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Special Issue "Advanced Nanomaterials based Gas Sensors"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Xavier Vilanova Website E-Mail
Department of Electronic, Electrical and Automatic Engineering, University Rovira i Virgili, 43007 Tarragona, Spain
Interests: Gas sensors, sensor systems, gas sensor applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the last few years, many nanostructured materials have been tested as a sensing material for gas sensing applications. This trend has been observed for metal oxide based sensors, as well as carbon-based nanomaterials, and, more recently, to other materials based on chalcogenides. Applications for these sensors are very wide, including air quality, industrial safety or medical diagnosis using different transducing mechanisms. In this sense, it is very important having the opportunity to put together a Special Issue on recent advances in this area, as well as reviews on the work developed until now.

Accordingly, you are invited to submit contributions in developing novel nanomaterials, setting up new methodologies for nanostructuring active layers or new sensing strategies for such devices or reviews on the work performed in relation to gas sensors based on nanomaterials.

Prof. Xavier Vilanova
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • SMOX gas sensors
  • carbon-based nanomaterials
  • nanowires
  • nanorods
  • nanotubes
  • nanobelts
  • nanoribbons
  • branched nanostructures
  • nanoprisms
  • nanoplates
  • nanosheets
  • nanodisks
  • nanospheres

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A Separated Receptor/Transducer Scheme as Strategy to Enhance the Gas Sensing Performance Using Hematite–Carbon Nanotube Composite
Sensors 2019, 19(18), 3915; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19183915 - 11 Sep 2019
Abstract
Nanocomposite structures, where the Fe, Fe2O3, or Ni2O3 nanoparticles with thin carbon layers are distributed among a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) network, are architectured using the co-arc discharge method. A synergistic effect between the nanoparticles and [...] Read more.
Nanocomposite structures, where the Fe, Fe2O3, or Ni2O3 nanoparticles with thin carbon layers are distributed among a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) network, are architectured using the co-arc discharge method. A synergistic effect between the nanoparticles and SWCNT is achieved with the composite structures, leading to the enhanced sensing response in ammonia detection. Thorough studies about the correlation between the electric properties and sensing performance confirm the independent operation of the receptor and transducer in the sensor structure by nanoparticles and SWCNT, respectively. Nanoparticles with a large specific surface area provide adsorption sites for the NH3 gas molecules, whereas hole carriers are supplied by the SWCNT to complete the chemisorption process. A new chemo-resistive sensor concept and its operating mechanism is proposed in our work. Furthermore, the separated receptor and transducer sensor scheme allows us more freedom in the design of sensor materials and structures, thereby enabling the design of high-performance gas sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials based Gas Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Cu/[email protected] Hollow Nanofiber Gas Sensor: Effect of Hollow Nanofiber Structure and P–N Junction on Operating Temperature and Sensitivity
Sensors 2019, 19(14), 3151; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19143151 - 17 Jul 2019
Abstract
For the fast and easy detection of carbon monoxide (CO) gas, it was necessary to develop a CO gas sensor to operate in low temperatures. Herein, a novel Cu/CuO-decorated ZnO hollow nanofiber was prepared with the electrospinning, calcination, and photodeposition methods. In the [...] Read more.
For the fast and easy detection of carbon monoxide (CO) gas, it was necessary to develop a CO gas sensor to operate in low temperatures. Herein, a novel Cu/CuO-decorated ZnO hollow nanofiber was prepared with the electrospinning, calcination, and photodeposition methods. In the presence of 100 ppm CO gas, the Cu/CuO-photodeposited ZnO hollow nanofiber (Cu/[email protected] HNF) showed twice higher sensitivity than that of pure ZnO nanofiber at a relatively low working temperature of 300 °C. The hollow structure and p–n junction between Cu/CuO and ZnO would be considered to contribute to the enhancement of sensitivity to CO gas at 300 °C due to the improved specific surface area and efficient electron transfer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials based Gas Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Conductometric Sensing with Individual InAs Nanowires
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2994; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132994 - 07 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this work, we isolate individual wurtzite InAs nanowires and fabricate electrical contacts at both ends, exploiting the single nanostructures as building blocks to realize two different architectures of conductometric sensors: (a) the nanowire is drop-casted onto—supported by—a SiO2/Si substrate, and [...] Read more.
