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Special Issue "Fluorescent Probes and Sensors"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2017).

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Sheshanath V. Bhosale
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa 403206, India
Tel. +91-8669609303
Interests: organic supramolecular chemistry; sensors; artificial photosynthesis; catalysis; organic solar cells
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The application of fluorescent sensors and fluorescence microscopy, in combination with other analytical techniques for mapping total metal content, offers researchers the opportunity to address fundamental questions about sensing of ions, explosives, and biological molecules for example glucose or RNA detection. Fluorescence microscopy also permits visualization of an object of interest in unicellular organisms, individual molecules, multicellular organisms and cells encapsulated in 3D matrices. The rapid progress in sensor science in recent years has resulted in the development of fluorescence probes with enhanced analytical capabilities. Because of the vast evolution of this research field, therefore, we have decided that it is timely to compose a Special Issue of Sensors focusing on the important role sensors play in “Fluorescent Probes and Sensors”. You are invited to submit manuscripts illustrating the suitability of newly developed sensors for fluorescent analysis applications, as well as manuscripts describing novel applications of established sensors in solving real life analytical problems.

Dr. Sheshanath Bhosale
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • fluorescence probe
  • sensors
  • anion
  • cation
  • biological molecules
  • host-guest chemistry
  • receptors
  • explosive sensing

Published Papers (24 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
The Trace Detection of Nitrite Ions Using Neutral Red Functionalized SH-β-Cyclodextrin @Au Nanoparticles
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030681 - 25 Feb 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
A novel fluorescence sensor of NR-β[email protected] was prepared for the trace detection of nitrite in quantities as low as 4.25 × 10−3 μg∙mL−1 in an aqueous medium. The fluorescence was due to the host-guest inclusion complexes between neutral red (NR) molecules [...] Read more.
A novel fluorescence sensor of NR-β[email protected] was prepared for the trace detection of nitrite in quantities as low as 4.25 × 10−3 μg∙mL−1 in an aqueous medium. The fluorescence was due to the host-guest inclusion complexes between neutral red (NR) molecules and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which were modified by per-6-mercapto-beta-cyclodextrins (SH-β-CDs) as both a reducing agent and a stabilizer under microwave radiation. The color of the NR-β[email protected] changed in the presence of nitrite ions. A sensor was applied to the determination of trace nitrites in environmental water samples with satisfactory results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Methionine-Capped Gold Nanoclusters as a Fluorescence-Enhanced Probe for Cadmium(II) Sensing
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 658; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020658 - 23 Feb 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have been considered as novel heavy metal ions sensors due to their ultrafine size, photo-stability and excellent fluorescent properties. In this study, a green and facile method was developed for the preparation of fluorescent water-soluble gold nanoclusters with methionine [...] Read more.
Gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) have been considered as novel heavy metal ions sensors due to their ultrafine size, photo-stability and excellent fluorescent properties. In this study, a green and facile method was developed for the preparation of fluorescent water-soluble gold nanoclusters with methionine as a stabilizer. The nanoclusters emit orange fluorescence with excitation/emission peaks at 420/565 nm and a quantum yield of about 1.46%. The fluorescence of the Au NCs is selectively and sensitively enhanced by addition of Cd(II) ions attributed to the Cd(II) ion-induced aggregation of nanoclusters. This finding was further used to design a fluorometric method for the determination of Cd(II) ions, which had a linear response in the concentration range from 50 nM to 35 μM and a detection limit of 12.25 nM. The practicality of the nanoprobe was validated in various environmental water samples and milk powder samples, with a fairly satisfactory recovery percent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Red-Emitting, Multidimensional Sensor for the Simultaneous Cellular Imaging of Biothiols and Phosphate Ions
Sensors 2018, 18(1), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010161 - 09 Jan 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
The development of new fluorescent probes for cellular imaging is currently a very active field because of the large potential in understanding cell physiology, especially targeting anomalous behaviours due to disease. In particular, red-emitting dyes are keenly sought, as the light in this [...] Read more.
