Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards

A special issue of Standards (ISSN 2305-6703).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 113581

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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
Interests: process systems engineering; environmental engineering; sustainable development in chemical and process industries; process design; retrofit and optimization; energy integration; water and waste reduction; recycling; cleaner production; indicators of sustainable development; sustainable university; sustainable consumption; standardization
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to present the inaugural issue of Standards journal. The journal is a scientific journal on standardization, assessment, verification, inspection, certification, testing, quality control, rating, and all other related topics. It is covering all scientific, engineering, and technology fields.

Standards can be international (ISO, IEC, WHO, EN, etc.), national (ASTM, DIN, BS, UNE, etc.), regional or corporate ones. They are covering production and consumption: management systems, security management, risk management, anti-bribery management systems, energy management, life cycle assessment, environmental management, social responsibility, occupational health and safety, food safety management, quality management, quality control, testing and calibration laboratories, quantities and units, diverse devices and equipment to mention the most popular ones. They are basic for our everyday activities: ambient air and water quality, information security, date and time format, currency codes, country codes, language codes, medical devices. International accounting standards (AS), International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), 30 ISO standards, related to COVID-19 exist, etc.

In spite of the great number of different standards, new ones are appearing daily. The standardization process includes the development, acceptance and implementation of new or improved standards. The stakeholders can include companies, standardization institutions, governments, users, interest groups, professionals and scientists. International organization for standardization, ISO, has a guidance document on new work with three parts: 1) new standardized areas, 2) new fields of work, and 3) new work item proposals within existing committees [3]. New standards need to be inspected, verified, their quality has to be assessed, and they can be improved if found suitable.

Besides the technical standards, other standards, norms, conventions and requirements exist, e.g., credentials, certificates, patents, permits, etc. They are improving quality, reliability, efficiency, durability and other properties of goods and services. They can be voluntary or obligatory, used internally or externally.

A rapid development of standards is expected in the future. Climate change with the planned carbon neutrality by 2050, population growth and demographic trends will require rigorous changes to the ways in which we live, eat, dress, travel, produce and use energy. As raw materials are scarce, renewable energy sources will demand higher energy efficiency and circular economy with materials reuse. Standardization will play an important role in process and product design, production, distribution, consumption and recovery.

From 26 April 2021 to 30 April 2022, all submissions (once accepted after peer review) to Standards will be published free of charge. To take advantage of this opportunity, please submit before the deadline.

Prof. Dr. Peter Glavič
Guest Editor
Editor-in-Chief of Standards

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Standards is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • standards
  • standardization
  • assessment
  • verification
  • inspection
  • certification
  • testing
  • quality control
  • rating
  • rank-ings
  • metrics: standards of measurement by which efficiency, performance, progress, or quality of a plan, process, or product can be assessed
  • all kinds of metrics: scitometrics, health metrics, biometrics
  • standards in research, development and production

Published Papers (31 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 197 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards
by Peter Glavič
Standards 2023, 3(2), 133-135; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards3020011 - 17 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 914
Abstract
Standards are a set of guidelines or criteria used to ensure consistency, quality, safety, and compatibility in products, services, and processes [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
2 pages, 153 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards
by Peter Glavič
Standards 2021, 1(1), 17-18; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards1010003 - 8 May 2021
Viewed by 2380
Abstract
We are glad to present the inaugural issue of the Standards journal [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

19 pages, 6099 KiB  
Article
Genetic Algorithms for Interior Comparative Optimization of Standard BCS Parameters in Selected Superconductors and High-Temperature Superconductors
by Francisco Casesnoves
Standards 2022, 2(3), 430-448; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards2030029 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
Inverse least squares numerical optimization, 3D/4D interior optimization, and 3D/4D graphical optimization software and algorithm programming have been presented in a series of previous articles on the applications of the BCS theory of superconductivity and TC dual/multiobjective optimizations. This study deals with [...] Read more.
Inverse least squares numerical optimization, 3D/4D interior optimization, and 3D/4D graphical optimization software and algorithm programming have been presented in a series of previous articles on the applications of the BCS theory of superconductivity and TC dual/multiobjective optimizations. This study deals with the comparison/validation of the optimization results using several different methods, namely, classical inverse least squares (ILS), genetic algorithms (GA), 3D/4D interior optimization, and 2D/3D/4D graphical optimization techniques. The results comprise Tikhonov regularization algorithms and mathematical methods for all the research subjects. The findings of the mathematical programming for optimizing type I chrome isotope superconductors are validated with the genetic algorithms and compared to previous results of 3D/4D interior optimization. Additional rulings present a hypothesis of the new ‘molecular effect’ model/algorithm intended to be proven for Hg-cuprate-type high-temperature superconductors. In molecular effect optimization, inverse least squares and inverse least squares polynomial methods are applied with acceptable numerical and 2D graphical optimization solutions. For the BCS isotope effect and molecular effect, linearization logarithmic transformations for model formula software are implemented in specific programs. The solutions show accuracy with low programming residuals and confirm these findings. The results comprise two strands, the modeling for the isotope effect and molecular effect hypotheses and the development of genetic algorithms and inverse least squares-improved programming methods. Electronic physics applications in superconductors and high-temperature superconductors emerged from the rulings. Extrapolated applications for new modeling for the theory of superconductivity emerged from the numerical and image data obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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13 pages, 1283 KiB  
Article
Progress of Standardization of Urban Infrastructure in Smart City
by Jin Wang, Chang Liu, Liang Zhou, Jiangpei Xu, Jie Wang and Ziqin Sang
Standards 2022, 2(3), 417-429; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards2030028 - 2 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2828
Abstract
After the Smart City initiative was put forward, cities all over the world started the pilot practice of developing Smart Cities. This triggered a series of thoughts: what is a Smart City, how do we determine the scope of work of a Smart [...] Read more.
