cost management, informed decision making, stakeholder engagement, uncertainty management, and project control, can be practiced while playing the game.

In a broader view of the application of gamification in developing science, technology, engineering, art, and math (STEAM) skills, educational gamification can be a valuable strategy to enable students to learn to take care of the environment.

This Special Issue, entitled "Sustainability in Educational Gamification", aims to publish research and revised articles based on the relationship between sustainability and educational gamification. The topics of interest for this issue include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Game-based learning for sustainability;
  • Learning scenarios based on virtual worlds;
  • Game-based learning arrangements;
  • Tools for developing game-based learning applications;
  • Game-based learning in education and training;
  • Technology and implementation issues associated with the development of game-based learning;
  • Pedagogical issues associated with game-based learning;
  • Social and ethical issues in game-based learning;
  • Assessment in game-based learning;
  • Integrating games into the curriculum;
  • Social and collaborative aspects of game-based learning;
  • Motivational aspects of game-based learning;
  • Gender/age/cultural issues;
  • Ethical concerns of game-based learning;
  • Achieving sustainable impact with game-based learning;
  • Serious games and gamification in different sectors;
  • Designing games for learning;
  • Technologies, tools and platforms for developing games for learning;
  • Technologies for mobile and multi-user games for learning.

Prof. Dr. Fernando Moreira
Prof. Dr. César A. Collazos
Prof. Dr. Carina Soledad González-González
Dr. Ramiro Manuel Ramos Moreira Gonçalves
Prof. Dr. David Fonseca Escudero
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • gamification
  • serious games
  • sustainable goals
  • games for learning
  • game-based learning

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

25 pages, 7379 KiB  
Article
Software Design for Users with Autism Using Human-Centered Design and Design Thinking Techniques
by Gustavo E. Constain Moreno, César A. Collazos, Susana Bautista Blasco and Fernando Moreira
Sustainability 2023, 15(24), 16587; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152416587 - 6 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
This paper details a method, which has been called FRIDA, applied by the authors within this study based on the collaborative and interdisciplinary development of accessible software that is usable by people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To this end, the context of [...] Read more.
This paper details a method, which has been called FRIDA, applied by the authors within this study based on the collaborative and interdisciplinary development of accessible software that is usable by people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To this end, the context of this study is based on the adaptation of the Design Thinking model as a strategy for interdisciplinary collaborative work between clinical therapists and software developers. This is complemented by a human-centered design (DCH) approach to obtain accessible software aimed at people with ASD level 1. Each of the stages of Design Thinking is detailed in order to obtain the personalized design of accessible software, as well as the activities carried out in case studies in Colombia, Spain, and Portugal with eight children diagnosed with ASD. As a result, we present the design of FRIDA’s components for interdisciplinary collaborative work and the design of personalized software that was developed for some children with ASD who participated in this study. For these children, it is demonstrated that the use of personalized and collaboratively designed software facilitates the development of specific social skills more quickly than with conventional clinical therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Educational Gamification)
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11 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Chilean Student Teachers’ Willingness to Learn with Gamified Systems
by Esteban Guillermo Saavedra
Sustainability 2023, 15(20), 15043; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152015043 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 698
Abstract
In recent years, the use of gamified systems in education has increased due to the growing empirical evidence of their usefulness in improving motivation and participation in learning processes, resulting in sustainable social development. To take advantage of the opportunities for improvements in [...] Read more.