The development of new fluorescent probes for cellular imaging is currently a very active field because of the large potential in understanding cell physiology, especially targeting anomalous behaviours due to disease. In particular, red-emitting dyes are keenly sought, as the light in this spectral region presents lower interferences and a deeper depth of penetration in tissues. In this work, we have synthesized a red-emitting, dual probe for the multiplexed intracellular detection of biothiols and phosphate ions. We have prepared a fluorogenic construct involving a silicon-substituted fluorescein for red emission. The fluorogenic reaction is selectively started by the presence of biothiols. In addition, the released fluorescent moiety undergoes an excited-state proton transfer reaction promoted by the presence of phosphate ions, which modulates its fluorescence lifetime, τ, with the total phosphate concentration. Therefore, in a multidimensional approach, the intracellular levels of biothiols and phosphate can be detected simultaneously using a single fluorophore and with spectral clearing of cell autofluorescence interferences. We have applied this concept to different cell lines, including photoreceptor cells, whose levels of biothiols are importantly altered by light irradiation and other oxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Probes and Sensors) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Early Identification of Herbicide Stress in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence Imaging Technology
Sensors 2018, 18(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010021 - 22 Dec 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Herbicides may damage soybean in conventional production systems. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technology has been applied to identify herbicide stress in weed species a few days after application. In this study, greenhouse experiments followed by field experiments at five sites were conducted to investigate [...] Read more.
Herbicides may damage soybean in conventional production systems. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technology has been applied to identify herbicide stress in weed species a few days after application. In this study, greenhouse experiments followed by field experiments at five sites were conducted to investigate if the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging is capable of identifying herbicide stress in soybean shortly after application. Measurements were carried out from emergence until the three-to-four-leaf stage of the soybean plants. Results showed that maximal photosystem II (PS II) quantum yield and shoot dry biomass was significantly reduced in soybean by herbicides compared to the untreated control plants. The stress of PS II inhibiting herbicides occurred on the cotyledons of soybean and plants recovered after one week. The stress induced by DOXP synthase-, microtubule assembly-, or cell division-inhibitors was measured from the two-leaf stage until four-leaf stage of soybean. We could demonstrate that the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technology is capable for detecting herbicide stress in soybean. The system can be applied under both greenhouse and field conditions. This helps farmers to select weed control strategies with less phytotoxicity in soybean and avoid yield losses due to herbicide stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Probes and Sensors) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Multichannel Discriminative Detection of Explosive Vapors with an Array of Nanofibrous Membranes Loaded with Quantum Dots
Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2676; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17112676 - 20 Nov 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
The multichannel fluorescent sensor array based on nanofibrous membranes loaded with ZnS quantum dots (QDs) was created and demonstrated for the discriminative detection of explosives. The synergistic effect of the high surface-to-volume ratio of QDs, the good permeability of nanofibrous membranes and the [...] Read more.
The multichannel fluorescent sensor array based on nanofibrous membranes loaded with ZnS quantum dots (QDs) was created and demonstrated for the discriminative detection of explosives. The synergistic effect of the high surface-to-volume ratio of QDs, the good permeability of nanofibrous membranes and the differential response introduced by surface ligands was played by constructing the sensing array using nanofibrous membranes loaded with ZnS QDs featuring several surface ligands. Interestingly, although the fluorescence quenching of the nanofibrous membranes is not linearly related to the exposure time, the fingerprint of each explosive at different times is very similar in shape, and the fingerprints of the three explosives show different shapes. Three saturated vapors of nitroaromatic explosives could be reliably detected and discriminated by the array at room temperature. This work is the first step toward devising a monitoring system for explosives in the field of public security and defense. It could, for example, be coupled with the technology of image recognition and large data analysis for a rapid diagnostic test of explosives. This work further highlights the power of differential, multichannel arrays for the rapid and discriminative detection of a wide range of chemicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Probes and Sensors) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Evaluation of Novel Polymyxin Fluorescent Probes
Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2598; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17112598 - 11 Nov 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
Polymyxins (polymyxin B and colistin) are cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics that serve as a last-line defence against Gram-negative “superbugs”. In the present study, two novel fluorescent polymyxin probes were designed through regio-selective modifications of the polymyxin B core structure at the N-terminus and [...] Read more.