After the Smart City initiative was put forward, cities all over the world started the pilot practice of developing Smart Cities. This triggered a series of thoughts: what is a Smart City, how do we determine the scope of work of a Smart City, and how do we formulate a new strategic agenda of the Smart City to make city smarter and more sustainable? The answer lies not only in finding Smart City solutions, but also leads to the research on the definition of Smart City terminology and the determination of corresponding tasks. Stakeholders of Smart City (e.g., policy makers, municipalities, solution providers, industry, and academia) develop technical and management standards for these tasks jointly. This paper reports the standardization planning on Smart City by the international standardization development organizations (SDOs), that is, the standardization framework of Smart City. It also presents one of the important aspects, namely, the progress of standardization activities on urban infrastructure that are being carried out by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) via its Study Group 20, in supporting the adoption of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in Smart City. These standards include the classification of urban infrastructure, the interoperability between urban infrastructure and smart city platforms, and the requirements of detailed infrastructure from the perspective of ICT and the Internet of things (IoT). This paper also provides the use cases of application of some standards in global cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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23 pages, 1429 KiB  
Article
Partial Order as Decision Support between Statistics and Multicriteria Decision Analyses
by Lars Carlsen and Rainer Bruggemann
Standards 2022, 2(3), 306-328; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards2030022 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2537
Abstract
Evaluation by ranking/rating of data based on a multitude of indicators typically calls for multi-criteria decision analyses (MCDA) methods. MCDA methods often, in addition to indicator values, require further information, typically subjective. This paper presents a partial-order methodology as an alternative to analyze [...] Read more.
Evaluation by ranking/rating of data based on a multitude of indicators typically calls for multi-criteria decision analyses (MCDA) methods. MCDA methods often, in addition to indicator values, require further information, typically subjective. This paper presents a partial-order methodology as an alternative to analyze multi-indicator systems (MIS) based on indicator values that are simultaneously included in the analyses. A non-technical introduction of main concepts of partial order is given, along with a discussion of the location of partial order between statistics and MCDA. The paper visualizes examples of a ‘simple’ partial ordering of a series of chemicals to explain, in this case, unexpected behavior. Further, a generalized method to deal with qualitative inputs of stakeholders/decision makers is suggested, as well as how to disclose peculiar elements/outliers. The paper finishes by introducing formal concept analysis (FCA), which is a variety of partial ordering that allows exploration and thus the generation of implications between the indicators. In the conclusion and outlook section, take-home comments as well as pros and cons in relation to partial ordering are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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20 pages, 7756 KiB  
Article
Visualization Concept of Automotive Quality Management System Standard
by Alena Pauliková
Standards 2022, 2(2), 226-245; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards2020017 - 8 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4584
Abstract
In organizations that manufacture products or provide services as well as in academic practice, the visualization of management systems’ standards is presented primarily in the form of static diagrams or tables. Demands for the quality of products and services are reflected in the [...] Read more.
In organizations that manufacture products or provide services as well as in academic practice, the visualization of management systems’ standards is presented primarily in the form of static diagrams or tables. Demands for the quality of products and services are reflected in the complexity and interconnectedness of standards, which could cause complications during the implementation phase. This article presents a visualization of the standard IATF 16949 Automotive Quality Management System Standard, Quality management system requirements for automotive production and relevant service parts organizations, which incorporates in its content ISO 9001 Quality Management Systems—Requirements using a dynamic cluster model built using software TouchGraph Navigator. The visualization process began with a detailed examination of the two-stage requirements, documented information, and notes detailed in IATF 16949 and continued with the creation of a central node to which new nodes were subsequently connected, containing the introductory parts of the standard, including clauses. The activation of clauses and sub-clauses for other parts of the document followed. The dynamic behavior of the resulting cluster can be used in the implementation, execution, maintenance, or certification process to encourage organizations to improve their operational processes by incorporating more rigorous quality considerations into their operational frameworks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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17 pages, 9053 KiB  
Article
Flood–Ebb and Discharge Variations in Observed Salinity and Suspended Sediment in a Mesotidal Estuary
by Wen-Cheng Liu, Hong-Ming Liu and Wei-Che Huang
Standards 2022, 2(2), 209-225; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards2020016 - 7 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1958
Abstract
To explore the spatial and temporal variations in salinity and suspended-sediment concentration in the Danshuei River estuary of northern Taiwan, two intensive field surveys were conducted in July 2016 and 2019 to assign high- and low-flow conditions, respectively. According to the analysis of [...] Read more.
To explore the spatial and temporal variations in salinity and suspended-sediment concentration in the Danshuei River estuary of northern Taiwan, two intensive field surveys were conducted in July 2016 and 2019 to assign high- and low-flow conditions, respectively. According to the analysis of tidal characteristics, the duration during ebb tide was longer than that during flood tide, while the maximum ebb discharge was higher than the maximum flood discharge, causing the occurrence of tidal asymmetry during ebb and flood tides. The barotropic forcing dominated during high flow, resulting in lower salinity and a shorter distance of saltwater intrusion. Based on the analyzed results using stratification indices, most of the time was spent in the state of partial mixing at the Guandu Bridge and good mixing at the Taipei Bridge during high flow, while most of the time was spent in the states of partial mixing and good mixing at both Guandu Bridge and Taipei Bridge during low flow. More stratification occurred during high flow at high slack tide compared to that during low flow. The freshwater discharges from upriver reaches controlled the suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in tidal estuaries. The higher SSC appeared downstream of the tidal estuary at ebb tide during high flow. Observations also revealed that there was an estuarine turbidity maximum at the bottom layer of Guandu Bridge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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15 pages, 1972 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Management Practices in Precision Agriculture for Maize Yield with Spatial Econometrics
by Nuno Santos, Isabel Proença and Mariana Canavarro
Standards 2022, 2(2), 121-135; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards2020010 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2654
Abstract
Precision agriculture (PA) aims to provide data on soil, nutrient use, irrigation, and crops, to guide management strategic decisions towards an efficient use of inputs, increasing production and avoiding environmental problems due to excessive accumulation of fertilizers. In this paper, PA data from [...] Read more.
