Comprehensive Separations of Complex Mixtures by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

A special issue of Separations (ISSN 2297-8739). This special issue belongs to the section "Chromatographic Separations".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 32898

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Division of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry of the University of La Laguna (ULL), Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain
Interests: separation methods; extraction; nanomaterials; chromatography; mass spectrometry; food analysis; environmental analysis; organic contaminants
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Guest Editor
Departamento de Química, Unidad Departamental de Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez, s/n, 38206 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Spain
Interests: miniaturized extraction techniques; chromatography; mass spectrometry; food analysis; endocrine disruptors; green chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is a pleasure to announce the next Separations Special Issue entitled “Comprehensive Separations of Complex Mixtures by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry”, which will compile the state-of-the-art of the methods developed in this area.

The current trends in analytical chemistry are focused on the search for comprehensive, sensitive, robust, simple, and fast methodologies that allow the simultaneous determination of a huge number of compounds at low levels of concentration with the maximun reliability possible and also complying with the requirements of sustainability proposed by green chemistry. In this sense, conventional gas chromatography, two-dimensional gas chromatography and, more recently, very and ultra-fast gas chromatography coupled to different types of mass spectrometry analysers are excellent tools to accomplish this goal in different fields.

The aim of this publication is to present the most recent applications of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in the analysis and evaluation of different complex samples, as well as provide a wide and accurate overview of recent advances and future trends related to this topic.

Prof. Dr. Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Delgado
Dr. Bárbara Socas-Rodríguez
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • comprehensive separation
  • food analysis
  • environmental analysis
  • biological analysis
  • gas cromatography–mass spectrometry

Published Papers (11 papers)

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11 pages, 938 KiB  
Article
Rapid Determination of Five Residual Solvents in Ursodeoxycholic Acid Raw Materials
by Ran Zhou, Jingyu He, Yi Shi, Xiaoying Gao, Fei Wang and Sijie Liu
Separations 2023, 10(11), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations10110573 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1286
Abstract
The chromatographic conditions were optimized using headspace gas chromatography, and a simple and rapid method was established for the simultaneous determination of five residual solvents in ursodeoxycholic acid raw materials. The corresponding quality standards were revised. The research results demonstrate that by utilizing [...] Read more.
The chromatographic conditions were optimized using headspace gas chromatography, and a simple and rapid method was established for the simultaneous determination of five residual solvents in ursodeoxycholic acid raw materials. The corresponding quality standards were revised. The research results demonstrate that by utilizing a capillary column with a stationary phase consisting of 5% phenyl-95% dimethylpolysiloxane (HP-5, 30 m × 0.32 mm, film thickness 1.0 µm) and a flame ionization detector in conjunction with a headspace injection system and a programmed temperature ramping method, satisfactory analytical results can be achieved. The specific operating conditions are as follows: an initial column temperature of 45 °C, followed by a column temperature increase at a rate of 5 °C per minute up to 60 °C, then a further increase at a rate of 10 °C per minute up to 100 °C, and finally a rapid increase at a rate of 40 °C per minute up to 200 °C, where it is held for 10 min. Nitrogen is employed as the carrier gas at a flow rate of 1 mL/min with a split ratio of 14:1. The headspace vial temperature is maintained at 100 °C, with a sample equilibration time of 45 min. The concentration of methanol ranged from 0.06 mg/mL to 0.3 mg/mL, and the concentrations of acetone, tert-butanol, ethyl acetate, and triethylamine showed a good linear relationship with the peak area within the range of 0.1 mg/mL to 0.5 mg/mL (r = 0.999); The quantitation limits for methanol, acetone, tert-butanol, ethyl acetate, and triethylamine were 4.2, 0.9, 1.5, 1, and 0.1 μg/mL, respectively, with detection limits of 1.2, 0.25, 0.025, 0.3, and 0.025 μg/mL, respectively. The recovery rates of each solvent ranged from 92.9% to 106.0%, with RSD% (n = 9) less than 3.8%; the method exhibited good repeatability, with RSD% (n = 6) less than 2.5%. Furthermore, the robustness is good. The established method is simple, accurate, specific, and highly sensitive, and can be used for the simultaneous and rapid determination of five residual solvents in ursodeoxycholic acid raw materials. Full article
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17 pages, 2125 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Profiling of Terpenes and Terpenoids in Different Cannabis Strains Using GC × GC-TOFMS
by Jasmeen Kaur, Ning Sun and Jane E. Hill
Separations 2023, 10(9), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations10090500 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 2894
Abstract
Cannabis contains a wide range of terpenes and terpenoids that are mainly responsible for their distinctive aroma and flavor. These compounds have also demonstrated therapeutic effects either alone and/or as synergistic compounds with other terpenes, terpenoids, and/or cannabinoids. Several studies have attempted to [...] Read more.