Polymyxins (polymyxin B and colistin) are cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics that serve as a last-line defence against Gram-negative “superbugs”. In the present study, two novel fluorescent polymyxin probes were designed through regio-selective modifications of the polymyxin B core structure at the N-terminus and the hydrophobic motif at positions 6 and 7. The resulting probes, FADDI-285 and FADDI-286 demonstrated comparable antibacterial activity (MICs 2–8 mg/L) to polymyxin B and colistin (MICs 0.5–8 mg/L) against a panel of gram-negative clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These probes should prove to be of considerable utility for imaging cellular uptake and mechanistic investigations of these important last-line antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Probes and Sensors) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Ratiometric Fluorescent Biosensors for the Determination of Creatine and Creatinine in Urine
Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2570; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17112570 - 08 Nov 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
In this study, the oxazine 170 perchlorate (O17)-ethylcellulose (EC) membrane was successfully exploited for the fabrication of creatine- and creatinine-sensing membranes. The sensing membrane exhibited a double layer of O17-EC membrane and a layer of enzyme(s) entrapped in the EC and polyurethane hydrogel [...] Read more.
In this study, the oxazine 170 perchlorate (O17)-ethylcellulose (EC) membrane was successfully exploited for the fabrication of creatine- and creatinine-sensing membranes. The sensing membrane exhibited a double layer of O17-EC membrane and a layer of enzyme(s) entrapped in the EC and polyurethane hydrogel (PU) matrix. The sensing principle of the membranes was based on the hydrolytic catalysis of urea, creatine, and creatinine by the enzymes. The reaction end product, ammonia, reacted with O17-EC membrane, resulting in the change in fluorescence intensities at two emission wavelengths (λem = 565 and 625 nm). Data collected from the ratio of fluorescence intensities at λem = 565 and 625 nm were proportional to the concentrations of creatine or creatinine. Creatine- and creatinine-sensing membranes were very sensitive to creatine and creatinine at the concentration range of 0.1–1.0 mM, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.015 and 0.0325 mM, respectively. Furthermore, these sensing membranes showed good features in terms of response time, reversibility, and long-term stability. The interference study demonstrated that some components such as amino acids and salts had some negative effects on the analytical performance of the membranes. Thus, the simple and sensitive ratiometric fluorescent sensors provide a simple and comprehensive method for the determination of creatine and creatinine concentrations in urine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Carbon Nanotubes as Fluorescent Labels for Surface Plasmon Resonance-Assisted Fluoroimmunoassay
Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2569; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17112569 - 07 Nov 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
The photoluminescence properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), including the large Stokes shift and the absence of fluorescent photobleaching, can be used as a fluorescent label in biological measurements. In this study, the performance of CNTs as a fluorescent label for surface plasmon resonance [...] Read more.
The photoluminescence properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), including the large Stokes shift and the absence of fluorescent photobleaching, can be used as a fluorescent label in biological measurements. In this study, the performance of CNTs as a fluorescent label for surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-assisted fluoroimmunoassay is evaluated. The fluorescence of (8, 3) CNTs with an excitation wavelength of 670 nm and an emission wavelength of 970 nm is observed using a sensor chip equipped with a prism-integrated microfluidic channel to excite the SPR. The minimum detectable concentration of a CNT dispersed in water using a visible camera is 0.25 μg/mL, which is equivalent to 2 × 1010 tubes/mL. The target analyte detection using the CNT fluorescent labels is theoretically investigated by evaluating the detectable number of CNTs in a detection volume. Assuming detection of virus particles which are bound with 100 CNT labels, the minimum number of detectable virus particles is calculated to be 900. The result indicates that CNTs are effective fluorescent labels for SPR-assisted fluoroimmunoassay. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Towards the Development of a Low-Cost Device for the Detection of Explosives Vapors by Fluorescence Quenching of Conjugated Polymers in Solid Matrices
Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2532; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17112532 - 03 Nov 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
Conjugated polymers (CPs) have proved to be promising chemosensory materials for detecting nitroaromatic explosives vapors, as they quickly convert a chemical interaction into an easily-measured high-sensitivity optical output. The nitroaromatic analytes are strongly electron-deficient, whereas the conjugated polymer sensing materials are electron-rich. As [...] Read more.