Precision agriculture (PA) aims to provide data on soil, nutrient use, irrigation, and crops, to guide management strategic decisions towards an efficient use of inputs, increasing production and avoiding environmental problems due to excessive accumulation of fertilizers. In this paper, PA data from a large Portuguese farm producing maize were used to assess the effectiveness of agronomic management decisions concerning fertilizer and nutrient use, seed choice, and water content, in terms of crop productivity. The maize yield in 2017 and 2018 was modelled as a function of manageable inputs and unmanageable factors introduced as control variables. Panel spatial econometric methods were used for specification and estimation, to control for spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity. The model proved to fit the data remarkably well and could be a good reference for specifying models to explain maize production; thus, helping researchers who need to deal with the huge amount of data that normally originates from PA. Additionally, it can be considered another tool for farm managers, helping in the design and evaluation of their agronomic management decisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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17 pages, 922 KiB  
Article
Innovation Opportunity and Challenge of Standardization in Response to COVID-19 Pandemic and the Socio-Economic Impact: A Case Study in Indonesia
by Bambang Prasetya, Daryono Restu Wahono, Yopi and Candraditya Prasetya
Standards 2022, 2(1), 66-82; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards2010006 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3938
Abstract
The COVID-19 health crisis has disrupted various aspects of life: social, economic and work models in organizations, such as government organizations, private organizations, and businesses. To overcome this situation, a number of appropriate activities are needed to directly overcome the various problems in [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 health crisis has disrupted various aspects of life: social, economic and work models in organizations, such as government organizations, private organizations, and businesses. To overcome this situation, a number of appropriate activities are needed to directly overcome the various problems in public health, both preventive and curative. In line with that, activities have also been taken to recover from the impact caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper describes the role of standardization in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, including the business process of formulation and development of standards, conformity assessment procedures, and the role of metrology in providing calibration services. Moreover, the role of the implementation of standards to overcome the socio-economic impact and innovation is also discussed. The method used in this report is based on observation and secondary data. The observation was carried out in Jakarta and surrounding cities, which are representatives of the islands of Java and Bali. A short overview of the literature regarding Coronavirus, the principal role of standardization, regulation, innovation, and its social-economic impact were obtained from secondary data from various sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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14 pages, 296 KiB  
Article
Challenges in the Integration of Quality and Innovation Management Systems
by Ana Lopes, Daniel Polónia, Adriana Gradim and Jorge Cunha
Standards 2022, 2(1), 52-65; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards2010005 - 17 Feb 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5152
Abstract
Seeking to reduce the number of inconsistencies in their processes, many organisations choose to implement the ISO 9001:2015 quality management standard. Their aim is to improve operational performance while, at the same time, they cope with increased pressures from the market to present [...] Read more.
Seeking to reduce the number of inconsistencies in their processes, many organisations choose to implement the ISO 9001:2015 quality management standard. Their aim is to improve operational performance while, at the same time, they cope with increased pressures from the market to present innovative products and solutions and from the stakeholders to implement new organizational methods. This work intends to investigate how organisations can leverage ISO 9001:2015 in implementing the ISO 56002:2019 innovation management standard, given that both standards have a high degree of compatibility with each other. For that purpose, meetings were held with senior managers and quality managers of three Portuguese SMEs to discuss the existing potential challenges and gaps in the integration of both management systems. The results point to the existence of a significant set of practices in the field of quality that can support and facilitate the formalization of integrated management systems. Nevertheless, generalization of the results should be avoided, and more research is needed, since the integration of management systems is often conditioned by cost and time related issues. Furthermore, it is disputable whether a company can simultaneously reach a high level of efficiency (brought about by implementing a quality management system) and a high level of innovation (made possible by the implementation of an innovation management system) thus jeopardizing the implementation of an integrated management system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
11 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Screening for Noise-Induced Hearing Loss among Palm Oil Mill Workers in Peninsular Malaysia: A Comparison across Noise Exposure Levels
by Sirri Ammar, Aziah Daud, Ahmad Filza Ismail and Ailin Razali
Standards 2022, 2(1), 32-42; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards2010003 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4498
Abstract
Background: Palm oil mill workers in Malaysia are exposed to hazardous levels of noise in the workplace, and thus are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). In 2019, Malaysia introduced a new noise regulation, which reduced the level of permissible noise [...] Read more.
Background: Palm oil mill workers in Malaysia are exposed to hazardous levels of noise in the workplace, and thus are at risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). In 2019, Malaysia introduced a new noise regulation, which reduced the level of permissible noise exposure. Objectives: This study aims to determine the prevalence of NIHL among palm oil mill workers based on screening data and assess the effects of different noise exposure levels on NIHL. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted by analyzing data from noise risk assessment reports of selected mills and screening audiometric data from workers. NIHL was defined as bilateral high-frequency hearing loss. Results: The overall NIHL prevalence was 50.8%. Noise exposure level and age were significant predictors of NIHL among the workers. The risk of developing NIHL was high even for workers who were not categorized in the high-risk group. Conclusions: In view of the findings, a precautionary approach is needed when evaluating the risk of NIHL in the study population. Vulnerable groups of workers must be protected from occupational noise hazards through the implementation of effective hearing conservation programs in the workplace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
18 pages, 556 KiB  
Article
Voluntary Sustainability Standards: State of the Art and Future Research
by Axel Marx, Charline Depoorter and Ruth Vanhaecht
Standards 2022, 2(1), 14-31; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards2010002 - 4 Jan 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 6530
Abstract
In this feature paper, we introduce voluntary sustainability standards (VSS) and canvas the research that has been conducted on VSS from different academic disciplines. We identify four main areas of research on VSS and explore them. First, we focus on research on the [...] Read more.
