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Sensors from Miniaturization of Analytical Instruments

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 June 2023) | Viewed by 6635

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Guest Editor
College of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Interests: sensors; 2D materials and devices; bio-electronic devices and medical devices
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of modern fabrication and machining methods have greatly extended the potential of miniaturization of traditional sensing or analytical techniques, including various mini-/micro-ionization techniques, mass analyzers, separation device, and chemical/optical detectors. This has brought many extremely sensitive, selective, and multi-physics sensor type technologies, particularly for bio- or chemical-sensing.

This Special Issue is addressed to all miniaturized analytical instrument type sensor and its related technology and applications.

Dr. Xiaozhi Wang
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • MEMS
  • ionization
  • micro-optical detector
  • micro-mass spectrometry sensor
  • handhold analytical sensor

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 9859 KiB  
Article
A Segmental 2D Readout Board Manufactured in Printed Circuit Board Technology for Gas Electron Multiplier Detectors
by Michał Babij, Piotr Bielówka, Szymon Gburek and Karol Malecha
Sensors 2023, 23(19), 8095; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23198095 - 26 Sep 2023
Viewed by 861
Abstract
The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) was introduced by Fabio Sauli in 1997. This technology is broadly used in current and planned High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. One of the key components of these detectors is a readout board, which collects charges amplified by GEM [...] Read more.
The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) was introduced by Fabio Sauli in 1997. This technology is broadly used in current and planned High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. One of the key components of these detectors is a readout board, which collects charges amplified by GEM foils and transfers them to readout electronics. The commonly used Cartesian XY readout boards are manufactured from the same type of polyamide film used to produce the GEM foils. The manufacturing process utilizes a deep polyimide etching, similar to the Micro Chemical Vias (MCV) etching process, which is protected by patent. The material prepared in this way is glued onto a rigid substrate and mounted in a detector. The production process was developed at CERN, and the technology has been commercialized to a small extent. Consequently, only a few research centers have the ability to make dedicated readout strips readouts. GEM detectors are characterized by a segmented structure that allows the separation of an electron-multiplying structure from a readout. This feature enables the implementation of a new type of charge reading system without the need to interfere with the GEM foil system. A new approach is proposed to simplify production and reduce the costs of GEM detector readout boards. It is based on the concept of segmental readout structures that are manufactured in standard Printed Circuit Board (PCB) technology. The interconnectors and mountings are located on the back of the bottom, so it is possible to place the readout electronics behind the readout plate. The boards are designed in such a way that they can be panelized into a readout with a more extensive active area. The margin between PCBs is minimalized to approximately 200 µm, which is less than 1% of the 70 × 70 mm2 board area, so the active area is as big as possible. Therefore, this solution gives us the ability to further increase the size of a readout by adding additional segments, which reduces the cost of scaling up the detector size. A few research groups have suggested similar solutions that utilize PCB technology, but currently, only detectors with 1D zigzag readouts have been validated and used. The measurement results of other 2D (XY) redouts using PCB technology have not been presented. The measurements shown and discussed in this paper validated the proposed technology. X-ray radiographs were obtained, validating the ability to use this technology to manufacture readout boards for GEM detectors. In opposition to state-of-the-art readouts, the proposed solution can be manufactured by any PCB manufacturer without using MCV-patented technology. This gives the users flexibility in designing and ordering low-cost custom readouts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors from Miniaturization of Analytical Instruments)
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17 pages, 3157 KiB  
Article
Portable Device for Potentiometric Determination of Antioxidant Capacity
by Alla V. Ivanova and Maria G. Markina
Sensors 2023, 23(18), 7845; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23187845 - 13 Sep 2023
Viewed by 866
Abstract
For the first time, a prototype of a portable device for the potentiometric determination of antioxidant capacity based on a new measurement principle is proposed. A feature of the approach is the use of an electrochemical microcell with separated spaces and two identical [...] Read more.