Conjugated polymers (CPs) have proved to be promising chemosensory materials for detecting nitroaromatic explosives vapors, as they quickly convert a chemical interaction into an easily-measured high-sensitivity optical output. The nitroaromatic analytes are strongly electron-deficient, whereas the conjugated polymer sensing materials are electron-rich. As a result, the photoexcitation of the CP is followed by electron transfer to the nitroaromatic analyte, resulting in a quenching of the light-emission from the conjugated polymer. The best CP in our studies was found to be poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-bithiophene] (F8T2). It is photostable, has a good absorption between 400 and 450 nm, and a strong and structured fluorescence around 550 nm. Our studies indicate up to 96% quenching of light-emission, accompanied by a marked decrease in the fluorescence lifetime, upon exposure of the films of F8T2 in ethyl cellulose to nitrobenzene (NB) and 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB) vapors at room temperature. The effects of the polymeric matrix, plasticizer, and temperature have been studied, and the morphology of films determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal fluorescence microscopy. We have used ink jet printing to produce sensor films containing both sensor element and a fluorescence reference. In addition, a high dynamic range, intensity-based fluorometer, using a laser diode and a filtered photodiode was developed for use with this system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Simple Assay for Ultrasensitive Colorimetric Detection of Ag+ at Picomolar Levels Using Platinum Nanoparticles
Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2521; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17112521 - 02 Nov 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this work, uniformly-dispersed platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) were synthesized by a simple chemical reduction method, in which citric acid and sodium borohydride acted as a stabilizer and reducer, respectively. An ultrasensitive colorimetric sensor for the facile and rapid detection of Ag+ ions [...] Read more.
In this work, uniformly-dispersed platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) were synthesized by a simple chemical reduction method, in which citric acid and sodium borohydride acted as a stabilizer and reducer, respectively. An ultrasensitive colorimetric sensor for the facile and rapid detection of Ag+ ions was constructed based on the peroxidase mimetic activities of the obtained PtNPs, which can catalyze the oxidation of 3,3’,5,5’-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by H2O2 to produce colored products. The introduced Ag+ would be reduced to Ag0 by the capped citric acid, and the deposition of Ag0 on the PtNPs surface, can effectively inhibit the peroxidase-mimetic activity of PtNPs. Through measuring the maximum absorption signal of oxidized TMB at 652 nm, ultra-low detection limits (7.8 pM) of Ag+ can be reached. In addition to such high sensitivity, the colorimetric assay also displays excellent selectivity for other ions of interest and shows great potential for the detection of Ag+ in real water samples. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Ratiometric Fluorescent Sensor for Cd2+ Based on Internal Charge Transfer
Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2517; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17112517 - 02 Nov 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
This work reports on a novel fluorescent sensor 1 for Cd2+ ion based on the fluorophore of tetramethyl substituted bis(difluoroboron)-1,2-bis[(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methylene]hydrazine (Me4BOPHY), which is modified with an electron donor moiety of N,N-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)benzenamine. Sensor 1 has absorption [...] Read more.
This work reports on a novel fluorescent sensor 1 for Cd2+ ion based on the fluorophore of tetramethyl substituted bis(difluoroboron)-1,2-bis[(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methylene]hydrazine (Me4BOPHY), which is modified with an electron donor moiety of N,N-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)benzenamine. Sensor 1 has absorption and emission in visible region, at 550 nm and 675 nm, respectively. The long wavelength spectral response makes it easier to fabricate the fluorescence detector. The sensor mechanism is based on the tunable internal charge transfer (ICT) transition of molecule 1. Binding of Cd2+ ion quenches the ICT transition, but turns on the π − π transition of the fluorophore, thus enabling ratiometric fluorescence sensing. The limit of detection (LOD) was projected down to 0.77 ppb, which is far below the safety value (3 ppb) set for drinking water by World Health Organization. The sensor also demonstrates a high selectivity towards Cd2+ in comparison to other interferent metal ions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Elucidation of a Novel Fluorescent Boron-Sensor for the Analysis of Boronic Acid-Containing Compounds
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2436; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102436 - 24 Oct 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Novel boron-containing drugs have recently been suggested as a new class of pharmaceuticals. However, the majority of current boron-detection techniques require expensive facilities and/or tedious pretreatment methods. Thus, to develop a novel and convenient detection method for boron-based pharmaceuticals, imine-type boron-chelating-ligands were previously [...] Read more.