In this work, we isolate individual wurtzite InAs nanowires and fabricate electrical contacts at both ends, exploiting the single nanostructures as building blocks to realize two different architectures of conductometric sensors: (a) the nanowire is drop-casted onto—supported by—a SiO2/Si substrate, and (b) the nanowire is suspended at approximately 250 nm from the substrate. We test the source-drain current upon changes in the concentration of humidity, ethanol, and NO2, using synthetic air as a gas carrier, moving a step forward towards mimicking operational environmental conditions. The supported architecture shows higher response in the mid humidity range (50% relative humidity), with shorter response and recovery times and lower detection limit with respect to the suspended nanowire. These experimental pieces of evidence indicate a minor role of the InAs/SiO2 contact area; hence, there is no need for suspended nanostructures to improve the sensing performance. Moreover, the sensing capability of single InAs nanowires for detection of NO2 and ethanol in the ambient atmosphere is reported and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials based Gas Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Highly Selective, ppb-Level Xylene Gas Detection by Sn2+-Doped NiO Flower-Like Microspheres Prepared by a One-Step Hydrothermal Method
Sensors 2019, 19(13), 2958; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19132958 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Detecting xylene gas is an important means of avoiding human harm from gas poisoning. A precise measurement demands that the gas sensor used must have high sensitivity, high selectivity, and low working temperature. To meet these requirements, in this study, Sn2+-doped [...] Read more.
Detecting xylene gas is an important means of avoiding human harm from gas poisoning. A precise measurement demands that the gas sensor used must have high sensitivity, high selectivity, and low working temperature. To meet these requirements, in this study, Sn2+-doped NiO flower-like microspheres (SNM) with different amounts of Sn2+ synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal process were investigated. The responses of gas sensors based on different Sn2+-doped NiO materials for various targeting gases were fully characterized. It was found that all of the synthesized materials exhibited the best gas response at a working temperature of 180 degrees, which was much lower than the previously reported working temperature range of 300–500 degrees. When exposed to 10 ppm xylene, the 8 at% Sn2+-doped NiO sensor (mol ratio) exhibited the highest response, with a value of 30 (Rg/Ra). More significantly, the detection limit of the 8 at% Sn2+-doped NiO sensor for xylene is down in the ppb level. The Sn2+-doped NiO material also exhibits excellent selectivity for other gases with long-term stability and repeatability. The significant improvement in the response to xylene can theoretically be attributed to a decrease in the intrinsic hole carrier concentration, higher amounts of adsorbed oxygen and active sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials based Gas Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
An Ethanol Vapor Sensor Based on a Microfiber with a Quantum-Dot Gel Coating
Sensors 2019, 19(2), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020300 - 14 Jan 2019
Abstract
An ethanol vapor sensor based on a microfiber with a quantum-dot (QD) gel coating is proposed and demonstrated. The QD gel was made from UV glue as the gel matrix and CdSe/ZnS QDs with a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The drawing and coating [...] Read more.
An ethanol vapor sensor based on a microfiber with a quantum-dot (QD) gel coating is proposed and demonstrated. The QD gel was made from UV glue as the gel matrix and CdSe/ZnS QDs with a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The drawing and coating processes were conducted by using a simple and low-cost system developed for this study. Bending, ethanol sensing, temperature response, and time response tests were carried out, respectively. The experimental results showed that the fabricated sensor had a high sensitivity of −3.3%/ppm, a very low temperature cross-sensitivity of 0.17 ppm/°C, and a fast response time of 1.1 s. The easily fabricated robust structure and the excellent sensing performance render the sensor a promising platform for real ethanol sensing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials based Gas Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
A Room-Temperature CNT/Fe3O4 Based Passive Wireless Gas Sensor
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3542; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103542 - 19 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
A carbon nanotube/Fe3O4 thin film-based wireless passive gas sensor with better performance is proposed. The sensitive test mechanism of LC (Inductance and capacitance resonant) wireless sensors is analyzed and the reason for choosing Fe3O4 as a gas [...] Read more.