For the first time, a prototype of a portable device for the potentiometric determination of antioxidant capacity based on a new measurement principle is proposed. A feature of the approach is the use of an electrochemical microcell with separated spaces and two identical electrodes with immobilized reagents. An antioxidant solution is introduced into one half-cell, and the antioxidants interact with the reagents. The other half-cell contains only reagents. The potential difference between the electrodes is due to the change in the ratio of the oxidized and reduced form of the reagents, which occurs as a result of the reaction with the antioxidants in one of the half-cells and is related to their concentration. The range of linearity of the microcell with immobilized reagents is 40–4000 μM-eq, and the limit of detection is 20 μM-eq. The device was successfully tested in the analysis of standard antioxidant solutions. The recoveries were (92–113)%, and the relative standard deviation did not exceed 15%. A good correlation was found between the data obtained by the approach and the potentiometric method in a macrocell for fruit juice analysis. Pearson’s coefficient for the obtained experimental data was 0.9955. The proposed portable device is promising and can be used in field conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors from Miniaturization of Analytical Instruments)
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11 pages, 3219 KiB  
Article
Miniaturized Photo-Ionization Fourier Deconvolution Ion Mobility Spectrometer for the Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds
by Binwang Yang, Jianna Yu, Wen Liu, Guoxing Jing, Wenshan Li and Wenjie Liu
Sensors 2022, 22(15), 5468; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22155468 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2388
Abstract
Because of its simplicity, reliability, and sensitivity, the drift tube ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) has been recognized as the equipment of choice for the on-site monitoring and identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, the performance of handheld IMS is often limited by [...] Read more.
Because of its simplicity, reliability, and sensitivity, the drift tube ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) has been recognized as the equipment of choice for the on-site monitoring and identification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, the performance of handheld IMS is often limited by the size, weight, and drift voltage, which heavily determine the sensitivity and resolving power that is crucial for the detection and identification of VOCs. In this work, we present a low-cost, miniaturized drift tube ion mobility spectrometer incorporated with a miniaturized UV ionization lamp and a relatively low drift voltage. The sensitivity and resolving power are boosted with the implementation of Fourier deconvolution multiplexing compared to the conventional signal averaging data acquisition method. The drift tube provides a high resolving power of up to 52 at a drift length of 41 mm, 10 mm ID dimensions, and a drift voltage of 1.57 kV. Acetone, benzene, dimethyl methyl phosphonate, methyl salicylate, and acetic acid were evaluated in the developed spectrometer and showed satisfactory performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors from Miniaturization of Analytical Instruments)
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13 pages, 3826 KiB  
Article
Ultra-Fast Polarity Switching, Non-Radioactive Drift Tube for the Miniaturization of Drift-Time Ion Mobility Spectrometer
by Lingfeng Li, Hao Gu, Yanzhen Lv, Yunjing Zhang, Xingli He and Peng Li
Sensors 2022, 22(13), 4866; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134866 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1890
Abstract
Drift-time ion mobility spectrometer (DT-IMS) is a promising technology for gas detection and analysis in the form of miniaturized instrument. Analytes may exist in the form of positively or negatively charged ions according to their chemical composition and ionization condition, and therefore require [...] Read more.
Drift-time ion mobility spectrometer (DT-IMS) is a promising technology for gas detection and analysis in the form of miniaturized instrument. Analytes may exist in the form of positively or negatively charged ions according to their chemical composition and ionization condition, and therefore require both polarity of electric field for the detection. In this work the polarity switching of a drift-time ion mobility spectrometer based on a direct current (DC) corona discharge ionization source was investigated, with novel solutions for both the control of ion shutter and the stabilization of aperture grid. The drift field is established by employing a switchable high voltage power supply and a serial of voltage regulator diode, with optocouplers to drive the ion shutter when the polarity is switched. The potential of aperture grid is stabilized during the polarity switching by the use of four diodes to avoid unnecessary charging cycle of the aperture grid capacitor. Based on the proposed techniques, the developed DT-IMS with 50 mm drift path is able to switch its polarity in 10 ms and acquire mobility spectrum after 10 ms of stabilization. Coupled with a thermal desorption sampler, limit of detection (LoD) of 0.1 ng was achieved for ketamine and TNT. Extra benefits include single calibration substance for both polarities and largely simplified pneumatic design, together with the reduction of second drift tube and its accessories. This work paved the way towards further miniaturization of DT-IMS without compromise of performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors from Miniaturization of Analytical Instruments)
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