Novel boron-containing drugs have recently been suggested as a new class of pharmaceuticals. However, the majority of current boron-detection techniques require expensive facilities and/or tedious pretreatment methods. Thus, to develop a novel and convenient detection method for boron-based pharmaceuticals, imine-type boron-chelating-ligands were previously synthesized for use in a fluorescent sensor for boronic acid containing compounds. However, the fluorescence quantum yield of the imine-type sensor was particularly low, and the sensor was easily decomposed in aqueous media. Thus, in this paper, we report the development of a novel, convenient, and stable fluorescent boron-sensor based on O- and N-chelation (i.e., 2-(pyridine-2yl)phenol), and a corresponding method for the quantitative and qualitative detection of boronic acid-containing compounds using this commercially available sensor is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Probes and Sensors) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Low Cost Lab on Chip for the Colorimetric Detection of Nitrate in Mineral Water Products
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2345; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102345 - 14 Oct 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
The diagnostics of health status and the quality of drinking water are among the most important United Nations sustainable development goals. However, in certain areas, wars and instability have left millions of people setting in refugee camps and dangerous regions where infrastructures are [...] Read more.
The diagnostics of health status and the quality of drinking water are among the most important United Nations sustainable development goals. However, in certain areas, wars and instability have left millions of people setting in refugee camps and dangerous regions where infrastructures are lacking and rapid diagnostics of water quality and medical status are critical. In this work, microfluidic testing chips and photometric setups are developed in cheap and portable way to detect nitrate concentrations in water. The performed test is designed to work according to the Griess procedure. Moreover, to make it simple and usable in areas of low resource settings, commercially available Arduino mega and liquid crystal display (LCD) shield are utilized to process and display results, respectively. For evaluation purposes, different local products of tap water, bottled drinking water, and home-filter treated water samples were tested using the developed setup. A calibration curve with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.98 was obtained when absorbance of the prepared standard solutions was measured as a function of the concentrations. In conclusion, this is the first step towards a compact, portable, and reliable system for nitrate detection in water for point-of-care applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Cadmium in Brown Rice Samples by Fluorescence Spectroscopy Using a Fluoroionophore after Purification of Cadmium by Anion Exchange Resin
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2291; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102291 - 09 Oct 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Simple analytical methods are needed for determining the cadmium (Cd) content of brown rice samples. In the present study, we developed a new analytical procedure consisting of the digestion of rice using HCl, Cd purification using anion exchange resin, and then determining the [...] Read more.
Simple analytical methods are needed for determining the cadmium (Cd) content of brown rice samples. In the present study, we developed a new analytical procedure consisting of the digestion of rice using HCl, Cd purification using anion exchange resin, and then determining the Cd content using fluorescence spectroscopy. Digestion with 0.1 M HCl for 10 min at room temperature was sufficient to extract Cd from the ground rice samples. The Cd in the extract was successfully purified in preference to other metals using Dowex 1X8 chloride form resin. Low concentrations of Cd in the eluate could be determined using fluorescence spectroscopy with a fluoroionophore. Overall, the actual limit of quantification value for the Cd content in rice was about 0.1 mg-Cd/kg-rice, which was sufficiently low compared with the regulatory value (0.4 mg-Cd/kg-rice) given by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. We analyzed authentic brown rice samples using our new analytical procedure and the results agreed well with those determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Since the fluoroionophore recognized Zn2+ and Hg2+ as well as Cd2+, a sample containing high concentration of Zn2+ or Hg2+ might cause a false positive result. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Light-Up Probe for Detection of Adenosine in Urine Samples by a Combination of an AIE Molecule and an Aptamer
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2246; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102246 - 29 Sep 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
A light-up fluorescent probe for the detection of adenosine was constructed with an AIE (aggregation-induced emission) molecule and a DNA aptamer. The AIE molecule was used as a signal generator, and the DNA aptamer was used as a recognition element for adenosine. The [...] Read more.
A light-up fluorescent probe for the detection of adenosine was constructed with an AIE (aggregation-induced emission) molecule and a DNA aptamer. The AIE molecule was used as a signal generator, and the DNA aptamer was used as a recognition element for adenosine. The emission of the AIE molecule was due to its intramolecular rotation restriction induced by the aptamer upon binding of adenosine. The optimal component ratio of the probe was AIE molecule / DNA aptamer = 100 (μM/μM). The calibration curve of adenosine detection showed a linear range of 10 pM to 0.5 μM with an R2 of 0.996, and the detection limit of the probe was 10 pM. The probe exhibited a good selectivity to adenosine against its analogs (uridine, guanosine, and cytidine). The probe was used to detect adenosine in urine samples, a recovery from 86.8% to 90.0% for the spiked concentrations of adenosine (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 μM). The relative standard deviation from 1.2% to 2.0% was obtained. The intra-day and inter-day tests also showed good precisions, with measurement RSD values of 2.3% and 2.1%, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Fluorescent Polymer Incorporating Triazolyl Coumarin Units for Cu2+ Detection via Planarization of Ict-Based Fluorophore
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 1980; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17091980 - 30 Aug 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
A novel fluorescent polymer with pendant triazolyl coumarin units was synthesized through radical polymerization. The polymer showed reasonable sensitivity and selectivity towards Cu2+ in acetonitrile in comparison to other tested metal ions with a significant quenching effect on fluorescence and blue shifting [...] Read more.