In recent years, the use of gamified systems in education has increased due to the growing empirical evidence of their usefulness in improving motivation and participation in learning processes, resulting in sustainable social development. To take advantage of the opportunities for improvements in the sustainability of education presented by gamification, in addition to the decision to create gamified systems in higher education, this article investigates the willingness of student teachers to learn with gamified systems. The research method is quantitative, with validated instruments used to measure: (1) student perception of gamification; (2) player profile; and (3) screen time, with n = 569 student teachers from the fifteen regions of Chile. The results show that students prefer to learn with gamified systems rather than in a traditional way, with a significant difference (Wilcoxon z = −18.86, p < 0.01). There are significant positive and negative relationships corresponding with the gamer profiles. However, as a finding, a negative relationship was found between the number of hours spent playing video games and the perception of learning through gamified systems. In conclusion, Chilean student teachers present a favorable disposition to teacher training with gamified systems. However, the disposition varies in relation to the number of hours spent playing video games. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Educational Gamification)
14 pages, 2600 KiB  
Article
The Avaritia: Entrepreneurship Practice to Understand the Problem of Information Control through Gamification
by Sungjin Park and Sangkyun Kim
Sustainability 2023, 15(8), 6738; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15086738 - 17 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Information control creates inequality in society, and thus, widens the wealth gap. This study aimed to develop entrepreneurship education gamification to understand problems of information control and developed a gamification called “The Avaritia”. To verify the effectiveness of the game, pre/post-questionnaire responses were [...] Read more.
Information control creates inequality in society, and thus, widens the wealth gap. This study aimed to develop entrepreneurship education gamification to understand problems of information control and developed a gamification called “The Avaritia”. To verify the effectiveness of the game, pre/post-questionnaire responses were verified. The results indicate that The Avaritia helped us understand the social problems of information control and had a positive effect on the cognitive change of learners. The results of this study suggest the need for entrepreneurship education using gamification and emphasize the importance of social entrepreneurship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Educational Gamification)
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17 pages, 2886 KiB  
Article
How Is Educational Gamification Represented in School Curriculum? An Investigation of Chinese Secondary Mathematics Textbooks
by Lianghuo Fan, Lingzhu Li, Qiuyu Chen and Na Li
Sustainability 2023, 15(4), 3830; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15043830 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2197
Abstract
Textbooks, as potentially implemented curriculum, play an important role in school education. Earlier studies in mathematics education revealed that teaching using mathematics games had a positive effect on students’ learning. However, how mathematics games are presented in mathematics textbooks has rarely been systematically [...] Read more.
Textbooks, as potentially implemented curriculum, play an important role in school education. Earlier studies in mathematics education revealed that teaching using mathematics games had a positive effect on students’ learning. However, how mathematics games are presented in mathematics textbooks has rarely been systematically examined. In this study, we aimed to investigate how mathematics games are presented in school mathematics textbooks in China. We selected three series of Chinese secondary mathematics textbooks (Grades 7–9) and identified 112 mathematics games in total; then, we coded and analyzed the games according to an analysis framework we established for the study. The results showed that, across the three series of textbooks, the distribution of games was inconsistent and, within the same series of textbooks, it was irregular across the different grade levels; in terms of locations and cognitive objectives, most games were presented as exercise questions and the main purpose was to improve students’ problem solving ability. Moreover, most of the games were single player games and there were slightly more competitive games than non-competitive games. The implications of the findings for the design and research of mathematics games in mathematics textbooks are discussed at the end of the study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Educational Gamification)
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13 pages, 458 KiB  
Article
A Study on the Influence of Recreational Activities Intervening in Natural Science Courses on Learning Motivation and Learning Outcomes—The Case of Tabletop Games
by Chao-Yen Lin, Hsiao-Hsien Lin, Kuo-Chiang Ting, Chih-Chien Shen, Chih-Cheng Lo, Hsiu-Chu Hung and Li-Ju Tsai
Sustainability 2023, 15(3), 2509; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15032509 - 31 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2381
Abstract
This study explored the effects of the integration of tabletop games in natural science and environmental education courses on students’ learning motivation and learning effectiveness. Four tabletop games were designed and integrated in educational programs, and 100 fifth-grade students at an elementary school [...] Read more.