Cannabis contains a wide range of terpenes and terpenoids that are mainly responsible for their distinctive aroma and flavor. These compounds have also demonstrated therapeutic effects either alone and/or as synergistic compounds with other terpenes, terpenoids, and/or cannabinoids. Several studies have attempted to fully characterize terpenes and terpenoids in cannabis; however, most of these studies used one-dimensional gas chromatography, which often results in the co-elution of the compounds. In the present study, we analyzed terpenes and terpenoids in the dried flowers of six cannabis strains using a two-dimensional gas chromatograph time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-TOFMS). A total of 146 terpenes and terpenoids were detected across all six cannabis strains with an enhanced separation of 16 terpenes and terpenoids in the second dimension. Additionally, we achieved enhanced separation of four terpenes and terpenoids from a standard mixture in the second dimension. Chemical differences were observed in the number and relative abundance of monoterpenes, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenes, and sesquiterpenoids in all six strains. We were also able to identify four new terpenoids in cannabis, which are reported here for the first time. Full article
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17 pages, 5135 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of Analytical Method Using Gas Chromatography with Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry for the Detection of Alkyl Halides as Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Posaconazole
by Hari Naga Prasada Reddy Chittireddy, J. V. Shanmukha Kumar, Anuradha Bhimireddy, Mohammed Rafi Shaik, Mujeeb Khan, Merajuddin Khan, Tae Hwan Oh and Baji Shaik
Separations 2023, 10(5), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations10050295 - 6 May 2023
Viewed by 1889
Abstract
Effective risk management and control methods for potentially genotoxic impurities (PGIs), including alkyl halides, are of significant importance in the medicinal (pharmaceutical) sector. The three alkyl halides in posaconazole are PGIs. The detection and assessment of genotoxic substances is a top priority for [...] Read more.
Effective risk management and control methods for potentially genotoxic impurities (PGIs), including alkyl halides, are of significant importance in the medicinal (pharmaceutical) sector. The three alkyl halides in posaconazole are PGIs. The detection and assessment of genotoxic substances is a top priority for all regulatory organizations. Quantifying PGIs at trace levels using standard analytical techniques, such as gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), is challenging for the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. Thus, the detection of trace quantities of PGIs in posaconazole is essential for developing sensitive analytical methodologies. The objective of this study was to establish an analytical technique for quantifying the three PGIs (alkyl halides) in posaconazole and its intermediate. These alkyl halides are 1-(2,4-difluorophenyl) ethan-1-one (PGI-1), (Z)-1-(1-bromoprop-1-en-2-yl)- 2,4-difluorobenzene (PGI-2), and 1-bromo-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl) propan-2-ol (PGI-3). To identify trace quantities (parts per million (ppm)) of these impurities, we employed a gas chromatography (GC-MS/MS) equipped with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detector. The GC column was a USP phase G43, which is a mid-polar 6% cyanopropyl; 94% polydimethylsiloxane, with a 60 m length, 0.32 mm inner diameter, and 1.8 μm film thickness. Helium (He) was used as the carrier gas, with a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. A thermal gradient elution program was used for this procedure. The method was calibrated for the three PGIs with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.01 and 0.025 ppm, respectively. The linear range of concentrations (25–150%) was maintained with respect to the specification level. This method was validated according to the ICH regulations and was shown to be specific, rugged, robust, precise, sensitive, accurate, linear, and stable. Therefore, in this newly developed method, the combination of suitable analytical techniques, such as GC-MS/MS and proper chromatographic conditions and column selection with the lowest LOD and LOQ, have allowed the induction of excellent ionization. These conditions have successfully facilitated the identification of PGI-1, PGI-2, and PGI-3 in posaconazole and its intermediate during routine analysis. Full article
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16 pages, 2629 KiB  
Article
Examination of Condensation Liquid Formation in Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Network
by Eyüp Numan Aytaş and Ali Volkan Akkaya
Separations 2023, 10(2), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations10020135 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1473
Abstract
In this study, the formation of natural gas liquid in gas distribution lines, particularly at regional stations, service boxes, customer installations, and gas meters, was investigated. The study aims to address the problems associated with natural gas liquid formation, such as interruption of [...] Read more.
