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Special Issue "Nano and MEMS Sensors"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Mustafa Yavuz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Director of Nano and Micro-Systems Laboratory, Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology (WIN), Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1
Interests: self-powered, autonomous nano- and MEMS sensors; electronic packaging and interconnectors of N/MEMS devices; quantum electronic solids: superconductors, graphene/graphene-like materials (2D), and transition metal dichalcogenide metals (TMDs)
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The manufacturing and integration of autonomous and embedded sensors through a combination of micro- and nanosystem technologies have been revolutionizing self-powered, high bandwidth devices for advance manufacturing (AM), artificial intelligence (AI), and IoT. 

More specifically, nano and MEMS sensors are the building blocks for a vast range of applications, from continuous real-time health (wearable) and environmental monitoring (gas, pressure, temperature, etc.) to enabling embedded mobile Internet services (wireless), including smart/connected cars and unattended vehicles (UAV) (inertial). As these devices have numbered in the tens of billions, the potential for disruptive innovation has been immense.

This Special Issue aims to introduce the design, manufacturing, packaging, and integration of autonomous and embedded sensors through a combination of micro- and nanosystems. Topics in general include, but are not limited to:

-Autonomous and embedded sensors: design, manufacture, packaging, and reliability;
-Biosensors (electrical/optical and chemical) and their integration to MEMS, CMOS, and microfluidic systems;
-Sensor interconnectors/interfaces and their testing;
-Acoustic/electromagnetic/electrostatic interactions for sensor/actuator design;
-Graphene/TMDs-based nanosensors and transducers;
-Electronic circuits/PCBs for MEMS and nanosensors; -MEMS/Nanogenerators for self-sustaining sensors and sensor nodes/networks.

Prof. Dr. Mustafa Yavuz
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • N/MEMS-sensors
  • Sensor integration to MEMS/CMOS/microfluidic systems
  • Electronic circuits/PCBs for N/MEMS
  • N/MEMS transducers based on graphene/graphene-like materials/TDMs
  • Real time/continuous monitoring
  • MEMS and Nanogenerators for self-sustaining sensor nodes/networks
  • Acoustic/electromagnetic/electrostatic interactions for self-powered sensors