This study explored the effects of the integration of tabletop games in natural science and environmental education courses on students’ learning motivation and learning effectiveness. Four tabletop games were designed and integrated in educational programs, and 100 fifth-grade students at an elementary school in Taiwan participated in the study. Participants were divided into experimental and control groups. The former received an instructional program with tabletop games; the latter was the original program. Both groups had received the instructions for the two units of the natural science course for eight weeks. Furthermore, participants’ academic performance results were collected to investigate the effects of tabletop games on their learning effectiveness. This study has shown that integration of tabletop game in the natural science course significantly improved students’ learning attention. While the academic performance of the experimental group improved, the standard deviation decreased. In addition, qualitative data indicated the high acceptability of tabletop games integration in courses. Tabletop games integration in courses might also enhance different learning motivational dimensions. The findings of the integration of tabletop games might be beneficial to educational curriculum-specific pedagogy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Educational Gamification)
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26 pages, 2746 KiB  
Article
A Practice for the Design of Interactive Multimedia Experiences Based on Gamification: A Case Study in Elementary Education
by Carlos Alberto Peláez and Andrés Solano
Sustainability 2023, 15(3), 2385; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15032385 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2727
Abstract
This research proposes a practice for the design of interactive multimedia experiences, based on gamification and applied in elementary education. The practice is expressed in the Essence graphic notation language. Through practice, a multimedia experience based on gamification, called Coco-Shapes, was developed to [...] Read more.
This research proposes a practice for the design of interactive multimedia experiences, based on gamification and applied in elementary education. The practice is expressed in the Essence graphic notation language. Through practice, a multimedia experience based on gamification, called Coco-Shapes, was developed to assist learning of the English language in the following topics: geometric figures, colors and counting. The study is aimed at children aged between 4 and 5 years of age, in the transition grade in a private school, and in a vulnerable community with scarce resources in the city of Cali (Colombia). A research process was conducted for this experience, with the participation of two groups of students: one experimental group and one control group. The results are optimistic, since it is evident that, through carrying out the activities that make up the practice, the solution achieved contributes to increased user learning, as well as favors a greater receptivity in the students towards the use of technology in the training process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Educational Gamification)
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13 pages, 8841 KiB  
Article
Gamit! Icing on the Cake for Mathematics Gamification
by Elvira G. Rincon-Flores, Brenda N. Santos-Guevara, Lizette Martinez-Cardiel, Nadia K. Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Hernan A. Quintana-Cruz and Alberto Matsuura-Sonoda
Sustainability 2023, 15(3), 2334; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15032334 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2645
Abstract
Gamification has permeated education as a strategy to improve the teaching-learning process. Research shows that gamified reward systems based on badges, leaderboards, and avatars modifies the learning environment and student attitudes. This research aimed primarily to assess the change in attitude towards mathematics [...] Read more.
Gamification has permeated education as a strategy to improve the teaching-learning process. Research shows that gamified reward systems based on badges, leaderboards, and avatars modifies the learning environment and student attitudes. This research aimed primarily to assess the change in attitude towards mathematics in high school students through a gamified methodology involving a reward system managed through a web platform called Gamit! This platform was developed by professors from two Latin American universities to manage gamification in a way that ensured that the anonymity of the class rankings was maintained. A mixed (QUAN-Qual) and quasi-experimental methodological approach was used for this study; two questionnaires were applied to 454 high school students and a focus group was performed with a group of seven professors. The quantitative analysis was processed with SPSS and consisted of ANOVAS and post hoc tests for more than two samples, while the focus group analysis was performed through inductive analysis. Results show benefits for professors and learners. Students improved their attitudes toward mathematics, reducing anxiety and improving willingness, while professors found a dynamic and optimal way to manage gamification on Gamit! Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Educational Gamification)
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12 pages, 1042 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Effects of Flow, Social Interaction, and Engagement on Students’ Gamified Learning: A Mediation Analysis
by Chih-Hung Chung and Hui-Ling Wendy Pan
Sustainability 2023, 15(2), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15020983 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3390
Abstract
The positive impact of gamification on student learning has been empirically asserted, and previous studies have identified engagement as crucial for the effects. However, what causal mechanisms render the gamification effects still needs further exploration. We incorporated psychological and social factors to examine [...] Read more.