In this feature paper, we introduce voluntary sustainability standards (VSS) and canvas the research that has been conducted on VSS from different academic disciplines. We identify four main areas of research on VSS and explore them. First, we focus on research on the institutional design of VSS, which highlights the diversity among VSS. Next, we explore studies that try to assess the impact of VSS on key sustainability dimensions. Third, we zoom in on studies that analyse the uptake or adoption of VSS. Finally, we focus on the interaction between VSS and public policies. For each of the four areas, we summarise the main research findings and identify opportunities for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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13 pages, 1991 KiB  
Article
Two Obstacle Factors for Technological Standardization: The Viewpoint of Technological Frame
by Yoshiaki Fukami
Standards 2022, 2(1), 1-13; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards2010001 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3089
Abstract
The concept of the Internet of Things (IoT), which is an architecture in which devices supplied by various firms and services operated by distributed organizations exchange data, has been adopted in an increasing number of situations. While there are cases in which a [...] Read more.
The concept of the Internet of Things (IoT), which is an architecture in which devices supplied by various firms and services operated by distributed organizations exchange data, has been adopted in an increasing number of situations. While there are cases in which a small number of limited organizations collaborate on certain ecosystems based on proprietary specifications, the development of open standards is increasingly important for building scalable ecosystems because of the introduction of the concepts of Industry 4.0 and Society 5.0. Under these circumstances, there are two types of barriers to standardization. One barrier is the lack of shared frames for architectural design. The other barrier is the lack of awareness of the need for scalability. In this paper, we analyze the factors underlying these two barriers and discuss the path towards breakthroughs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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13 pages, 947 KiB  
Article
Benefits of Quality Management Standards in Organizations
by Arūnas Zgirskas, Juozas Ruževičius and Darius Ruželė
Standards 2021, 1(2), 154-166; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards1020013 - 6 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 8330
Abstract
The main motives for implementing standards are external and internal. External motives are related with aims to enter new markets, export new goods, meet customer requirements, achieve better corporate image, gain market share, or increase customer satisfaction. Internal motives occur when the organization [...] Read more.
The main motives for implementing standards are external and internal. External motives are related with aims to enter new markets, export new goods, meet customer requirements, achieve better corporate image, gain market share, or increase customer satisfaction. Internal motives occur when the organization itself wants to improve the internal system and when processes and benefits depend on the internal motives of the organization. In order to disclose the benefits of quality standards, an empirical study was conducted with quality representatives from organizations in different fields of business activity in Lithuania. The research aimed to investigate what quality management systems prevail in organizations and to reveal the motives and benefits of implementation. The empirical study found that after the implementation of quality management standards (QMS), the quality level improved; the number of incidents and defects (complaints) decreased; employee involvement and perception of quality increased; company profits increased; customer satisfaction increased; and company management was improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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20 pages, 6557 KiB  
Article
Developing Earthquake-Resistant Structural Design Standard for Malaysia Based on Eurocode 8: Challenges and Recommendations
by Daniel T. W. Looi, Nelson Lam and Hing-Ho Tsang
Standards 2021, 1(2), 134-153; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards1020012 - 1 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 8684
Abstract
In late 2017, the Malaysian National Annex (NA) to Eurocode 8 (EC8) was released and enacted following some 13 years of deliberations and preparations. The authors of this paper aim to use this article to share their experiences and reflections during this period [...] Read more.
In late 2017, the Malaysian National Annex (NA) to Eurocode 8 (EC8) was released and enacted following some 13 years of deliberations and preparations. The authors of this paper aim to use this article to share their experiences and reflections during this period of developing the first national standard for the seismic design of buildings for Malaysia. To begin with, there were major challenges in implementing the 20-year-old EC8 framework for a country so far away from Europe. The first challenge was adapting the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) methodology in a low-to-moderate seismicity region where the paucity of representative seismic data presented a great deal of uncertainties. To address this situation, imposing a minimum level of seismic hazard was recommended. The second challenge was about dealing with the outdated EC8 site classification scheme, which poorly represents the potential effects of soil amplification in certain geological settings. To address this situation, an alternative site classification scheme in which the site natural period is an explicit modelling parameter was introduced. The third challenge was concerned with difficulties generated by the EC8 provisions mandating Ductility Class Medium (DCM) detailing in certain localities where the level of seismic hazard is predicted to exceed a certain threshold. To address this situation, the viable option of using strength to trade off for ductility was recommended, or in cases where ductility design is needed, a simplified set of code-compliant DCM designs was presented. The fourth challenge was about handling the requirements of EC8 that the majority of buildings are to involve dynamic analysis in their structural design when the majority of practising professionals did not have the skills of exercising proper use of the requisite software. To address this situation, a generalized force method was introduced to control the use dynamic analysis in commercial software. It is hoped that, through sharing the lessons learnt, code drafters for the future would be able to find ways of circumventing the multitude of challenges with clear thinking and pragmatism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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12 pages, 403 KiB  
Article
Standards for the Weighting of Criteria and the Measurement of Interaction
by Annibal Parracho Sant’Anna
Standards 2021, 1(2), 105-116; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards1020010 - 5 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2106
Abstract
This article discusses the need for standards for the assignment of importance to criteria and the measurement of interaction between them in multiple criteria analyses of complex systems. A strategy for criteria evaluation is considered that is suitable to account for the interaction [...] Read more.