A novel fluorescent polymer with pendant triazolyl coumarin units was synthesized through radical polymerization. The polymer showed reasonable sensitivity and selectivity towards Cu2+ in acetonitrile in comparison to other tested metal ions with a significant quenching effect on fluorescence and blue shifting in the range of 20 nm. The blue shift was assigned to the conformation changes of the diethylamino group from the coumarin moiety which led to planarization of the triazolyl coumarin units. The possible binding modes for Cu2+ towards the polymer were determined through the comparison of the emission responses of the polymer, starting vinyl monomer and reference compound, and the triazole ring was identified as one of the possible binding sites for Cu2+. The detection limits of the polymer and vinyl monomer towards Cu2+ were determined from fluorescence titration experiments and a higher sensitivity (35 times) was observed for the polymer compared with its starting monomer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tuning Sensory Properties of Triazole-Conjugated Spiropyrans: Metal-Ion Selectivity and Paper-Based Colorimetric Detection of Cyanide
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17081816 - 07 Aug 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
Tuning the sensing properties of spiropyrans (SPs), which are one of the photochromic molecules useful for colorimetric sensing, is important for efficient analysis, but their synthetic modification is not always simple. Herein, we introduce an alkyne-functionalized SP, the modification of which would be [...] Read more.
Tuning the sensing properties of spiropyrans (SPs), which are one of the photochromic molecules useful for colorimetric sensing, is important for efficient analysis, but their synthetic modification is not always simple. Herein, we introduce an alkyne-functionalized SP, the modification of which would be easily achieved via Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (“click reaction”). The alkyne-SP was conjugated with a bis(triethylene glycol)-benzyl group (EG-BtSP) or a simple benzyl group (BtSP), forming a triazole linkage from the click reaction. The effects of auxiliary groups to SP were tested on metal-ion sensing and cyanide detection. We found that EG-BtSP was more Ca2+-sensitive than BtSP in acetonitrile, which were thoroughly examined by a continuous variation method (Job plot) and UV-VIS titrations, followed by non-linear regression analysis. Although both SPs showed similar, selective responses to cyanide in a water/acetonitrile co-solvent, only EG-BtSP showed a dramatic color change when fabricated on paper, highlighting the important contributions of the auxiliary groups. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Portable Multispectral Colorimeter for Metallic Ion Detection and Classification
Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1730; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17081730 - 28 Jul 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
This work deals with a portable device system applied to detect and classify different metallic ions as proposed and developed, aiming its application for hydrological monitoring systems such as rivers, lakes and groundwater. Considering the system features, a portable colorimetric system was developed [...] Read more.
This work deals with a portable device system applied to detect and classify different metallic ions as proposed and developed, aiming its application for hydrological monitoring systems such as rivers, lakes and groundwater. Considering the system features, a portable colorimetric system was developed by using a multispectral optoelectronic sensor. All the technology of quantification and classification of metallic ions using optoelectronic multispectral sensors was fully integrated in the embedded hardware FPGA ( Field Programmable Gate Array) technology and software based on virtual instrumentation (NI LabView®). The system draws on an indicative colorimeter by using the chromogen reagent of 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN). The results obtained with the signal processing and pattern analysis using the method of the linear discriminant analysis, allows excellent results during detection and classification of Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Fe(III) and Ni(II) ions, with almost the same level of performance as for those obtained from the Ultravioled and visible (UV-VIS) spectrophotometers of high spectral resolution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Theoretical Studies on Two-Photon Fluorescent Hg2+ Probes Based on the Coumarin-Rhodamine System
Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1672; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17071672 - 20 Jul 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
The development of fluorescent sensors for Hg2+ has attracted much attention due to the well-known adverse effects of mercury on biological health. In the present work, the optical properties of two newly-synthesized Hg2+ chemosensors based on the coumarin-rhodamine system (named Pro1 [...] Read more.