The positive impact of gamification on student learning has been empirically asserted, and previous studies have identified engagement as crucial for the effects. However, what causal mechanisms render the gamification effects still needs further exploration. We incorporated psychological and social factors to examine how they affect students’ perceived learning through engagement in a mediation model. The flow antecedents (perceived challenge of gamification and skill) and social interaction (peer interaction and social influence) were indicators of psychological and social factors, respectively. A survey was conducted to collect data from 250 college students in Taiwan. The PLC-SEM results indicate that the effects of perceived challenge and peer interaction on student learning were mediated by engagement. In addition, the impact of students’ perceptions of their skills was partially mediated by engagement. Both engagement and social influence exerted a direct effect on student learning. Among the predictors, engagement was the most influential factor for students’ gamified learning and had the highest performance volume. Based on the results, we suggest advancing flow antecedents and social interaction to sustain students’ gamified learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Educational Gamification)
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20 pages, 7408 KiB  
Article
Inven!RA Architecture for Sustainable Deployment of Immersive Learning Environments
by Leonel Morgado, António Coelho, Dennis Beck, Christian Gütl, Fernando Cassola, Ricardo Baptista, Maria van Zeller, Daniela Pedrosa, Tiago Cruzeiro, Duarte Cota, Ricardo Grilo and Eliane Schlemmer
Sustainability 2023, 15(1), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010857 - 3 Jan 2023
Viewed by 2551
Abstract
The objective of this work was to support the sustainable deployment of immersive learning environments, which face varied obstacles, including the lack of support infrastructures for active learning pedagogies. Sustainability from the perspective of the integration of these environments in educational practice entails [...] Read more.
The objective of this work was to support the sustainable deployment of immersive learning environments, which face varied obstacles, including the lack of support infrastructures for active learning pedagogies. Sustainability from the perspective of the integration of these environments in educational practice entails situational awareness, workload, and the informed assessment ability of participants, which must be supported for such activities to be employed in a widespread manner. We have approached this wicked problem using the Design Science Research paradigm and produced the Inven!RA software architecture. This novel result constitutes a solution for developing software platforms to enable the sustainable deployment of immersive learning environments. The Inven!RA architecture is presented alongside four demonstration scenarios employed in its evaluation, providing a means for the situational awareness of immersive learning activities in support of pedagogic decision making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Educational Gamification)
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13 pages, 1961 KiB  
Article
Learning Performance Styles in Gamified College Classes Using Data Clustering
by Sungjin Park and Sangkyun Kim
Sustainability 2022, 14(23), 15574; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142315574 - 23 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1321
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of learning gamification in developing sustainable educational environments. To this end, gamified class data were analyzed to identify students’ learning performance patterns. The study sample comprised 369 data points collected across four point domains: Activity, Game, [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of learning gamification in developing sustainable educational environments. To this end, gamified class data were analyzed to identify students’ learning performance patterns. The study sample comprised 369 data points collected across four point domains: Activity, Game, Project, and Exam Points, which students obtained in their gamified college courses conducted between 2016 and 2019. A K-means data clustering algorithm and silhouette analysis were utilized to evaluate student performances and determine differential learning styles in gamified environments. Cluster analysis revealed three types of learning patterns centered on performance, mastery, and avoidance. Based on our findings, we propose suggestions regarding class design for instructors considering using gamification strategies to support a sustainable educational environment. We also highlight the scope for future research in both in-person and online gamified learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Educational Gamification)
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12 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Digital Leadership in School Management and Accessibility of Animation-Designed Game-Based Learning for Sustainability of Education for Children with Special Needs
by Basak Baglama, Emirali Evcimen, Fahriye Altinay, Ramesh Chander Sharma, Ahmed Tlili, Zehra Altinay, Gokmen Dagli, Mohamed Jemni, Rustam Shadiev, Yucehan Yucesoy and Menil Celebi
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 7730; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14137730 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3445
Abstract
With the rapid integration of technology into educational environments during the pandemic period, the teaching processes in classrooms and private education institutions began to be carried out with technology support. Game-based animation learning designs in technology-supported educational environments provide an interesting and motivation-enhancing [...] Read more.