In this study, the formation of natural gas liquid in gas distribution lines, particularly at regional stations, service boxes, customer installations, and gas meters, was investigated. The study aims to address the problems associated with natural gas liquid formation, such as interruption of supply and decreased efficiency of combustion devices. The indirect measurement of the hydrocarbon dew point was analyzed using C6+ chromatograph data, and the model based on directly measured C6+ data were converted into C6/C7/C8 data by four different methods. As distinct from studies in the literature, this study experimentally determines the distribution of heavy hydrocarbons from C9 to C19 based on indirect methods for acquiring C8+ data and direct measurement of C6+ data. The hydrocarbon dew point temperature was calculated using the Peng–Robinson (PR) and Soave–Redlich–Kwong (SRK) equations of state. The results of the analysis performed on two city gate stations showed that the critical temperatures were 4.21 °C at a pressure of 10.81 bar and 8.27 °C at a pressure of 11.25 bar, respectively. These values were obtained from a model designed to determine the dew point temperature in the area where natural gas liquid formation was most prevalent. The experimental analysis and indirect measurements indicated the occurrence of a two-phase gas–liquid formation. Full article
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15 pages, 1390 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Rosmarinus officinalis from five Different Sites in Palestine
by Nawaf Al-Maharik, Nidal Jaradat, Mohammed Hawash, Saad Al-Lahham, Mohammad Qadi, Izzeddin Shoman, Shatha Jaber, Raghad Abdel Rahem, Fatimah Hussein and Linda Issa
Separations 2022, 9(11), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations9110339 - 3 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1897
Abstract
The chemical profiles of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils, collected from five distinct geographical regions in Palestine, were determined using GC-MS. The major phytochemical classes of R. officinalis EOs were monoterpene hydrocarbon (24.81–78.75%) and oxygenated monoterpenoids (19.01–73.78%), with 1,8-cineole (4.81–37.83%), α-pinene (13.07–51.36%), and [...] Read more.
The chemical profiles of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils, collected from five distinct geographical regions in Palestine, were determined using GC-MS. The major phytochemical classes of R. officinalis EOs were monoterpene hydrocarbon (24.81–78.75%) and oxygenated monoterpenoids (19.01–73.78%), with 1,8-cineole (4.81–37.83%), α-pinene (13.07–51.36%), and camphor (11.95–24.30%) being the most abundant components of the studied oils. Using the DPPH assay, the antioxidant activity of EOs revealed that EO from the Jenin region had the highest antioxidant activity, with an IC50 value of 10.23 ± 0.11 µg/mL, followed by samples from Tulkarm (IC50 = 37.15 ± 2.3 µg/mL) and Nablus (IC50= 38.9 ± 0.45 µg/mL). With MICs of 12.5, 12.5, 6.25, 6.25, and 6.25 µg/mL against MRSA, S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumonia, and P. vulgaris, respectively, the EO extracted from the Jenin region of Palestine had the greatest antibacterial activity. Furthermore, EOs from Jenin and Nablus demonstrated stronger anti-candida action than the pharmaceutical formulation Fluconazole, with MICs of 0.781, 0.781, and 1.56 µg/mL, respectively. Full article
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12 pages, 1803 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Determination of Fenchone and Trans-Anethole in Essential Oils and Methanolic Extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fruits Obtained from Different Geographical Regions Using GC-MS Approach
by Wasim Ahmad, Mohd Amir, Syed Rizwan Ahamad, Prawez Alam, Sultan Alshehri, Mohammed M. Ghoneim, Shadma Wahab and Faiyaz Shakeel
Separations 2022, 9(5), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations9050132 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2402
Abstract
The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach is established for the simultaneous determination of fenchone (FCO) and trans-anethole (TOH) in the essential oils and methanolic extracts of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) fruits obtained from India (IND), Pakistan (PAK), and Saudi Arabia (SA). [...] Read more.