A carbon nanotube/Fe3O4 thin film-based wireless passive gas sensor with better performance is proposed. The sensitive test mechanism of LC (Inductance and capacitance resonant) wireless sensors is analyzed and the reason for choosing Fe3O4 as a gas sensing material is explained. The design and fabrication process of the sensor and the testing method are introduced. Experimental results reveal that the proposed carbon nanotube (CNT)/Fe3O4 based sensor performs well on sensing ammonia (NH3) at room temperature. The sensor exhibits not only an excellent response, good selectivity, and fast response and recovery times at room temperature, but is also characterized by good repeatability and low cost. The results for the wireless gas sensor’s performance for different NH3 gas concentrations are presented. The developed device is promising for the establishment of wireless gas sensors in harsh environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials based Gas Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Gas-Sensing Performance of GO/TiO2 Composite by Photocatalysis
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3334; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103334 - 05 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Few studies have investigated the gas-sensing properties of graphene oxide/titanium dioxide (GO/TiO2) composite combined with photocatalytic effect. Room temperature gas-sensing properties of the GO/TiO2 composite were investigated towards various reducing gases. The composite sensor showed an enhanced gas response and [...] Read more.
Few studies have investigated the gas-sensing properties of graphene oxide/titanium dioxide (GO/TiO2) composite combined with photocatalytic effect. Room temperature gas-sensing properties of the GO/TiO2 composite were investigated towards various reducing gases. The composite sensor showed an enhanced gas response and a faster recovery time than a pure GO sensor due to the synergistic effect of the hybridization, such as creation of a hetero-junction at the interface and modulation of charge carrier density. However, the issue of long-term stability at room temperature still remains unsolved even after construction of a composite structure. To address this issue, the surface and hetero-junction of the GO/TiO2 composite were engineered via a UV process. A photocatalytic effect of TiO2 induced the reduction of the GO phase in the composite solution. The comparison of gas-sensing properties before and after the UV process clearly showed the transition from n-type to p-type gas-sensing behavior toward reducing gases. This transition revealed that the dominant sensing material is GO, and TiO2 enhanced the gas reaction by providing more reactive sites. With a UV-treated composite sensor, the function of identifying target gas was maintained over a one-month period, showing strong resistance to humidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials based Gas Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Water-Based Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticle Ink for Printed Toluene Vapours Sensor Operating at Room Temperature
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3246; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103246 - 27 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
This study is focused on the development of water-based ITO nanoparticle dispersions and ink-jet fabrication methodology of an indium tin oxide (ITO) sensor for room temperature operations. Dimensionless correlations of material-tool-process variables were used to map the printing process and several interpretational frameworks [...] Read more.
This study is focused on the development of water-based ITO nanoparticle dispersions and ink-jet fabrication methodology of an indium tin oxide (ITO) sensor for room temperature operations. Dimensionless correlations of material-tool-process variables were used to map the printing process and several interpretational frameworks were re-examined. A reduction of the problem to the Newtonian fluid approach was applied for the sake of simplicity. The ink properties as well as the properties of the deposited layers were tested for various nanoparticles loading. High-quality films were prepared and annealed at different temperatures. The best performing material composition, process parameters and post-print treatment conditions were used for preparing the testing sensor devices. Printed specimens were exposed to toluene vapours at room temperature. Good sensitivity, fast responses and recoveries were observed in ambient air although the n-type response mechanism to toluene is influenced by moisture in air and baseline drift was observed. Sensing response inversion was observed in an oxygen and moisture-free N2 atmosphere which is explained by the charge-transfer mechanism between the adsorbent and adsorbate molecules. The sensitivity of the device was slightly better and the response was stable showing no drifts in the protective atmosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials based Gas Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
A Gas Sensor Based on a Single SnO Micro-Disk
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3229; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103229 - 25 Sep 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
In this study, individual nanofabricated SnO micro-disks, previously shown to exhibit exceptional sensitivity to NOx, are investigated to further our understanding of gas sensing mechanisms. The SnO disks presenting different areas and thickness were isolated and electrically connected to metallic electrodes [...] Read more.