With the rapid integration of technology into educational environments during the pandemic period, the teaching processes in classrooms and private education institutions began to be carried out with technology support. Game-based animation learning designs in technology-supported educational environments provide an interesting and motivation-enhancing learning experience in developing students’ education skills. In today’s educational environments, 2D and 3D animation game designs are the unique technology-supported learning environments in teaching many different skills, behaviors, and concepts to individuals with special needs. Visual designs and animations are one of the technologies necessary to prepare individuals with special needs for an independent life. The accessibility of animation designs for teachers and families has gained significant importance during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Technology education supports the visual, listening, reading, writing, social, and communication skills of individuals with special needs, facilitates their independent life skills, and contributes to their development as a guide. This allows individuals to learn the targeted information more easily, permanently, and quickly. In this context, this study provides information on the use and accessibility of animation technology in special education, offers suggestions for the benefit of visual design and animation, which are among the assistive technologies, and gives insights into how school management is ready for digital education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Educational Gamification)
26 pages, 3562 KiB  
Article
How to Tailor Educational Maze Games: The Student’s Preferences
by Valentina Terzieva, Boyan Bontchev, Yavor Dankov and Elena Paunova-Hubenova
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6794; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116794 - 1 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2985
Abstract
Personalized learning has gained in popularity over the past decade. It provides learners with learning resources that comply with their characteristics and preferences or offers them tasks and quizzes adapted to their performance. This research presents how we apply this concept to an [...] Read more.
Personalized learning has gained in popularity over the past decade. It provides learners with learning resources that comply with their characteristics and preferences or offers them tasks and quizzes adapted to their performance. This research presents how we apply this concept to an educational video maze game created and generated on the APOGEE platform. In particular, this article explores the following three research questions: (1) Which characteristics in the student’s model should be considered for the personalization of educational video games? (2) What are the student’s preferences regarding the personalization of educational video games? (3) How should the process of personalization of educational video games be organized? The answers to these questions are found by conducting practical experiments concerning user experience with the educational maze video game. The article also describes the model of students comprising user’s, learner’s, and player’s aspects with both static and dynamic features. Further, the personalization process of educational games based on this model is described. The results showing the student’s preferences are presented and critically examined. The provided discussion involves the disparities in the preferences of different groups of students concerning the amounts of play of learning games, preferred mini-games, and parameters to which educational materials should be tailored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Educational Gamification)
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14 pages, 1365 KiB  
Article
Impact Study of the Learning Effects and Motivation of Competitive Modes in Gamified Learning
by Yu-Jiao Liu, Ying-Ge Zhou, Qi-Long Li and Xin-Dong Ye
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6626; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116626 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4222
Abstract
At a time when game-based learning has become a research hotspot, this study focused on the competition mechanism in gamified learning, aiming to explore the impact of different competition modes on students’ vocabulary learning effect and learning motivation. A group of 79 sixth [...] Read more.
At a time when game-based learning has become a research hotspot, this study focused on the competition mechanism in gamified learning, aiming to explore the impact of different competition modes on students’ vocabulary learning effect and learning motivation. A group of 79 sixth grade students from China were randomly assigned to a non-competitive class, an individual competition class, and an inter-group competition class. The experiment was conducted in an English vocabulary course, and the game competition was carried out using the Quizlet Live game platform. The results indicated that: (1) the vocabulary learning effect and motivation of students in the competitive classes (individual competition and inter-group competition) were better than those in the non-competitive class; (2) the learning effect of students in the inter-group competitive class outperformed that of the individual competitive class, but there was no significant difference in learning motivation. Through the qualitative analysis of the students’ interviews, it was found that the results of inter-group competition may be related to the student’s perception of learning and emotional support. The findings of this study can provide relevant support for the subsequent game-based learning design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Educational Gamification)
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