The development of fluorescent sensors for Hg2+ has attracted much attention due to the well-known adverse effects of mercury on biological health. In the present work, the optical properties of two newly-synthesized Hg2+ chemosensors based on the coumarin-rhodamine system (named Pro1 and Pro2) were systematically investigated using time-dependent density functional theory. It is shown that Pro1 and Pro2 are effective ratiometric fluorescent Hg2+ probes, which recognize Hg2+ by Förster resonance energy transfer and through bond energy transfer mechanisms, respectively. To further understand the mechanisms of the two probes, we have developed an approach to predict the energy transfer rate between the donor and acceptor. Using this approach, it can be inferred that Pro1 has a six times higher energy transfer rate than Pro2. Thus the influence of spacer group between the donor and acceptor on the sensing performance of the probe is demonstrated. Specifically, two-photon absorption properties of these two probes are calculated. We have found that both probes show significant two-photon responses in the near-infrared light region. However, only the maximum two-photon absorption cross section of Pro1 is greatly enhanced with the presence of Hg2+, indicating that Pro1 can act as a potential two-photon excited fluorescent probe for Hg2+. The theoretical investigations would be helpful to build a relationship between the structure and the optical properties of the probes, providing information on the design of efficient two-photon fluorescent sensors that can be used for biological imaging of Hg2+ in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Probes and Sensors) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
A Label-Free Fluorescent Array Sensor Utilizing Liposome Encapsulating Calcein for Discriminating Target Proteins by Principal Component Analysis
Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1630; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17071630 - 15 Jul 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
A new fluorescent arrayed biosensor has been developed to discriminate species and concentrations of target proteins by using plural different phospholipid liposome species encapsulating fluorescent molecules, utilizing differences in permeation of the fluorescent molecules through the membrane to modulate liposome-target protein interactions. This [...] Read more.
A new fluorescent arrayed biosensor has been developed to discriminate species and concentrations of target proteins by using plural different phospholipid liposome species encapsulating fluorescent molecules, utilizing differences in permeation of the fluorescent molecules through the membrane to modulate liposome-target protein interactions. This approach proposes a basically new label-free fluorescent sensor, compared with the common technique of developed fluorescent array sensors with labeling. We have confirmed a high output intensity of fluorescence emission related to characteristics of the fluorescent molecules dependent on their concentrations when they leak from inside the liposomes through the perturbed lipid membrane. After taking an array image of the fluorescence emission from the sensor using a CMOS imager, the output intensities of the fluorescence were analyzed by a principal component analysis (PCA) statistical method. It is found from PCA plots that different protein species with several concentrations were successfully discriminated by using the different lipid membranes with high cumulative contribution ratio. We also confirmed that the accuracy of the discrimination by the array sensor with a single shot is higher than that of a single sensor with multiple shots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Probes and Sensors) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Thiolate-Capped CdSe/ZnS Core-Shell Quantum Dots for the Sensitive Detection of Glucose
Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17071537 - 01 Jul 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
A semiconducting water-soluble core-shell quantum dots (QDs) system capped with thiolated ligand was used in this study for the sensitive detection of glucose in aqueous samples. The QDs selected are of CdSe-coated ZnS and were prepared in house based on a hot injection [...] Read more.
A semiconducting water-soluble core-shell quantum dots (QDs) system capped with thiolated ligand was used in this study for the sensitive detection of glucose in aqueous samples. The QDs selected are of CdSe-coated ZnS and were prepared in house based on a hot injection technique. The formation of ZnS shell at the outer surface of CdSe core was made via a specific process namely, SILAR (successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction). The distribution, morphology, and optical characteristics of the prepared core-shell QDs were assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectrofluorescence, respectively. From the analysis, the results show that the mean particle size of prepared QDs is in the range of 10–12 nm and that the optimum emission condition was displayed at 620 nm. Further, the prepared CdSe/ZnS core shell QDs were modified by means of a room temperature ligand-exchange method that involves six organic ligands, L-cysteine, L-histidine, thio-glycolic acid (TGA or mercapto-acetic acid, MAA), mercapto-propionic acid (MPA), mercapto-succinic acid (MSA), and mercapto-undecanoic acid (MUA). This process was chosen in order to maintain a very dense water solubilizing environment around the QDs surface. From the analysis, the results show that the CdSe/ZnS capped with TGA (CdSe/ZnS-TGA) exhibited the strongest fluorescence emission as compared to others; hence, it was tested further for the glucose detection after their treatment with glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzymes. Here in this study, the glucose detection is based on the fluorescence quenching effect of the QDs, which is correlated to the oxidative reactions occurred between the conjugated enzymes and glucose. From the analysis of results, it can be inferred that the resultant GOx:HRP/CdSe/ZnS-TGA QDs system can be a suitable platform for the fluorescence-based determination of glucose in the real samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Probes and Sensors) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Design and Fabrication of a Ratiometric Planar Optode for Simultaneous Imaging of pH and Oxygen
Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1316; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17061316 - 07 Jun 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
This paper presents a simple, high resolution imaging approach utilizing ratiometric planar optode for simultaneous measurement of dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH. The planar optode comprises a plastic optical film coated with oxygen indicator Platinum(II) octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) and reference quantum dots (QDs) embedded [...] Read more.