This article discusses the need for standards for the assignment of importance to criteria and the measurement of interaction between them in multiple criteria analyses of complex systems. A strategy for criteria evaluation is considered that is suitable to account for the interaction among a wide variety of imprecisely assessed criteria applied simultaneously. It is based on the results of collecting sample information on preferences according to the specified criteria instead of merely an abstract comparison of the criteria. The comparison of alternatives is based on objectives that determine the formation of preferences. It is facilitated by a rating in terms of preference probabilities. Probabilistic standards grant homogeneity of measurements by different criteria, which is useful for the combination of the criteria. These standards apply to a sampling evaluation conducted via pairwise trichotomic comparison of the alternatives according to each criterion, followed by the combination of these multiple evaluations into a single global score by means of the Choquet Integral with respect to a capacity determined by applying preference concentration to the sets of probabilistic assessments. Examples of practical application are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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15 pages, 6034 KiB  
Article
Essential Patents and Knowledge Position, a Network Analysis on the Basis of Patent Citations
by Jiaming Jiang and Xingyuan Zhang
Standards 2021, 1(2), 90-104; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards1020009 - 2 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3079
Abstract
Technology standards are considered important tools for increasing bargaining power and licensing revenues by combining the strategies of firms with the standard-setting organizations (SSOs) standardization processes. The essential patents declared by members of the SSOs play a critical role in such standardization processes. [...] Read more.
Technology standards are considered important tools for increasing bargaining power and licensing revenues by combining the strategies of firms with the standard-setting organizations (SSOs) standardization processes. The essential patents declared by members of the SSOs play a critical role in such standardization processes. Some former researchers have found that, when using network analysis for measuring the knowledge positions in the “main-path” of standards-based markets, the essential patents did not match very well with the actual knowledge positions of the firms, in most cases. In this paper, we focus on the essential patents declared by the member firms in JTC1, an SSO that provides a standards development environment related to the development of the worldwide information and communication technology (ICT) standards for business and consumer applications, and that employs social network analysis techniques to investigate the knowledge positions of the patents, not only in the “main-path” discussed in the earlier literature, but also in the brokerage processes. We found that the brokerage-process approach helped us to better understand the roles of the essential patents that dominate transactions, relations, and the exchange of knowledge in the patent citation network than that of the main-path. Our findings suggest that claiming essentiality depends on the strategic behavior not only of the patents’ owners, but also of the SSOs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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11 pages, 642 KiB  
Article
Rating Potential Land Use Taking Ecosystem Service into Account—How to Manage Trade-Offs
by Lars Carlsen
Standards 2021, 1(2), 79-89; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards1020008 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2309
Abstract
Rating the potential land use for crop production and/or ranching is typically a process where production gains counterbalance environmental losses. Whereas the production gains are often easy to verify, the environmental losses may render visibility through the changes in the ecosystem service, such [...] Read more.
Rating the potential land use for crop production and/or ranching is typically a process where production gains counterbalance environmental losses. Whereas the production gains are often easy to verify, the environmental losses may render visibility through the changes in the ecosystem service, such as water and habitat quality, carbon storage, etc., thus, leaving the decision maker with a multi-criteria problem. The present study demonstrates how partial-order methodology constitutes an advantageous tool for rating/ranking land use that takes trade-offs into account. It is demonstrated that not only the optimal choice of area, on an average basis, e.g., for crop production, is disclosed, but also the relative importance of the included indicators (production gains, ecosystem losses). A short introduction is given, applying data from a recent Chinese study looking for the optimal monoculture as a function of ecosystem tradeoffs. A more elaborate system applying data from the esgame was used, disclosing the most beneficial area for crop production and for ranching, as well as the relative indicators’ importance. The study further demonstrates that a single composite indicator obtained by simple aggregation of indicator values as a ranking tool may lead to a result where gains are optimized; however, this comes at the expense of the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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14 pages, 4073 KiB  
Article
Mathematical Standard-Parameters Dual Optimization for Metal Hip Arthroplasty Wear Modelling with Medical Physics Applications
by Francisco Casesnoves
Standards 2021, 1(1), 53-66; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards1010006 - 7 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2699
Abstract
Total hip metal arthroplasty (THA) constitutes an important proportion of the standard clinical hip implant usage in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering. A computational nonlinear optimization is performed with two commonly metal materials in Metal-on-Metal (MoM) THA. Namely, Cast Co-Cr Alloy and Titanium. [...] Read more.
Total hip metal arthroplasty (THA) constitutes an important proportion of the standard clinical hip implant usage in Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering. A computational nonlinear optimization is performed with two commonly metal materials in Metal-on-Metal (MoM) THA. Namely, Cast Co-Cr Alloy and Titanium. The principal result is the numerical determination of the K adimensional-constant parameter of the model. Results from a new more powerful algorithm than previous contributions, show significant improvements. Numerical standard figures for dual optimization give acceptable model-parameter values with low residuals. These results are demonstrated with 2D and 3D Graphical/Interior Optimization also. According to the findings/calculations, the standard optimized metal-model parameters are mathematically proven and verified. Mathematical consequences are obtained for model improvements and in vitro simulation methodology. The wear magnitude for in vitro determinations with these model parameter data constitute the innovation of the method. In consequence, the erosion prediction for laboratory experimental testing in THA adds valuable information to the literature. Applications lead to medical physics improvements for material/metal-THA designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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20 pages, 4369 KiB  
Article
The Need to Accurately Define and Measure the Properties of Particles
by Yimin Deng, Raf Dewil, Lise Appels, Huili Zhang, Shuo Li and Jan Baeyens
Standards 2021, 1(1), 19-38; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards1010004 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3957
Abstract
When dealing with powders, a fundamental knowledge of their physical parameters is indispensable, with different methods and approaches proposed in literature. Results obtained differ widely and it is important to define standards to be applied, both toward the methods of investigation and the [...] Read more.