The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach is established for the simultaneous determination of fenchone (FCO) and trans-anethole (TOH) in the essential oils and methanolic extracts of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) fruits obtained from India (IND), Pakistan (PAK), and Saudi Arabia (SA). The simultaneous determination of FCO and TOH was performed via Agilent 190914S HP–5MS fused-silica capillary column (30 m × 250 µm ID, 0.25 µm film thickness). The proposed GC-MS approach was linear in the range of 0.10–50 µg/g for FCO and TOH. FCO’s detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits were calculated to be 0.04 and 0.12 µg/g, respectively. The LOD and LOQ values for TOH, on the other hand, were calculated to be 0.05 and 0.15 µg/g, respectively. In addition, the proposed GC-MS approach was accurate and precise for the simultaneous determination of FCO and TOH. The amount of FCO in essential oils of F. vulgare was computed as 0.021, 0.034, and 0.029 mg/g in the samples obtained from IND, PAK, and SA, respectively. The amount of TOH in the essential oils of F. vulgare was computed as 7.40, 14.8, and 10.2 mg/g in the samples obtained from IND, PAK, and SA, respectively. However, the amount of FCO in the methanolic extract of F. vulgare was estimated as 0.031, 0.021, and 0.057 mg/g in the samples obtained from IND, PAK, and SA, respectively. On the other hand, the amount of TOH in the methanolic extract of F. vulgare was estimated as 0.440, 0.498, and 1.74 mg/g in the samples obtained from IND, PAK, and SA, respectively. These findings suggested that the proposed GC-MS approach might be used to simultaneously determine the FCO and TOH in a variety of essential oils and plant extracts. Full article
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16 pages, 4358 KiB  
Article
Chemical Profiling and Characterization of Different Cultivars of Cannabis sativa L. Inflorescences by SPME-GC-MS and UPLC-MS
by Vittoria Cicaloni, Laura Salvini, Sara Vitalini and Stefania Garzoli
Separations 2022, 9(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations9040090 - 2 Apr 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 5067
Abstract
The chemical profile of the Cannabis sativa L. female inflorescences is rather complex being characterized by a large number of molecules belonging to different chemical classes. Considering the numerous applications in various fields, including the medical and pharmaceutical sectors, that have seen a [...] Read more.
The chemical profile of the Cannabis sativa L. female inflorescences is rather complex being characterized by a large number of molecules belonging to different chemical classes. Considering the numerous applications in various fields, including the medical and pharmaceutical sectors, that have seen a large use of Cannabis genus in recent years, a precise characterization of the matrices is essential. In this regard, the application of adequate and suitable sampling and analysis techniques becomes important in order to provide an identification of the metabolites characterizing the profile of the sample under examination. The goal of this work is to provide additional information on the chemical composition of the inflorescences of five C. sativa different cultivars grown in Emilia Romagna (Italy) through the application of sophisticated analysis techniques such as Solid-Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS and UPLC-MS). The obtained data highlighted the presence of a high number of volatile and non-volatile compounds, thus allowing a comparative evaluation of the different samples. Furthermore, an in-depth statistical survey by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and HeatMap, Hierarchical luster Analysis (HCA) and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA-VIP), was conducted to consider any correlations between the investigated cultivars. The findings of this study may help to provide more information on the C. sativa inflorescences useful for potential applications of their metabolites in scientific research. Full article
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16 pages, 6538 KiB  
Article
Development of a Method for the Measurement of Human Scent Samples Using Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with Mass Detection
by Petra Pojmanová, Nikola Ladislavová and Štěpán Urban
Separations 2021, 8(12), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8120232 - 3 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2978
Abstract
Every human body is a source of a unique scent, which can be used for medical or forensic purposes. Human skin scent is a complex mixture of more or less volatile compounds with different chemical and physical properties, which often differ significantly in [...] Read more.
Every human body is a source of a unique scent, which can be used for medical or forensic purposes. Human skin scent is a complex mixture of more or less volatile compounds with different chemical and physical properties, which often differ significantly in their concentrations. The most efficient technique for separating such complex samples is comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC). This work aimed to find the optimal arrangement of a two-dimensional chromatographic system and define a suitable chromatographic method for non-targeted analysis of human scent samples. Four different chromatographic columns (non-polar Rxi-5MS and TG-5HT, medium polar Rxi-17Sil MS and Rtx-200MS) and their different configurations were tested. The best system was the 30 m primary column Rtx-200MS (with the 2 m pre-column Rtx-200MS) and the 1 m secondary column TG-5HT in a reverse configuration. This system achieved the highest theoretical and conditional peak capacities, optimal resolution, and the lowest number of coelutions. Full article
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14 pages, 3453 KiB  
Article
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Compounds Emitted by Pepper Yellow Leaf Curl Virus-Infected Chili Plants: A Preliminary Study
by Dyah K. Agustika, Ixora S. Mercuriani, Nur Aeni Ariyanti, Chandra W. Purnomo, Kuwat Triyana, Daciana D. Iliescu and Mark S. Leeson
Separations 2021, 8(9), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8090136 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4263
Abstract
Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV) is a threat to chili plants and can significantly reduce yields. This study aimed as a pilot project to detect PYLCV by analyzing compounds emitted by chili plants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The samples investigated in [...] Read more.
Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV) is a threat to chili plants and can significantly reduce yields. This study aimed as a pilot project to detect PYLCV by analyzing compounds emitted by chili plants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The samples investigated in this research were PYLCV-infected and PYLCV-undetected chili plants taken from commercial chili fields. The infection status was validated by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. A headspace technique was used to extract the volatile organic compounds emitted by plants. The analysis of GC-MS results began with pre-processing, analyzing sample compound variability with a boxplot analysis, and sample classification by using a multivariate technique. Unsupervised multivariate technique principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to discover whether GC-MS could identify PYLCV-infected or not. The results showed that PYLCV-infected and PYLCV-undetected chili plants could be differentiated, with a total percent variance of the first three principal components reaching 91.32%, and successfully discriminated between PYLCV-infected and PYLCV-undetected chili plants. However, more comprehensive studies are needed to find the potential biomarkers of the infected plants. Full article
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10 pages, 1511 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Floral Fragrance Compounds of Chimonanthus praecox with Different Floral Colors in Yunnan, China
by Liubei Meng, Rui Shi, Qiong Wang and Shu Wang
Separations 2021, 8(8), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8080122 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2955
Abstract
In order to better understand the floral fragrance compounds of Chimonanthus praecox belonging to genus Chimonanthus of Chimonanaceae in Yunnan, headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyze these compounds from four C. praecox plants with different floral colors. [...] Read more.
In order to better understand the floral fragrance compounds of Chimonanthus praecox belonging to genus Chimonanthus of Chimonanaceae in Yunnan, headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyze these compounds from four C. praecox plants with different floral colors. Thirty-one types of floral fragrance compounds were identified, among which terpenes, alcohols, esters, phenols, and heterocyclic compounds were the main compounds. Interestingly, the floral fragrance compounds identified in the flowers of C. praecox var. concolor included benzyl acetate, α-ocimene, eugenol, indole, and benzyl alcohol. By contrast, the floral fragrance compounds β-ocimene, α-ocimene, and trans-β-ocimene were detected in C. praecox var. patens. Cluster analysis showed that C. praecox var. concolor H1, H2, and C. praecox var. patens H4 were clustered in one group, but C. praecox var. patens H3 was individually clustered in the other group. Additionally, principal component analysis showed that α-ocimene, benzyl alcohol, benzyl acetate, cinnamyl acetate, eugenol, and indole were the main floral fragrance compounds that could distinguish the four C. praecox with different floral colors in Yunnan. This study provides a theoretical basis for further elucidating the mechanism and pathway of the floral fragrance release of C. praecox. Full article
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10 pages, 3527 KiB  
Article
Chemical Profiling, Antioxidant, Antiproliferative, and Antibacterial Potentials of Chemically Characterized Extract of Citrullus colocynthis L. Seeds
by Mohammed Bourhia, Kaoutar Bouothmany, Hanane Bakrim, Safaa Hadrach, Ahmad Mohammad Salamatullah, Abdulhakeem Alzahrani, Heba Khalil Alyahya, Nawal A. Albadr, Said Gmouh, Amine Laglaoui, Mohammed El Mzibri and Laila Benbacer
Separations 2021, 8(8), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations8080114 - 4 Aug 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4233
Abstract
Background: Citrullus colocynthis L. (C. colocynthis) is commonly known as colocynth. It belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae that is frequently used in alternative medicine in the north of Africa. The aim of the study: the present research was undertaken to investigate [...] Read more.
Background: Citrullus colocynthis L. (C. colocynthis) is commonly known as colocynth. It belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae that is frequently used in alternative medicine in the north of Africa. The aim of the study: the present research was undertaken to investigate the chemical composition, antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antibacterial potentials of C. colocynthis seed extract. Material and methods: the chemical composition of C. colocynthis seed organic extract was characterized using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant property was carried out using both β-carotene bleaching and DPPH assays. The antibacterial effect was effectuated using the agar disc diffusion method. The antiproliferative activity vs. human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT-29) and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MDA MB 231) were carried by WST-1 test. The chemical analysis showed the presence of interesting potentially bioactive compounds. The studied plant extract exhibited antioxidant potential with IC50 value of 2. 22 mg/mL (β-carotene bleaching) and 8.98 ± 0.619 mg/mL (DPPH). Concerning the antiproliferative activity, the seed extract was effective in MDA-MB-231 and HT-29 cancer cells with IC50 values 86.89 ± 3.395 and 242.1 ± 17.9 μg/mL, respectively, whilst the extract of Citrullus colocynthis seeds was non-toxic in healthy human dermal fibroblasts. Regarding the antibacterial test, the extract was effective in Gram-positive bacteria only. Conclusion: The outcome of this research indicated that the extracts from C. colocynthis seeds may compose a promising source with interesting compounds that can be used to fight cancer, free radicals damage, and bacterial infections. Full article
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