In this study, individual nanofabricated SnO micro-disks, previously shown to exhibit exceptional sensitivity to NOx, are investigated to further our understanding of gas sensing mechanisms. The SnO disks presenting different areas and thickness were isolated and electrically connected to metallic electrodes aided by a Dual Beam Microscope (SEM/FIB). While single micro-disk devices were found to exhibit short response and recovery times and low power consumption, large interconnected arrays of micro-disks exhibit much higher sensitivity and selectivity. The source of these differences is discussed based on the gas/solid interaction and transport mechanisms, which showed that thickness plays a major role during the gas sensing of single-devices. The calculated Debye length of the SnO disk in presence of NO2 is reported for the first time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials based Gas Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Optical Gas Sensors for the Non-Invasive Monitoring of Pathogenic Bacteria
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3189; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103189 - 21 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Hybrid optical gas sensors, based on different organic and inorganic materials, are proposed in this paper, with the aim of using them as optical artificial nose systems. Three types of organic and inorganic dyes, namely zinc-porphyrin, manganese-porphyrin, and zinc-phthalocyanine, were used as gas [...] Read more.
Hybrid optical gas sensors, based on different organic and inorganic materials, are proposed in this paper, with the aim of using them as optical artificial nose systems. Three types of organic and inorganic dyes, namely zinc-porphyrin, manganese-porphyrin, and zinc-phthalocyanine, were used as gas sensing materials to fabricate a thin-film coating on glass substrates. The performance of the gas sensor was enhanced by a thermal treatment process. The optical absorption spectra and morphological structure of the sensing films were confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and atomic force microscope, respectively. The optical gas sensors were tested with various volatile compounds, such as acetic acid, acetone, ammonia, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and formaldehyde, which are commonly found to be released during the growth of bacteria. These sensors were used to detect and discriminate between the bacterial odors of three pathogenic species (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) grown in Luria-Bertani medium. Based on a pattern recognition (PARC) technique, we showed that the proposed hybrid optical gas sensors can discriminate among the three pathogenic bacterial odors and that the volatile organic compound (VOC) odor pattern of each bacterium was dependent on the phase of bacterial growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials based Gas Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
A Room Temperature VOCs Gas Sensor Based on a Layer by Layer Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/Poly-ethylene Glycol Composite
Sensors 2018, 18(9), 3113; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093113 - 15 Sep 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Sensitive detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is significant for environmental monitoring and medical applications. In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that have good adsorption for VOCs, were sprayed layer by layer on an interdigitated electrode (IDE) to [...] Read more.
Sensitive detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is significant for environmental monitoring and medical applications. In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that have good adsorption for VOCs, were sprayed layer by layer on an interdigitated electrode (IDE) to build a sensitive VOCs gas sensor. The relative resistance change (△R/R) when the sensor was exposed to VOCs was measured. The sensor showed high sensitivity to acetone, ethanol, isopropanol and isoprene with fast response (110 ± 5 s) and recovery (152 ± 5 s) at room temperature, and the lower detection limit (LDL) of the sensor reached 9 ppm. With the micro-fabricated IDE structure, the sensor can be easily built into an electric nose for VOC recognition and measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials based Gas Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Highly Sensitive Acetone Gas Sensor Based on g-C3N4 Decorated MgFe2O4 Porous Microspheres Composites
Sensors 2018, 18(7), 2211; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072211 - 10 Jul 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
The g-C3N4 decorated magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4) porous microspheres composites were successfully obtained via a one-step solvothermal method. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared MgFe2O4/g-C3N4 composites were characterized by [...] Read more.
The g-C3N4 decorated magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4) porous microspheres composites were successfully obtained via a one-step solvothermal method. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared MgFe2O4/g-C3N4 composites were characterized by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal gravity and differential scanning calorimeter (TG–DSC) and N2-sorption. The gas sensing properties of the samples were measured and compared with a pure MgFe2O4-based sensor. The maximum response of the sensor based on MgFe2O4/g-C3N4 composites with 10 wt % g-C3N4 content to acetone is improved by about 145 times, while the optimum temperature was lowered by 60 °C. Moreover, the sensing mechanism and the reason for improving gas sensing performance were also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanomaterials based Gas Sensors)
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