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of a Magnetic Field Sensor with a Concentrating-Conducting Magnetic Flux Structure
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4498; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204498 - 17 Oct 2019
Abstract
A magnetic field sensor with a new concentrating-conducting magnetic flux structure (CCMFS) is proposed in this paper, using a silicon-on insulator (SOI) Hall element fabricated by complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology as a magnetic sensitive unit. By fixing the CCMFS above the [...] Read more.
A magnetic field sensor with a new concentrating-conducting magnetic flux structure (CCMFS) is proposed in this paper, using a silicon-on insulator (SOI) Hall element fabricated by complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology as a magnetic sensitive unit. By fixing the CCMFS above the Hall element packaged on a printed circuit board (PCB) based on inner-connect wire bonding technology, a non-magnetized package can subsequently be obtained. To analyze the inner magnetic field vector distribution of the CCMFS, a simulation model was built based on a finite element software, where the CCMFS was processed using Ni-Fe alloys material by a low speed wire-cut electric discharge technology. The test results showed that the measurement of magnetic fields along a sensitive and a non-sensitive axis can be achieved when VDD = 5.0 V at room temperature, with magnetic sensitivities of 122 mV/T and 132 mV/T in a testing range from −30 mT to 30 mT, respectively. This study makes it possible to not only realize the detection of magnetic field, but also to significantly improve the sensitivity of the sensor along a non-sensitive axis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano and MEMS Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Sensitivity Improvement to Active Piezoresistive AFM Probes Using Focused Ion Beam Processing
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4429; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204429 - 12 Oct 2019
Abstract
This paper presents a comprehensive modeling and experimental verification of active piezoresistive atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers, which are the technology enabling high-resolution and high-speed surface measurements. The mechanical structure of the cantilevers integrating Wheatstone piezoresistive was modified with the use of focused [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comprehensive modeling and experimental verification of active piezoresistive atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers, which are the technology enabling high-resolution and high-speed surface measurements. The mechanical structure of the cantilevers integrating Wheatstone piezoresistive was modified with the use of focused ion beam (FIB) technology in order to increase the deflection sensitivity with minimal influence on structure stiffness and its resonance frequency. The FIB procedure was conducted based on the finite element modeling (FEM) methods. In order to monitor the increase in deflection sensitivity, the active piezoresistive cantilever was deflected using an actuator integrated within, which ensures reliable and precise assessment of the sensor properties. The proposed procedure led to a 2.5 increase in the deflection sensitivity, which was compared with the results of the calibration routine and analytical calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano and MEMS Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Single-Nanowire Fuse for Ionization Gas Detection
Sensors 2019, 19(20), 4358; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19204358 - 09 Oct 2019
Abstract
Local electric field enhancement is crucial to detect gases for an ionization gas sensor. Nanowires grown collectively along the identical lattice orientation have been claimed to show a strong tip effect in many previous studies. Herein, we propose a novel ionization gas detector [...] Read more.
Local electric field enhancement is crucial to detect gases for an ionization gas sensor. Nanowires grown collectively along the identical lattice orientation have been claimed to show a strong tip effect in many previous studies. Herein, we propose a novel ionization gas detector structure by using a single crystalline silicon nanowire as one electrode that is placed above the prepatterned nanotips. A significant improvement of the local electric field in its radical direction was obtained leading to an ultralow operation voltage for gas breakdown. Different from the tip of the nanowire in the reported ionization gas sensors, the gaseous discharge current in this device flows towards the sidewall in the case of a trace amount of gas environment change. Technically, this discharge current brings about a sudden temperature rise followed by a fusion of the silicon nanowire. Such unique fusibility of a single nanowire in this gas detection device suggests a novel architecture that is portable and in-site executable and can be used as an integrated gas environmental monitor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano and MEMS Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Parametrically Amplified Low-Power MEMS Capacitive Humidity Sensor
Sensors 2019, 19(18), 3954; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19183954 - 13 Sep 2019
Abstract
We present the design, fabrication, and response of a polymer-based Laterally Amplified Chemo-Mechanical (LACM) humidity sensor based on mechanical leveraging and parametric amplification. The device consists of a sense cantilever asymmetrically patterned with a polymer and flanked by two stationary electrodes on the [...] Read more.
We present the design, fabrication, and response of a polymer-based Laterally Amplified Chemo-Mechanical (LACM) humidity sensor based on mechanical leveraging and parametric amplification. The device consists of a sense cantilever asymmetrically patterned with a polymer and flanked by two stationary electrodes on the sides. When exposed to a humidity change, the polymer swells after absorbing the analyte and causes the central cantilever to bend laterally towards one side, causing a change in the measured capacitance. The device features an intrinsic gain due to parametric amplification resulting in an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Eleven-fold magnification in sensor response was observed via voltage biasing of the side electrodes without the use of conventional electronic amplifiers. The sensor showed a repeatable and recoverable capacitance change of 11% when exposed to a change in relative humidity from 25–85%. The dynamic characterization of the device also revealed a response time of ~1 s and demonstrated a competitive response with respect to a commercially available reference chip. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano and MEMS Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle
Monolithic Microwave-Microfluidic Sensors Made with Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC) Technology
Sensors 2019, 19(3), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030577 - 30 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper compares two types of microfluidic sensors that are designed for operation in ISM (Industrial, Scientific, Medical) bands at microwave frequencies of 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz. In the case of the first sensor, the principle of operation is based on the [...] Read more.
This paper compares two types of microfluidic sensors that are designed for operation in ISM (Industrial, Scientific, Medical) bands at microwave frequencies of 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz. In the case of the first sensor, the principle of operation is based on the resonance phenomenon in a microwave circuit filled with a test sample. The second sensor is based on the interferometric principle and makes use of the superposition of two coherent microwave signals, where only one goes through a test sample. Both sensors are monolithic structures fabricated using low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCCs). The LTCC-based microwave-microfluidic sensor properties are examined and compared by measuring their responses for various concentrations of two types of test fluids: one is a mixture of water/ethanol, and the other is dopamine dissolved in a buffer solution. The experiments show a linear response for the LTCC-based microwave-microfluidic sensors as a function of the concentration of the components in both test fluids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano and MEMS Sensors)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Review of the Capacitive MEMS for Seismology
Sensors 2019, 19(14), 3093; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19143093 - 12 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) sensors enable a vast range of applications: among others, the use of MEMS accelerometers for seismology related applications has been emerging considerably in the last decade. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the capacitive MEMS accelerometers: [...] Read more.
MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) sensors enable a vast range of applications: among others, the use of MEMS accelerometers for seismology related applications has been emerging considerably in the last decade. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the capacitive MEMS accelerometers: from the physical functioning principles, to the details of the technical precautions, and to the manufacturing procedures. We introduce the applications within seismology and earth sciences related disciplines, namely: earthquake observation and seismological studies, seismic surveying and imaging, structural health monitoring of buildings. Moreover, we describe how the use of the miniaturized technologies is revolutionizing these fields and we present some cutting edge applications that, in the very last years, are taking advantage from the use of MEMS sensors, such as rotational seismology and gravity measurements. In a ten-year outlook, the capability of MEMS sensors will certainly improve through the optimization of existing technologies, the development of new materials, and the implementation of innovative production processes. In particular, the next generation of MEMS seismometers could be capable of reaching a noise floor under the lower seismic noise (few tenths of ng/ Hz ) and expanding the bandwidth towards lower frequencies (∼0.01 Hz). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano and MEMS Sensors)
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Open AccessReview
A Short Review on the Role of the Metal-Graphene Hybrid Nanostructure in Promoting the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Performance
Sensors 2019, 19(4), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19040862 - 19 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) sensors have potential applications in essential and important areas such as bio-sensor technology, especially in medical applications and gas sensors in environmental monitoring applications. Figure of Merit (FOM) and Sensitivity (S) measurements are two ways to assess the [...] Read more.
Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) sensors have potential applications in essential and important areas such as bio-sensor technology, especially in medical applications and gas sensors in environmental monitoring applications. Figure of Merit (FOM) and Sensitivity (S) measurements are two ways to assess the performance of an LSPR sensor. However, LSPR sensors suffer low FOM compared to the conventional Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor due to high losses resulting from radiative damping of LSPs waves. Different methodologies have been utilized to enhance the performance of LSPR sensors, including various geometrical and material parameters, plasmonic wave coupling from different structures, and integration of noble metals with graphene, which is the focus of this report. Recent studies of metal-graphene hybrid plasmonic systems have shown its capability of promoting the performance of the LSPR sensor to a level that enhances its chance for commercialization. In this review, fundamental physics, the operation principle, and performance assessment of the LSPR sensor are presented followed by a discussion of plasmonic materials and a summary of methods used to optimize the sensor’s performance. A focused review on metal-graphene hybrid nanostructure and a discussion of its role in promoting the performance of the LSPR sensor follow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano and MEMS Sensors)
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