When dealing with powders, a fundamental knowledge of their physical parameters is indispensable, with different methods and approaches proposed in literature. Results obtained differ widely and it is important to define standards to be applied, both toward the methods of investigation and the interpretation of experimental results. The present research intends to propose such standards, while defining general rules to be respected. Firstly, the problem of defining the particle size is inspected. It was found that describing the size of a particle is not as straightforward as one might suspect. Factors of non-sphericity and size distributions make it impossible to put ‘size’ in just one number. Whereas sieving can be used for coarser particles of a size in excess of about 50 µm, instrumental techniques span a wide size range. For fine particles, the occurrence of cohesive forces needs to be overcome and solvents, dispersants and sample mixing need to be applied. Secondly, the shape of the particles is examined. By defining sphericity, irregularly shaped particles are described. Finally, the density of particles, of particle assemblies and their voidage (volume fraction of voids) and the different ways to investigate them are explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research, Other

11 pages, 226 KiB  
Review
The Linguistic Challenge for Standards
by Richard C. Robinson
Standards 2022, 2(4), 449-459; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards2040030 - 4 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1785
Abstract
Standards serve a valuable function that enable efficiencies, technological advancement, and commerce. To date, there is little examination of the problems with standards, their implementations, and methodologies that could be introduced to improve utility and utilization. This is contrasted against the large inventory [...] Read more.
Standards serve a valuable function that enable efficiencies, technological advancement, and commerce. To date, there is little examination of the problems with standards, their implementations, and methodologies that could be introduced to improve utility and utilization. This is contrasted against the large inventory of standards that exist, and proliferation of standards. More available literature exists on standards wars that focus on attempts at market dominance, persistence of ‘legacy’ standards in light of newer and ‘better’ solutions, cases for and against multiple standards, and even legal cases regarding anti-competitive behavior leveraging dominance in particular standards. This, however, focuses more on the politics as opposed to presenting a more fundamental examination of the cause for the existing friction. Through applied linguistics, it becomes more apparent that differences in language, using Communities of Practice as a guide, can provide a dimension to standards development and implementation. Friction in standards arises when standards are viewed as broad and universally applicable versus being the expression of a specific Community of Practice, and therefore should be specifically and formally scoped using linguistic methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
8 pages, 237 KiB  
Review
Eurachem/CITAC Guide “Assessment of Performance and Uncertainty in Qualitative Chemical Analysis”—A Medical Laboratory Perspective
by Paulo Pereira
Standards 2022, 2(2), 194-201; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards2020014 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2674
Abstract
Background: The performance assessment of tests that express qualitative results in the medical laboratory is of primary importance in characterization, diagnosis, follow-up, and screening. An important contribution to this type of assessment may be the publication of the Eurachem AQA 2021 guide. [...] Read more.
Background: The performance assessment of tests that express qualitative results in the medical laboratory is of primary importance in characterization, diagnosis, follow-up, and screening. An important contribution to this type of assessment may be the publication of the Eurachem AQA 2021 guide. The text intends to principally discuss the consistency of the subclauses of this guide with ISO 15189 and CLSI EP12-A2. Methods: The study involves a literature review within the scope of qualitative tests. Results: Tables are used for crossing AQA. with ISO 15189 and CLSI EP12-A2. Conclusions: Consistency with ISO 15189 and CLSI EP12-A2 is demonstrated in the study. Introducing “uncertainty of proportion” reflects the necessity of assessing uncertainties when dealing with qualitative results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
10 pages, 2757 KiB  
Review
Standards and Assessment of Construction Products: Case Study of Ceramic Tile Adhesives
by Jacek Michalak
Standards 2022, 2(2), 184-193; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards2020013 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3427
Abstract
This work attempts to draw attention to the importance of a multidimensional approach when creating standard requirements in the assessment of construction products with the example of ceramic tile adhesives (CTAs). CTAs are an essential group of building materials today, the continuous development [...] Read more.
This work attempts to draw attention to the importance of a multidimensional approach when creating standard requirements in the assessment of construction products with the example of ceramic tile adhesives (CTAs). CTAs are an essential group of building materials today, the continuous development of which has been noted since the 1960s. However, until 2001, i.e., the year when EN 12004 was published, there were no precise requirements for CTAs at the European level, which often made it difficult or, in extreme cases, even impossible to assess the product objectively. Under the provisions of EN 12004, for twenty years, the basis for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) of CTAs has been adhesion determined by tensile strength. The paper discusses the test methods, paying attention to their imperfections, including the impact of the materials used in measurements, i.e., concrete slab, ceramic tile, and water quality. The results of the multi-annual interlaboratory tests indicate that an essential factor that must be considered in the process of AVCP is test measurement uncertainty. Additionally, it should be remembered that uncertainty also occurs at other assessment levels. It also seems that the simple acceptance rule that does not consider the variability resulting from the measurement uncertainty is inadequate when assessing CTAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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27 pages, 4942 KiB  
Review
An Overview of Indoor Positioning and Mapping Technology Standards
by Yuejin Deng, Haojun Ai, Zeyu Deng, Wenxiu Gao and Jianga Shang
Standards 2022, 2(2), 157-183; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards2020012 - 6 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5605
Abstract
Technologies and systems for indoor positioning, mapping, and navigation (IPMN) have rapidly developed over the latest decade due to advanced radio and light communications, the internet of things, intelligent and smart devices, big data, and so forth. Thus, a group of surveys for [...] Read more.