This paper presents a simple, high resolution imaging approach utilizing ratiometric planar optode for simultaneous measurement of dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH. The planar optode comprises a plastic optical film coated with oxygen indicator Platinum(II) octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) and reference quantum dots (QDs) embedded in polystyrene (PS), pH indicator 5-Hexadecanoylamino-fluorescein (5-Fluorescein) embedded in Hydromed D4 matrix. The indicator and reference dyes are excited by utilizing an LED (Light Emitting Diode) source with a central wavelength of 405 nm, the emission respectively matches the different channels (red, green, and blue) of a 3CCD camera after eliminating the excitation source by utilizing the color filter. The result shows that there is low cross-sensitivity between the two analytes dissolved oxygen and pH, and it shows good performance in the dynamic response ranges of 0–12 mg/L and a dynamic range of pH 6−8. The optode has been tested with regard to the response times, accuracy, photostability and stability. The applied experiment for detecting pH/Oxygen of sea-water under the influence of the rain drops is demonstrated. It is shown that the planar optode measuring system provides a simple method with low cross-talk for pH/Oxygen imaging in aqueous applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Probes and Sensors) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Graphene-Supported Spinel CuFe2O4 Composites: Novel Adsorbents for Arsenic Removal in Aqueous Media
Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1292; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17061292 - 05 Jun 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
A graphene nanoplate-supported spinel CuFe2O4 composite (GNPs/CuFe2O4) was successfully synthesized by using a facile thermal decomposition route. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray [...] Read more.
A graphene nanoplate-supported spinel CuFe2O4 composite (GNPs/CuFe2O4) was successfully synthesized by using a facile thermal decomposition route. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterize the prepared composite. The arsenic adsorption behavior of the GNPs/CuFe2O4 composite was investigated by carrying out batch experiments. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich models were employed to describe the adsorption isotherm, where the sorption kinetics of arsenic adsorption by the composite were found to be pseudo-second order. The selectivity of the adsorbent toward arsenic over common metal ions in water was also demonstrated. Furthermore, the reusability and regeneration of the adsorbent were investigated by an assembled column filter test. The GNPs/CuFe2O4 composite exhibited significant, fast adsorption of arsenic over a wide range of solution pHs with exceptional durability, selectivity, and recyclability, which could make this composite a very promising candidate for effective removal of arsenic from aqueous solution. The highly sensitive adsorption of the material toward arsenic could be potentially employed for arsenic sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Probes and Sensors) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Luminescence-Based Optical Sensors Fabricated by Means of the Layer-by-Layer Nano-Assembly Technique
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2826; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122826 - 06 Dec 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Luminescence-based sensing applications range from agriculture to biology, including medicine and environmental care, which indicates the importance of this technique as a detection tool. Luminescent optical sensors are required to be highly stable, sensitive, and selective, three crucial features that can be achieved [...] Read more.
Luminescence-based sensing applications range from agriculture to biology, including medicine and environmental care, which indicates the importance of this technique as a detection tool. Luminescent optical sensors are required to be highly stable, sensitive, and selective, three crucial features that can be achieved by fabricating them by means of the layer-by-layer nano-assembly technique. This method permits us to tailor the sensors′ properties at the nanometer scale, avoiding luminophore aggregation and, hence, self-quenching, promoting the diffusion of the target analytes, and building a barrier against the undesired molecules. These characteristics give rise to the fabrication of custom-made sensors for each particular application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent Probes and Sensors) Printed Edition available
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