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Special Issue "Light-Addressing and Chemical Imaging Technologies for Electrochemical Sensing"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Tatsuo Yoshinobu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579, Japan
Tel. +81-22-795-7072
Interests: chemical sensors; chemical imaging sensor; light-addressable potentiometric sensor
Prof. Dr. Michael J. Schöning
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Director, Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies, Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Heinrich-Mußmann-Str. 1, 52428 Jülich, Germany
Interests: silicon-based (bio-)chemical sensors; field-effect devices; thin film and semiconductor techniques; microsystem technology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Spatially resolved measurement or “visualization” of chemical species in a specimen is an essential technology for analysis of electrochemical systems and biological samples. As a complementary technology to optical methods and scanning probe technologies, solid-state sensors for visualization of pH, ions, molecules and even living cells and microorganisms have been developed in analogy to image sensors for visualization of light.

This special issue aims to compile the state-of-the-art technologies of solid-state sensors for chemical imaging such as light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS), scanning photo-induced impedance microscopy (SPIM), ISFET arrays and CMOS sensor arrays etc. and related light-addressing technologies for spatially resolved control of electrochemical reactions. Both latest research trends and applications of chemical imaging technologies are addressed in this issue. Topics may include the following:

  • LAPS / SPIM technology, instrumentation and materials
  • Chemical imaging by LAPS, SPIM, ISFET array and CMOS sensor array
  • Applications of chemical imaging
  • Light-addressable electrodes
  • Light-activated electrochemistry

Prof. Dr. Tatsuo Yoshinobu
Prof. Dr. Michael J. Schöning
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
A LAPS-Based Differential Sensor for Parallelized Metabolism Monitoring of Various Bacteria
Sensors 2019, 19(21), 4692; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19214692 - 29 Oct 2019
Abstract
Monitoring the cellular metabolism of bacteria in (bio)fermentation processes is crucial to control and steer them, and to prevent undesired disturbances linked to metabolically inactive microorganisms. In this context, cell-based biosensors can play an important role to improve the quality and increase the [...] Read more.
Monitoring the cellular metabolism of bacteria in (bio)fermentation processes is crucial to control and steer them, and to prevent undesired disturbances linked to metabolically inactive microorganisms. In this context, cell-based biosensors can play an important role to improve the quality and increase the yield of such processes. This work describes the simultaneous analysis of the metabolic behavior of three different types of bacteria by means of a differential light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) set-up. The study includes Lactobacillus brevis, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Escherichia coli, which are often applied in fermentation processes in bioreactors. Differential measurements were carried out to compensate undesirable influences such as sensor signal drift, and pH value variation during the measurements. Furthermore, calibration curves of the cellular metabolism were established as a function of the glucose concentration or cell number variation with all three model microorganisms. In this context, simultaneous (bio)sensing with the multi-organism LAPS-based set-up can open new possibilities for a cost-effective, rapid detection of the extracellular acidification of bacteria on a single sensor chip. It can be applied to evaluate the metabolic response of bacteria populations in a (bio)fermentation process, for instance, in the biogas fermentation process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling of the Return Current in a Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensor
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4566; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204566 - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
A light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) is a chemical sensor with a field-effect structure based on semiconductor. Its response to the analyte concentration is read out in the form of a photocurrent generated by illuminating the semiconductor with a modulated light beam. As stated [...] Read more.
A light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) is a chemical sensor with a field-effect structure based on semiconductor. Its response to the analyte concentration is read out in the form of a photocurrent generated by illuminating the semiconductor with a modulated light beam. As stated in its name, a LAPS is capable of spatially resolved measurement using a scanning light beam. Recently, it has been pointed out that a part of the signal current is lost by the return current due to capacitive coupling between the solution and the semiconductor, which may seriously affect the sensor performance such as the signal-to-noise ratio, the spatial resolution, and the sensitivity. In this study, a circuit model for the return current is proposed to study its dependence on various parameters such as the diameter of contact area, the modulation frequency, the specific conductivity of the solution, and the series resistance of the circuit. It is suggested that minimization of the series resistance of the circuit is of utmost importance in order to avoid the influence of the return current. The results of calculation based on this model are compared with experimental results, and its applicability and limitation are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
InGaN as a Substrate for AC Photoelectrochemical Imaging
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4386; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204386 - 11 Oct 2019
Abstract
AC photoelectrochemical imaging at electrolyte–semiconductor interfaces provides spatially resolved information such as surface potentials, ion concentrations and electrical impedance. In this work, thin films of InGaN/GaN were used successfully for AC photoelectrochemical imaging, and experimentally shown to generate a considerable photocurrent under illumination [...] Read more.
AC photoelectrochemical imaging at electrolyte–semiconductor interfaces provides spatially resolved information such as surface potentials, ion concentrations and electrical impedance. In this work, thin films of InGaN/GaN were used successfully for AC photoelectrochemical imaging, and experimentally shown to generate a considerable photocurrent under illumination with a 405 nm modulated diode laser at comparatively high frequencies and low applied DC potentials, making this a promising substrate for bioimaging applications. Linear sweep voltammetry showed negligible dark currents. The imaging capabilities of the sensor substrate were demonstrated with a model system and showed a lateral resolution of 7 microns. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
CCD Multi-Ion Image Sensor with Four 128 × 128 Pixels Array
Sensors 2019, 19(7), 1582; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19071582 - 01 Apr 2019
Abstract
A semiconductor array pH image sensor consisting of four separated blocks was fabricated using charged coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies. The sensing surface of one of the four blocks was Si3N4 and this block responded [...] Read more.
A semiconductor array pH image sensor consisting of four separated blocks was fabricated using charged coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technologies. The sensing surface of one of the four blocks was Si3N4 and this block responded to H+. The surfaces of the other three blocks were respectively covered with cation sensitive membranes, which were separately printed with plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) solutions including Na+, K+, and Ca2+ ionophores by using an ink-jet printing method. In addition, each block of the image sensor with 128 × 128 pixels could have a calibration curve generated in each independent measurement condition. The present sensor could measure the concentration image of four kinds of ions (H+, K+, Na +, Ca2+) simultaneously at 8.3 frames per second (fps) in separated regions on a chip. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Recent Developments of High-Resolution Chemical Imaging Systems Based on Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors (LAPSs)
Sensors 2019, 19(19), 4294; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19194294 - 03 Oct 2019
Abstract
A light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) is a semiconductor electrochemical sensor based on the field-effect which detects the variation of the Nernst potential on the sensor surface, and the measurement area is defined by illumination. Thanks to its light-addressability feature, an LAPS-based chemical imaging [...] Read more.
A light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) is a semiconductor electrochemical sensor based on the field-effect which detects the variation of the Nernst potential on the sensor surface, and the measurement area is defined by illumination. Thanks to its light-addressability feature, an LAPS-based chemical imaging sensor system can be developed, which can visualize the two-dimensional distribution of chemical species on the sensor surface. This sensor system has been used for the analysis of reactions and diffusions in various biochemical samples. In this review, the LAPS system set-up, including the sensor construction, sensing and substrate materials, modulated light and various measurement modes of the sensor systems are described. The recently developed technologies and the affecting factors, especially regarding the spatial resolution and temporal resolution are discussed and summarized, and the advantages and limitations of these technologies are illustrated. Finally, the further applications of LAPS-based chemical imaging sensors are discussed, where the combination with microfluidic devices is promising. Full article
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