Technologies and systems for indoor positioning, mapping, and navigation (IPMN) have rapidly developed over the latest decade due to advanced radio and light communications, the internet of things, intelligent and smart devices, big data, and so forth. Thus, a group of surveys for IPMN technologies, systems, standards, and solutions can be found in literature. However, currently there is no proposed solution that can satisfy all indoor application requirements; one of the biggest challenges is lack of standardization, even though several IPMN standards have been published by different standard developing organizations (SDOs). Therefore, this paper aims to re-survey indoor positioning and mapping technologies, in particular, the existing standards related to these technologies and to present guidance in the field. As part of our work, we provide an IPMN standards system architecture consisting of concepts, terms, models, indoor positioning technologies, software and tools, applications, services and policies, and indoor mapping and modelling; and, we present IPMN standards developed for our projects in practice, such as multi-source fusion positioning data interfaces; seamless cooperative positioning service interfaces; content model for indoor mapping and navigation, and specification for digital indoor map products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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15 pages, 3199 KiB  
Review
Quality and Historical Marks of National Interest: The Italian Case Study
by Giuliana Vinci, Lucia Maddaloni, Sabrina Antonia Prencipe and Marco Ruggeri
Standards 2022, 2(2), 106-120; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards2020009 - 6 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1777
Abstract
Trademarks are distinctive signs designed to promote and enhance the products/services of companies. In recent years, the concept of quality has asserted growing interest, especially among enterprises, aiming to promote consumers by creating distinctive marks. In Italy, in 2021, the number of filled [...] Read more.
Trademarks are distinctive signs designed to promote and enhance the products/services of companies. In recent years, the concept of quality has asserted growing interest, especially among enterprises, aiming to promote consumers by creating distinctive marks. In Italy, in 2021, the number of filled quality trademarks for products and services will amount to about 81. Through the “Decreto Crescita”, Italy supported Italian companies to limit their delocalization overseas. In this regard, the historical mark of national interest was established, from which Italian companies with a trademark filed for at least 50 years can benefit. Therefore, the study aimed at evaluating two different types of trademarks, quality marks and historical marks, highlighting the main aspects that characterize these two marks as a function of the standards that distinguish them from the most common trademarks. For this purpose, the study focused on evaluating historical brands in Italy to promote their strategic importance and enhance the temporal continuity of the marks. These were considered a new marketing tool to promote know-how and “Made in Italy”, which is particularly useful for the brand image of companies to be competitive in a global market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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7 pages, 216 KiB  
Review
Overview of Standards Related to the Occupational Risk and Safety of Nanotechnologies
by Delfina Ramos and Luis Almeida
Standards 2022, 2(1), 83-89; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards2010007 - 1 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3578
Abstract
Nanomaterials offer new technical and commercial opportunities but, due to their low particle size, raise occupational health and safety concerns and may also pose risks to the consumers and the environment. In the last 15 years, many standards have been developed in the [...] Read more.
Nanomaterials offer new technical and commercial opportunities but, due to their low particle size, raise occupational health and safety concerns and may also pose risks to the consumers and the environment. In the last 15 years, many standards have been developed in the area of nanotechnologies, taking into account, namely, occupational risk and safety. This paper presents an overview of the standards in this area, with special emphasis at the ISO level, but also at European level, where standards are considered as an important support for legislation. A brief presentation of five relevant ISO standards is included. Relevant European Standards are also mentioned. The control banding approach for occupational risk management applied to engineered nanomaterials, according to ISO/TS 12901-2:2014, is presented. Standards are essential for society and should, in fact, be considered an important tool for companies to support sustainable products and process innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
9 pages, 270 KiB  
Review
Quantities and Units in Chemical and Environmental Engineering
by Peter Glavič
Standards 2022, 2(1), 43-51; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards2010004 - 7 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2252
Abstract
The International System of Quantities (ISQ) shall be used in education and textbooks, in scientific and engineering journals, in conference papers and proceedings, in industry, among others. The names of quantities together with their symbols and units are being published by the International [...] Read more.
The International System of Quantities (ISQ) shall be used in education and textbooks, in scientific and engineering journals, in conference papers and proceedings, in industry, among others. The names of quantities together with their symbols and units are being published by the International Organization for Standardization, the standard ISO 80000 Quantities and units, composed of 13 parts. Mathematics and natural sciences (physics, light and radiation, acoustics, physical chemistry, atomic and nuclear physics, condensed matter physics) compose most of the parts. In addition, some engineering disciplines (mechanics, thermodynamics, electromagnetism) and characteristic numbers are covered. The units are based on the International System of Units (SI). Unfortunately, chemical and process engineering, as well as environmental engineering and engineering economics, are not dealt with in the standard. In this paper, they are proposed as an additional part of the ISO standard with a tentative name Chemical and environmental engineering. The additional part of the standard is suggested to include (a) reaction and separation engineering together with mass transfer and reaction kinetics, (b) process design, control, and optimization, (c) process economics, mathematical modeling, operational research, and (d) environmental engineering with climate change, pollution abatement, an increase in resource efficiency, zero waste and circular economy. The number of quantities is planned but not limited to about 70, the average of ISO 80000 parts. Each quantity item contains a quantity name and definition (including an equation if suitable), SI unit, and remarks (running number will be added later). The rules are defined in ISO 80000-1 General rules, and the practice of the other ISO 80000 parts is respected; the quantities already included in the other parts are not repeated. In addition, the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) Green Book rules are respected. The literature used included traditional textbooks, encyclopedias, handbooks from the chemical engineering and environmental fields. Some common mistakes in printing symbols of quantities and units are mentioned. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
17 pages, 2820 KiB  
Review
Current Ice Adhesion Testing Methods and the Need for a Standard: A Concise Review
by Monika Bleszynski and Edward Clark
Standards 2021, 1(2), 117-133; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards1020011 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4979
Abstract
Ice accretion is a serious problem in cold climates, causing automobile and airplane accidents, as well as severe economic losses throughout various sectors. To combat these issues, many solutions have been developed, such as de-icing materials, which can delay or prevent the adhesion [...] Read more.
Ice accretion is a serious problem in cold climates, causing automobile and airplane accidents, as well as severe economic losses throughout various sectors. To combat these issues, many solutions have been developed, such as de-icing materials, which can delay or prevent the adhesion of ice to a surface through chemical, temperature, or physical means. To effectively assess the properties of a de-icing material, ice adhesion testing must be conducted, of which there are numerous types, each with their own characteristics. Unfortunately, the same material, tested with different methods, may provide very different ice adhesion values. This makes it difficult to properly characterize a material’s de-icing properties and compare values across the literature. In this review, we identified the main ice adhesion testing methods and compared ice adhesion values for a particular material with different testing methods. We then discussed some of the main issues with current ice testing methods and identified some of the main factors that may affect ice adhesion values, namely ice quality and the use of a mold, which may significantly affect the final ice adhesion results. Finally, we proposed a new, simple standard testing method, in an attempt to eliminate some of the issues with current ice testing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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12 pages, 3847 KiB  
Review
Explore3DM—A Directory and More for 3D Metrology
by Stephen Kyle
Standards 2021, 1(2), 67-78; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards1020007 - 5 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2848
Abstract
Explore3DM will be an online resource to explore the diverse interests behind three-dimensional measurement and three-dimensional metrology (3DM). The motivation has been the development of large-volume and portable 3D methods and systems for applications in manufacturing, an activity which has been growing for [...] Read more.
Explore3DM will be an online resource to explore the diverse interests behind three-dimensional measurement and three-dimensional metrology (3DM). The motivation has been the development of large-volume and portable 3D methods and systems for applications in manufacturing, an activity which has been growing for the past 40 years. However, the measurement spectrum in Explore3DM will be wider and include, for example, as-built process plant at the large-object end and X-Ray CT inspection at the small-object end. This wider spectrum will support cross-sector research at University College London (UCL) to transfer 3DM developments from one sector to another. Initially, Explore3DM will have a core directory incorporating systems manufacturers, service suppliers, research groups and disseminators of metrology knowledge. Mechanisms for solving end users’ measurement tasks will add to further growth of 3DM. The resource is intended to be free to use and the directory free to join at a basic level. Premium directory sponsorship by commercial companies is expected to provide revenue to sustain and develop the resource and support 3DM development. With regard to standards, LVM and PCM systems and techniques can be difficult to assess with a standardized approach because of the highly flexible ways they can be applied. However, some standards have been developed and there is scope for more, for example in the terminology used. A dictionary will be a component of Explore3DM’s future knowledge base. By presenting a first version in a centralized resource, standardized terminology will be encouraged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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15 pages, 838 KiB  
Review
Review of the International Systems of Quantities and Units Usage
by Peter Glavič
Standards 2021, 1(1), 2-16; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards1010002 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4738
Abstract
The International System of Quantities has to be used by scientific and engineering journals as well as by authors of their articles, conference papers, and corresponding books, especially textbooks. This paper describes the historical development and the state of the art of international [...] Read more.
The International System of Quantities has to be used by scientific and engineering journals as well as by authors of their articles, conference papers, and corresponding books, especially textbooks. This paper describes the historical development and the state of the art of international communications in science, engineering, technology, production, and sustainable development. The International System of Quantities (ISQ) which systematically elaborated on the standards of the International Organization for Standardization and International Electrotechnical Commission on quantities and units (ISO/IEC 80000) still needs to be generally accepted and used. The list of standardized base and derived quantities with their symbols, and rules for terminology of other quantities are presented. In addition, names and symbols of base, derived, and “compound” units for these quantities are given. The most frequent mistakes and some recommendations about the use of quantities, units, prefixes, quantity value expressions, numbers, and symbols of chemical elements are shown, too. The standards shall be available in open access. The lack of standardized quantities regarding science, engineering, and economics is drawn to attention. Further development of the international systems of quantities and units could bring substantial synergies worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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Other

14 pages, 235 KiB  
Brief Report
Building Competence in Science and Engineering
by Susan Haag and Colleen Megowan-Romanowicz
Standards 2021, 1(1), 39-52; https://doi.org/10.3390/standards1010005 - 17 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2735
Abstract
Next Generation Science Standards science and engineering practices (NGSS S&E) are ways of eliciting reasoning and applying foundational ideas in science. Studies have revealed one major impediment to implementing the NGSS, namely, insufficient teacher preparation, which is a concern at all teaching levels. [...] Read more.
Next Generation Science Standards science and engineering practices (NGSS S&E) are ways of eliciting reasoning and applying foundational ideas in science. Studies have revealed one major impediment to implementing the NGSS, namely, insufficient teacher preparation, which is a concern at all teaching levels. The present study examined a program grounded in research on how students learn science and engineering pedagogical content knowledge and strategies for incorporating NGSS S&E practices into instruction. The program provided guided teaching practice, content learning experiences in the physical sciences, engineering design tasks, and extended projects. Research questions included: To what extent did the Program increase teachers’ competence and confidence in science content, with emphasis on science and engineering practices? To what extent did the program increase teachers’ use of reformed teaching practices? This mixed-methods, quasi-experimental design examined teacher outcomes in the program for 24 months. The professional development (PD) findings revealed significant increases in teachers’ competence and confidence in integrating science and engineering practices in the classroom. These findings and their specificity contribute to current knowledge and can be utilized by districts in selecting PD to support teachers in preparing to implement the NGSS successfully. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the Inaugural Issue of Standards)
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